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  1. 1. Cells What is a cell? What’s inside a cell? What are the differences between animal cells and plant cells.
  2. 2. What is a cell? • A cell is the smallest unit that is capable of performing life functions. • The cells theory states the following: – All living things are made up of cells. – All cells come from preexisting cells through cell division. Red Blood Cells Cheek (Skin) Cells Onion Cells
  3. 3. Examples of Cells Amoeba Proteus Plant Stem Bacteria Red Blood Cell Nerve Cell
  4. 4. What is inside a cell? • Cells are made up of • Some organelles are parts called organelles only found in plant cells. or “little organs”. – These include cell walls • The parts of a cell that and chloroplasts. we are going to discuss – The vacuoles found in include: plant cells are larger. – Cell Membrane – Cell Wall – Nucleus – Cytoplasm – Chloroplasts – Vacuoles – Mitochondria
  5. 5. Cell Membrane • Surrounds a cell, allows certain materials to enter the cell and waste products to exit • Outer membrane of cell that controls movement in and out of the cell • Double layer http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  6. 6. Cell Wall • Tough material surrounding the cell membrane in plant cells. • Most commonly found in plant cells & bacteria • Supports & protects cells http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  7. 7. Nucleus • Directs cell activities • Separated from cytoplasm by nuclear membrane • Contains genetic material - DNA
  8. 8. Cytoplasm • All the material of the cell between the cell membrane and the nucleus • Gel-like mixture • Surrounded by cell membrane • Contains hereditary material
  9. 9. Mitochondria • The cell’s power producers. • Mitochondria combine oxygen and food to produce energy in the process of cellular respiration. • Controls level of water and other materials in cell http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  10. 10. Vacuoles • Membrane-bound sacs for storage, digestion, and waste removal • Contains water solution • Larger in plant cells • Help plants maintain shape by storing water http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  11. 11. Chloroplast • Uses the energy in sunlight to turn water and carbon dioxide into sugar and oxygen (a process called photosynthesis) • Usually found in plant cells • Contains green chlorophyll http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  12. 12. What are the differences between plant and animal cells? • Plant cells are much like animal cells, except for 3 important differences. – Plant cells have cell walls, which make them appear rectangular-shaped. These structures are composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and a variety of other materials. – Plant cells have chlorophyll, the light-absorbing pigment required for photosynthesis. This pigment is contained in structures called chloroplasts, which makes plants appear green. – Plants cells have a large, central vacuole. While animal cells may have one or more small vacuoles, they do not take up the volume that the central vacuole does (up to 90% of the entire cell volume!). The vacuole stores water and ions, and may be used for storage of toxins.
  13. 13. Plant Cell vs Animal Cell
  14. 14. What am I, plant or animal?
  15. 15. Plant Cell Animal Cell
  16. 16. Pictures of cells Cancer cell being attacked by the immune system
  17. 17. Nerve Cells Cheek (Skin) Cells Liver Cells
  18. 18. A plant cell from the leaf of a poplar tree Plant cell with nucleus Seaweed under a microscope very visible
  19. 19. Stomach Cells Cardiac Muscle (Heart) Cells Muscle Cells Bone Cells
  20. 20. Very thin slice of plant skin Orchid (flower) cells Leaf Cells of Moss Cells in a plant root
  21. 21. Credit Slide • Pictures were found via yahoo image search. • Some information was found via yahoo search. • Some information was retrieved from Science-Class.net