THE LOS ANGELES BASIN IS ATHIGH RISK FROM EARTHQUAKES
LESSONS FROM PASTNOTABLE EARTHQUAKES
PAST NOTABLE   EARTHQUAKES NORTHRIDGE, CALIFORNIA    JANUARY 17, 1994  GOOD FORTUNE--- ITHAPPENED ON A HOLIDAY
EARTHQAKES ARE DYNAMIC    LABORATORIES FOR LEARNING AND CATALYSTS  FOR BUILDING CAPACITYFOR DISASTER-INTELLIGENT   & DISAS...
NORTHRIDGE, CALIFORNIA       EARTHQUAKE   4:31 AM ON JANUARY 17, 1994   4:31 AM ON JANUARY 17, 1994                  M 6.8...
OCCURRENCE
LOS ANGELES Los Angeles is located in the LosAngeles Basin where earthquakeshave occurred many times on thewell known San ...
LOCATION The epicenter was located in  Northridge, a suburb of Los  Angeles.
 Southern California is prone toearthquakes because of its locationnear the boundary between two majortectonic plates: No...
NORTHRIDGE EARTHQUAKE           SLIP ON A “BLIND”            THRUST FAULT (I.E.,            DID NOT BREAK THE            ...
FAULT SYSTEM:NORTHRIDGE EARTHQUAKE
CAUSES OF DAMAGE                    CAUSES OF DAMAGE                                        INADEQUATE RESISTANCE TO HORIZ...
IMPACTSBUILDINGS
LESSONS LEARNED FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE           ALL NOTABLE            EARTHQUAKES           PREPAREDNESS            P...
GROUND SHAKING WESTERNUSA
LESSONS LEARNED FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE           ALL NOTABLE            EARTHQUAKES           PROTECTION OF            ...
LOS ANGELES REGION Buildings, transportation  infrastructure, utility corridors,  and parking structures  constructed in ...
COLLAPSE OF A CONCRETE    FRAME BUILDING
NORTHRIDGE EARTHQUAKE           THE BUILDING STOCK            AND INFRA-            STRUCTURE OF THE            LOS ANGEL...
A PROTECTION NIGHTMARE
DAMAGE TO BRIDGE
THE UTILITY CORRIDOR: APROTECTION NIGHTMARE            DISRUPTION OF             UTILITY SERVICES,             A FIRE, AN...
NORTHRIDGE EARTHQUAKE           FLAWS WERE            FOUND IN THE            WELDED            CONNECTIONS            OF...
PROBABILISTIC MAPS OF PEAKGROUND ACCELERATION (PGA)AND SPECTRAL ACCELERATION(SA) ARE BASIC TOOLS USED IN     BUILDING CODE...
LESSONS LEARNED FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE           ALL NOTABLE            EARTHQUAKES           PREPAREDNESS            P...
LIQUEFACTION IN A UTILITY       CORRIDOR             
COLLAPSE OF UNIVERSITY  PARKING STRUCTURE
LESSONS LEARNED FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE          ALL NOTABLE           EARTHQUAKES          CAPACITY FOR           EMERG...
DEALING WITH FIRE, AN EXPLOSION, DEATHS, AND LOSS OF FUNCTION
LESSONS LEARNED FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE          ALL NOTABLE           EARTHQUAKES          CAPACITY FOR           RECOV...
EARTHQUAKE INSURANCE WAS A    TOOL FOR RECOVERY              EARTHQUAKE               INSURANCE               SPREAD THE ...
IT TAKES TIME TO CORRECTFLAWS IN STEEL BUILDINGS            
IT TAKES TIME TO RESTOREREGIONAL TRANSPORTATION
PLANNING FOR THE FUTURE A NEW GENERATION OF POLICIES AND  PROFESSIONAL PRACTICES WAS  DEVELOPED FOR SITING, DESIGN, AND  ...
PLANNING FOR THE FUTURE THE INFORMATION, KNOWLEDGE  BASE AND PROCESS NEEDED FOR  DEVELOPING SCENARIOS FOR  FUTURE EARTHQU...
SCENARIO EARTHQUAKE FORSOUTHERN CALIFORNIAADVANCE PLANNING SO THATCALIFORNIA WILL BE READY WHEN THEINEVITABLE “BIG ONE” AN...
SOUTHERN CALIFORNIAAREA
QUAKE SHAKEOUTSCENARIOThe goal in the ShakeOut Scenario is toidentify the physical, social andeconomic consequences of a m...
GROUND SHAKING: 60 % GSECONDS AFTER FAULTRUPTURE
THE M 7.8 SCENARIO QUAKE• The magnitude 7.8 SCENARIOearthquake will cause about 1800deaths and $213 billion of economiclos...
THE M 7.8 SHAKEOUTQUAKE• The estimates of about 1800deaths and $213 billion ofeconomic losses are as largeas they are beca...
SUMMARY OF IMPACTS 57 DEATHS 9,000 INJURIES HUNDREDS OF APARTMENT  BUILDINGS DAMAGED THOUSANDS OF COMMERCIAL  BUILDING...
SUMMARY OF IMPACTS A RELATIVELY SMALL NUMBER OF  DEATHS, PARTLY DUE TO HOLIDAY OVER $50 BILLION DAMAGE WITH  MORE THAN $...
PRIMARY SOURCES OF  INFORMATION ON THE LOMAPRIETA EARTHQUAKE ARE:           1) The US Geological Survey,      2) The Calif...
Southern California may be due soon -- Lessons From Past Notable Earthquakes
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Southern California may be due soon -- Lessons From Past Notable Earthquakes

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Earthqakes are dynamic laboratories for learning and catalysts for building capacity for disaster-intelligent & disaster-resilient communites. Presentation courtesy of Dr Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction

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Southern California may be due soon -- Lessons From Past Notable Earthquakes

  1. 1. THE LOS ANGELES BASIN IS ATHIGH RISK FROM EARTHQUAKES
  2. 2. LESSONS FROM PASTNOTABLE EARTHQUAKES
  3. 3. PAST NOTABLE EARTHQUAKES NORTHRIDGE, CALIFORNIA JANUARY 17, 1994 GOOD FORTUNE--- ITHAPPENED ON A HOLIDAY
  4. 4. EARTHQAKES ARE DYNAMIC LABORATORIES FOR LEARNING AND CATALYSTS FOR BUILDING CAPACITYFOR DISASTER-INTELLIGENT & DISASTER-RESILIENT COMMUNITES
  5. 5. NORTHRIDGE, CALIFORNIA EARTHQUAKE 4:31 AM ON JANUARY 17, 1994 4:31 AM ON JANUARY 17, 1994 M 6.8 M 6.8 57 DEATHS 57 DEATHS $50 BILLION LOSS $50 BILLION LOSSTRANSPORTATION AND UTILITY INFRASTRUCTURETRANSPORTATION AND UTILITY INFRASTRUCTURE FAILURES FAILURES
  6. 6. OCCURRENCE
  7. 7. LOS ANGELES Los Angeles is located in the LosAngeles Basin where earthquakeshave occurred many times on thewell known San Andreas faultsystem and SOMETIMES onunknown “blind thrust faults.”
  8. 8. LOCATION The epicenter was located in Northridge, a suburb of Los Angeles.
  9. 9.  Southern California is prone toearthquakes because of its locationnear the boundary between two majortectonic plates: North America andPacific. Much, but not all, of the stressrelease happens on the San Andreasfault.
  10. 10. NORTHRIDGE EARTHQUAKE  SLIP ON A “BLIND” THRUST FAULT (I.E., DID NOT BREAK THE SURFACE) GEN- ERATED AN ALMOST PERFECT “BULLS EYE” EARTHQUAKE IN A MAJOR METROPOLITAN AREA
  11. 11. FAULT SYSTEM:NORTHRIDGE EARTHQUAKE
  12. 12. CAUSES OF DAMAGE CAUSES OF DAMAGE INADEQUATE RESISTANCE TO HORIZONTAL GROUND SHAKING SOIL AMPLIFICATION PERMANENT DISPLACEMENT (SURFACE FAULTING & GROUND FAILURE) IRREGULARITIES IN ELEVATIONEARTHQUAKES AND PLAN EARTHQUAKES “DISASTER FIRE FOLLOWING RUPTURE OF “DISASTER LABORATORIES” LABORATORIES” UTILITIES LACK OF DETAILING AND CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS INATTENTION TO NON- STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS
  13. 13. IMPACTSBUILDINGS
  14. 14. LESSONS LEARNED FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE  ALL NOTABLE EARTHQUAKES  PREPAREDNESS PLANNING FOR THE INEVITABLE STRONG GROUND MOTION IS ESSENTIAL FOR COMMUNITY RESILIENCE.
  15. 15. GROUND SHAKING WESTERNUSA
  16. 16. LESSONS LEARNED FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE  ALL NOTABLE EARTHQUAKES  PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS AND INFRASTRUCTURE IS ESSENTIAL FOR COMMUNITY RESILIENCE.
  17. 17. LOS ANGELES REGION Buildings, transportation infrastructure, utility corridors, and parking structures constructed in accordance with various codes/standards FAILED.
  18. 18. COLLAPSE OF A CONCRETE FRAME BUILDING
  19. 19. NORTHRIDGE EARTHQUAKE  THE BUILDING STOCK AND INFRA- STRUCTURE OF THE LOS ANGELES REGION WERE EXPOSED TO VERY STRONG GROUND SHAKING REACHING PGA > 1 G AT SOME LOCATIONS
  20. 20. A PROTECTION NIGHTMARE
  21. 21. DAMAGE TO BRIDGE
  22. 22. THE UTILITY CORRIDOR: APROTECTION NIGHTMARE  DISRUPTION OF UTILITY SERVICES, A FIRE, AND AN EXPLOSION QUICKLY CREATED THE CONDITIONS FOR A DISASTER .
  23. 23. NORTHRIDGE EARTHQUAKE  FLAWS WERE FOUND IN THE WELDED CONNECTIONS OF MANY MOMENT- RESISTING STEEL FRAME BUILDINGS
  24. 24. PROBABILISTIC MAPS OF PEAKGROUND ACCELERATION (PGA)AND SPECTRAL ACCELERATION(SA) ARE BASIC TOOLS USED IN BUILDING CODES ANDINFRASTRUCTURE STANDARDS
  25. 25. LESSONS LEARNED FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE  ALL NOTABLE EARTHQUAKES  PREPAREDNESS PLANNING FOR THE INEVITABLE GROUND FAILURE IS ESSENTIAL FOR COMMUNITY RESILIENCE.
  26. 26. LIQUEFACTION IN A UTILITY CORRIDOR 
  27. 27. COLLAPSE OF UNIVERSITY PARKING STRUCTURE
  28. 28. LESSONS LEARNED FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE  ALL NOTABLE EARTHQUAKES  CAPACITY FOR EMERGENCY RESPONSE IS ESSENTIAL FOR COMMUNITY RESILIENCE.
  29. 29. DEALING WITH FIRE, AN EXPLOSION, DEATHS, AND LOSS OF FUNCTION
  30. 30. LESSONS LEARNED FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE  ALL NOTABLE EARTHQUAKES  CAPACITY FOR RECOVERY AND RECONSTRUCTION IS ESSENTIAL FOR COMMUNITY RESILIENCE.
  31. 31. EARTHQUAKE INSURANCE WAS A TOOL FOR RECOVERY  EARTHQUAKE INSURANCE SPREAD THE RISK AND SPEEDED UP RECOVERY BY FACILITATING THE “RESTORATION TO NORMAL”
  32. 32. IT TAKES TIME TO CORRECTFLAWS IN STEEL BUILDINGS 
  33. 33. IT TAKES TIME TO RESTOREREGIONAL TRANSPORTATION
  34. 34. PLANNING FOR THE FUTURE A NEW GENERATION OF POLICIES AND PROFESSIONAL PRACTICES WAS DEVELOPED FOR SITING, DESIGN, AND CONSTRUCTION IN CALIFORNIA AND OTHER EARTHQUAKE PRONE REGIONS OF THE USA.
  35. 35. PLANNING FOR THE FUTURE THE INFORMATION, KNOWLEDGE BASE AND PROCESS NEEDED FOR DEVELOPING SCENARIOS FOR FUTURE EARTHQUAKE DISASTER PLANNING WERE CREATED.
  36. 36. SCENARIO EARTHQUAKE FORSOUTHERN CALIFORNIAADVANCE PLANNING SO THATCALIFORNIA WILL BE READY WHEN THEINEVITABLE “BIG ONE” AND OTHERSRECURSource: US Geological Survey
  37. 37. SOUTHERN CALIFORNIAAREA
  38. 38. QUAKE SHAKEOUTSCENARIOThe goal in the ShakeOut Scenario is toidentify the physical, social andeconomic consequences of a majorearthquake in southern California , andin so doing, enable end users toidentify what they can change now—before the earthquake—to avoidcatastrophic impact after the inevitableearthquake occurs.
  39. 39. GROUND SHAKING: 60 % GSECONDS AFTER FAULTRUPTURE
  40. 40. THE M 7.8 SCENARIO QUAKE• The magnitude 7.8 SCENARIOearthquake will cause about 1800deaths and $213 billion of economiclosses.• These numbers are as low as they arebecause of aggressive retrofittingprograms since 1994 that haveincreased the seismic resistance ofbuildings, highways and lifelines, andadded economic resiliency.
  41. 41. THE M 7.8 SHAKEOUTQUAKE• The estimates of about 1800deaths and $213 billion ofeconomic losses are as largeas they are because muchmore retrofitting could still bedone.
  42. 42. SUMMARY OF IMPACTS 57 DEATHS 9,000 INJURIES HUNDREDS OF APARTMENT BUILDINGS DAMAGED THOUSANDS OF COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS DAMAGED WHEN WELDS FAILED IN STEEL-FRAME BUILDINGS PARKING FACILITIES COLLAPSED
  43. 43. SUMMARY OF IMPACTS A RELATIVELY SMALL NUMBER OF DEATHS, PARTLY DUE TO HOLIDAY OVER $50 BILLION DAMAGE WITH MORE THAN $5 BILLION IN EARTHQUAKE INSURANCE INDEMNIFICATION UTILITY CORRIDOR FAILED TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS FAILED AGAIN
  44. 44. PRIMARY SOURCES OF INFORMATION ON THE LOMAPRIETA EARTHQUAKE ARE: 1) The US Geological Survey, 2) The California Geological Survey,and 3) the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute

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