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3rd Quarter Notes


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3rd Quarter Notes

  1. 1. 3 rd Quarter Notes
  2. 2. What is an athletic injury? A damage to the musculoskeletal structures brought about by forces (i.e. acute or repetitive) during athletic performance.
  3. 3. Compression Forces that act along the long axis of a structure which produces a crushing effect.
  4. 4. Tension A pulling force that acts along the long axis of the structure which stretches the tissue.
  5. 5. Shear Forces that act at opposite directions at different points causing one part of the structure to move away from another part of the structure.
  6. 6. <ul><li>Acute Injury </li></ul><ul><li>Injury with a sudden onset brought about by large forces </li></ul><ul><li>Overuse Injury </li></ul><ul><li>Injury that developed over time as a result of repetitive microtrauma </li></ul>
  7. 7. Fractures <ul><li>Disruption in the continuity of a bone </li></ul><ul><li>Type of fracture depends on mechanical load and bone maturity </li></ul><ul><li>Several types of fractures include . . . </li></ul><ul><li>Simple </li></ul><ul><li>Compound </li></ul><ul><li>Greenstick </li></ul><ul><li>Comminuted </li></ul><ul><li>Spiral </li></ul>
  8. 8. Signs and Symptoms <ul><li>Signs </li></ul><ul><li>Deformity </li></ul><ul><li>Weakness </li></ul><ul><li>Bruise </li></ul><ul><li>Swelling </li></ul><ul><li>Positive X-ray </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Pain </li></ul><ul><li>Grating sensation </li></ul>
  9. 9. Evaluation Palpation – deformity, tenderness, indentation Percussion – pain during tapping Compression – distal to proximal Distraction – apply traction
  10. 10. Treatment Cast? Internal Fixation? External Fixation?
  11. 11. Dislocations Bone is pushed out of the joint capsule Signs and symptoms are similar to fracture Treat like fracture!!!
  12. 12. Immobilization Anatomical – fingers Rigid - wood Soft - bandage
  13. 13. Guidelines for Splinting <ul><li>Support the injured area above and below the site of the injury, including the joints. </li></ul><ul><li>If possible, splint the injury in the position that you find it. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t try to realign bones or joints unless . . . </li></ul><ul><li>Before and after splinting, check for proper circulation (warmth, feeling, and color). </li></ul><ul><li>Immobilize above and below the injury. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Triangle and Cravat Bandages <ul><li>Cotton cloth that can be substituted if roller bandages not available </li></ul><ul><li>First aid device, due to ease and speed of application </li></ul><ul><li>Primarily used for arm slings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cervical arm sling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shoulder arm sling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sling and swathe </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. SPRAINS vs. STRAINS NOT INTERCHANGEABLE!! Both injuries are caused by abnormally high tensile forces which tears the tissue but damaged tissues are different . . . Which is Which?!?
  16. 16. SPRAINS vs. STRAINS <ul><li>Shoulders </li></ul><ul><li>Elbow </li></ul><ul><li>Wrist </li></ul><ul><li>Knee </li></ul><ul><li>Ankle </li></ul><ul><li>Lower Back </li></ul><ul><li>Hamstrings </li></ul><ul><li>Gastrocnemius </li></ul>
  17. 17. SPRAINS vs. STRAINS 1 st Degree (Mild) No loss of function 2 nd Degree (Moderate) Unstable / Weak 3 rd Degree (Severe) Loss of function Dependent on the number of torn fibers . . .
  18. 18. Control Inflammation What is inflammation? Is it bad? P – protect R – rest I – ice C – compression E – elevation
  19. 19. Elastic Bandage Application <ul><li>Hold bandage in preferred hand with loose end extending from bottom of roll </li></ul><ul><li>Back surface of loose end should lay on skin surface </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure and tension should be standardized </li></ul><ul><li>Anchor at the distal end </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Body part should be wrapped in position of maximum circumference </li></ul><ul><li>More turns with moderate tension </li></ul><ul><li>Each turn should overlap by half to prevent separation </li></ul><ul><li>Circulation should be monitored when limbs are wrapped </li></ul>Elastic Bandage Application
  21. 21. The Skin <ul><li>Epidermis </li></ul><ul><li>Dermis </li></ul><ul><li>Hypodermis </li></ul>Function?!?
  22. 22. Common Emergencies <ul><li>Wounds </li></ul><ul><li>Break in the skin and underlying tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Open </li></ul><ul><li>Closed </li></ul><ul><li>Burns </li></ul><ul><li>Injury caused by heat, cold, chemical, electricity, etc. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Common Emergencies Bites Wound caused by teeth or mouth Stings Small puncture wounds with chemical injected
  24. 24. Wounds and Bleeding Types of Wounds <ul><li>Incision Clean, sharp edge </li></ul><ul><li>Laceration Irregular, tearing </li></ul><ul><li>Abrasion Friction, scrape </li></ul><ul><li>Puncture Pointed object </li></ul><ul><li>Avulsion Partially ripped </li></ul>
  25. 25. !DANGER! <ul><li>Hemorrhage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 glass (250cc) – normal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 to 3 glasses – casualty becomes anemic and predisposes to infection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 to 6 glasses – fatal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Infection – gangrene may develop, amputation may be necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Shock – circulation is compromised and may lead to death </li></ul>
  26. 26. Kinds of Bleeding <ul><li>Capillary bleeding – oozing flow of blood </li></ul><ul><li>Venous bleeding – even flow of blood, dull color </li></ul><ul><li>Arterial bleeding – irregular spurting of blood, bright red color </li></ul>
  27. 27. Wounds and Bleeding <ul><li>Proper Care </li></ul><ul><li>Protect self </li></ul><ul><li>Control bleeding </li></ul><ul><li>a. direct pressure** </li></ul><ul><li>b. elevation </li></ul><ul><li>c. pressure points </li></ul><ul><li>Use sterile dressing </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent shock </li></ul><ul><li>a. raise legs </li></ul><ul><li>b. prevent heat loss </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigate wound </li></ul><ul><li>Change dressing regularly </li></ul>
  28. 28. SUTURES are needed for deep cuts as well as cuts more than an inch long. Interrupted or Subcuticular ?
  29. 29. Burns <ul><li>Classifications According to DEPTH </li></ul><ul><li>1 st degree redness, epidermis </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd degree blisters, dermis </li></ul><ul><li>3 rd degree charred, subcutaneous </li></ul>Determine the depth!! What are the causes?
  30. 30. Burn Severity Remember the Rule of Nines Adult Child Determine extent of burned area!! 1% Perineum 9% Each Arm 18% Each Leg 18% Posterior Torso 18% Anterior Torso 9% Head Surface area Anatomic structure 1% Perineum 9% Each Arm 14% Each Leg 18% Posterior Torso 18% Anterior Torso 18% Head Surface area Anatomic structure
  31. 31. Burn Severity Determine location of burned area!! <ul><li>Face </li></ul><ul><li>Hands and Feet </li></ul><ul><li>Genital Area </li></ul><ul><li>Joint Area </li></ul>
  32. 32. Burn Severity Look for complicating factors!! <ul><li>Below 5 years old (fluid loss) </li></ul><ul><li>Above 55 years old (delayed healing) </li></ul><ul><li>Diabetes (delayed healing) </li></ul><ul><li>CVD (hypoperfusion) </li></ul>
  33. 33. BURN SEVERITY CLASSIFICATION <ul><li>CRITICAL </li></ul><ul><li>3 rd degree burn involving hands, feet, face, or genitals </li></ul><ul><li>3 rd degree burns covering more than 10% </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd degree burns covering more than 20% </li></ul><ul><li>burns encompassing a body part </li></ul><ul><li>MODERATE </li></ul><ul><li>3 rd degree burns covering 2%-10% </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd degree burns covering 20%-30% </li></ul><ul><li>1 st degree burns greater than 50% </li></ul>
  34. 34. FIRST AID <ul><li>Stop the burning process (HOW?) </li></ul><ul><li>Remove clothing / jewelry </li></ul><ul><li>Transport if critical / moderate </li></ul><ul><li>Do not drain the blisters </li></ul><ul><li>Take analgesic </li></ul><ul><li>Cover with “burn sheet” </li></ul>