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  1. 1. Minerals
  2. 2. What is a mineral? <ul><li>Mineral is a naturally occurring solid composed of several different elements. </li></ul><ul><li>Most rocks are aggregates composed of two or more minerals. </li></ul><ul><li>Each mineral has its own unique characteristics. </li></ul><ul><li>A mineral is the same all the way through. </li></ul>
  3. 3. What makes up a mineral? <ul><li>Different minerals are made up of different elements. </li></ul><ul><li>The elements include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>silicon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>iron </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sodium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>chlorine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>calcium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>carbon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hydrogen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>aluminum </li></ul></ul>-Si-O-Fe- -Na-Cl-Ca- -C-H-Al-
  4. 4. What are the unique properties of minerals? <ul><li>Each mineral has unique properties. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crystal Forms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Luster </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Streak </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acid Reaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluorescence </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Crystals <ul><li>Crystals are structures made up of a regular repeated pattern of connected atoms or molecules. </li></ul><ul><li>There are many different forms of crystal. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cubes, spheres, pyramids, spikes, and some are even 12 sided (like a die) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each mineral has a specific crystal form. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Luster <ul><li>Luster is the quality or appearance of light reflected. </li></ul><ul><li>There is metallic luster and nonmetallic luster. </li></ul><ul><li>Metallic luster: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflects light like metal. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Silver and gold have metallic luster. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nonmetallic luster: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes silky, glassy, pearly, and dull. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quartz has nonmetallic luster. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Luster
  8. 8. Hardness <ul><li>Hardness is the resistance to scratching or abrasion. </li></ul><ul><li>This is the most useful characteristic of minerals. </li></ul><ul><li>Each mineral has a specific hardness. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a scale called “Mohs Scale”. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It lists ten minerals in order of their hardness. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Hardness <ul><li>Mohs scale consists of ten minerals that you can use as a reference. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Talc is the softest and diamond is the hardest. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Talc has a hardness of 1, diamond has a hardness of 10. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Mohs Hardness Scale 10 Corundum Topaz Quartz Feldspar Apatite Fluorite Calcite Gypsum Talc Diamond 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
  11. 11. Mohs Hardness Scale <ul><li>To use the hardness scale, try to scratch the surface of an unknown sample with a mineral or substance from the hardness scale (these are known samples). </li></ul><ul><li>If the unknown sample cannot be scratched by feldspar (6) but it can be scratched by quartz (7), then it's hardness is between 6 and 7. </li></ul><ul><li>An example of a mineral that has a hardness between 6 and 7 is pyrite (6 to 6.5). </li></ul>
  12. 12. Hardness <ul><li>If the minerals on the hardness scale are not accessible, use common household items. </li></ul><ul><li>So if there was an unknown mineral that could be scratched by the knife but could not be scratched by the glass, then the hardness would be between 5.5 and 6.5. </li></ul>Emery cloth Steel knife Glass Penny Fingernail 8.5 6.5 5.5 3.5 2.5 Common Objects and Their Hardness Values
  13. 13. Streak <ul><li>When a mineral is rubbed firmly across an unglazed tile of white porcelain (a streak plate), it leaves a line of powder. </li></ul><ul><li>This is called the streak. </li></ul><ul><li>The color of the streak is always the same, whether or not the mineral has impurities. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, quartz leaves a white streak, whether it's violet (amethyst), pink (rose quartz), or brown (smoky quartz). </li></ul>
  14. 14. Streak
  15. 15. Acid Reaction <ul><li>Some minerals contain elements that react with acids to produce gases. </li></ul><ul><li>The carbonate minerals have this reaction. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbonate minerals are minerals that contain carbon. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calcite is an example of a carbonate mineral. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Florescence <ul><li>Florescence is whether or not the mineral glows under a black light. </li></ul><ul><li>The fluorescent minerals are minerals that emit visible light when activated by invisible ultraviolet light (UV), X-rays and/or electron beams </li></ul><ul><li>Activator elements are responsible for fluorescence. But not all specimens have these activator elements. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Florescence Florescent Calcite Florescent Gypsum
  18. 18. Review <ul><li>What is a mineral? </li></ul><ul><li>What are six characteristics that can be used to identify minerals? </li></ul><ul><li>What is luster? </li></ul><ul><li>What is hardness? </li></ul><ul><li>What are crystals? </li></ul><ul><li>What is streak? </li></ul><ul><li>What is fluorescence? </li></ul>
  19. 19. Copyright Information <ul><li>All information was retrieved from research done on the internet in February 2007. </li></ul><ul><li>All pictures were retrieved from a Yahoo image search in February 2007. </li></ul>