Part 1 Global Earthquake Preparedness And Emergency Response in the United States

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Preparedness is a state of readiness on individual, urban, sub-regional, and national scales that is sufficient to keep the expected and unexpected effects of an earthquake from causing a disaster. Emergency Response consists of all the scripted and unscripted heroic and historic responses during the “race against time” after a quake to save lives and protect property. Key elements of preparedness: 1) know your tectonic plates and seismicity; 2) know your fault zones; 3) know your potential disaster agents; 4) know your vulnerabilities. State-of-the-art preparedness planning integrates all four factors. Prepareadness and emergency response increase as the capability to anticipate what will happen increases. Key elements of emergency response. HISTORIC RESPONSES: The professional and non-professional responders will be making history for at least forty-eight hours (a “place holder” for the intense period of search and rescue operations) and thirty days (a “place holder” for the intense time of the “no room for error” decisions) that must be made. Every time an earthquake disaster occurs, we have new knowledge to add to our “books of knowledge” on preparedness and emergency response. Presentation courtesy of Dr. Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction

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Part 1 Global Earthquake Preparedness And Emergency Response in the United States

  1. 1. Part 1 Global Earthquake Preparedness And Emergency Response in the United States
  2. 2. YOUR COMMUNITY DATA BASES AND INFORMATION HAZARDS: GROUND SHAKING GROUND FAILURE SURFACE FAULTING TECTONIC DEFORMATION TSUNAMI RUN UP AFTERSHOCKS •MONITORING •HAZARD MAPS •INVENTORY •VULNERABILITY •LOCATION RISK ACCEPTABLE RISK UNACCEPTABLE RISK BOOKS OF KNOWLEDGE •PREPAREDNESS •PROTECTION •EM RESPONSE •RECOSTRUCTION AND RECOVERY EARTHQUAKE DISASTER RESILIENCE
  3. 3. PREPAREDNESS AND EMERGENCY RESPONSE ARE ESSENTIAL PILLARS OF GLOBAL EARTHQUAKE DISASTER RESILIENCE
  4. 4. NOTE: EVERY TIME AN EARTHQUAKE DISASTER OCCURS, WE HAVE NEW KNOWLEDGE TO ADD TO OUR “BOOKS OF KNOWLEDGE” ON PREPAREDNESS AND EMERGENCY RESPONSE
  5. 5. WHAT IS EARTHQUAKE PREPAREDNESS? Preparedness is a state of readiness on individual, urban, sub-regional, and national scales that is sufficient to keep the expected and unexpected effects of an earthquake from causing a disaster
  6. 6. WHAT IS EMERGENCY RESPONSE (Emergency Response is All of the scripted and unscripted heroic and historic responses during the “race against time” after a quake to save lives and protect property
  7. 7. NOTE AS CAPABILITY FOR PREPAREDNESS INCREASES, SO DOES PROTECTION OF IMPORTANT BUILDINGS AND CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE
  8. 8. WHAT IS PROTECTION? (Protection is a legally mandated state of planning and verified robustness, strength, and ductility for important buildings and essential - critical infrastructure to prevent loss of function
  9. 9. THE GOAL DEMANDS ON COMMUNITY EARTHQUAKE DISASTER RESILIENCE: CAPABILITIES OF COMMUNITY
  10. 10. REALITY UNANTICIPATED DEMANDS ON COMMUNITY LACK OF EARTHQUAKE PREPAREDNESS INSUFFICIENT PREPAREDNESS OF COMMUNITY
  11. 11. REALITY URGENT DEMANDS ON COMMUNITY LACK OF EMERGENCY RESPONSE CAPABILITY INSUFFICIENT CAPABILITY TO RESPOND TO DEMANDS ON COMMUNITY
  12. 12. FOCUS ON PREPAREDNESS
  13. 13. KEY ELEMENTS OF PREPAREDNESS 1) KNOW YOUR TECTONIC PLATES AND SEISMICITY 2) KNOW YOUR FAULT ZONES 3) KNOW YOUR POTENTIAL DISASTER AGENTS 4) KNOW YOUR VULNERABILITIES
  14. 14. STATE-OF-THE-ART PREPAREDNESS PLANNING INTEGRATES ALL FOUR FACTORS
  15. 15. FACTOR 1: KNOW YOUR TECTONIC PLATES AND SEISMIC ACTIVITY (i.e., SEISMICITY)
  16. 16. PACIFIC RING OF FIRE • PRONE TO EARTHQUAKES AND TSUNAMIS
  17. 17. EARTHQUAKE ACTIVITY
  18. 18. STATES WITH THE MOST EATHQUAKE ACTIVITY
  19. 19. FACTOR 2: KNOW YOUR FAULT ZONES
  20. 20. FAULTS
  21. 21. THE USA’S MOST NOTABLE PLATE BOUNDARY FAULT ZONE • SAN ANDREAS FAULT • 600 MILES LONG • SOURCE OF M8 EARTHQUAKES IN 1847 AND 1906
  22. 22. THE USA’S OTHER NOTABLE PLATE BOUNDARY FAULT ZONE • THE JUAN DE FUCA PLATE • SUBDUCTING BENEATH WASHINGTON AND OREGON; • POTENTIAL FOR M9.0 QUAKE
  23. 23. ONE O F THE USA’S TWO NOTABLE INTRA-PLATE FAULT ZONES • WASATCH FAULT (UTAH) • 250 MILES LONG • POTENTIAL SOURCE OF M7.0-7.5 EARTHQUAKES
  24. 24. ONE O F THE USA’S TWO NOTABLE INTRA-PLATE FAULT ZONES • NEW MADRID SEISMIC ZONE • SOURCE OF FOUR M8 EARTHQUAKES IN 1811--1812
  25. 25. FACTOR 3: KNOW YOUR POTENTIAL DISASTER AGENTS
  26. 26. NOTE PREPAREADNESS AND EM. RESPONSE INCREASE AS THE CAPABILITY TO ANTICIPATE WHAT WILL HAPPEN INCREASES
  27. 27. TO ANTICIPATE THE POTENTIAL DIS- ASTER AGENTS REQUIRES KNOWLEDGE • STRONG GROUND SHAKING • TSUNAMI WAVE RUNUP • LIQUEFACTION • LANDSLIDES • AFTERSHOCKS
  28. 28. STRONG GROUND SHAKING
  29. 29. FACTOR 4: KNOW YOUR VULNERABILITIES
  30. 30. GROUND SHAKING CAUSES SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC LOSSES
  31. 31. EXAMPLES OF THE INTEGRATION PROCESS
  32. 32. SAN FRANCISCO: PREPAREDNESS PLANNING • HOW LIKELY IS A DAMAGING EARTHQUAKE TO OCCUR? • WHERE AND WHEN WILL IT OCCUR? • HOW BIG WILL IT BE? • HOW STRONG WILL ITS POTENTIAL DISASTER AGENTS BE?
  33. 33. PREPAREDNESS PLANNING (Continued)? • WHAT KINDS OF BUILDINGS ARE AT RISK? • WHAT KINDS OF BASIC, ESSENTIAL, AND CRITICAL INFRA- STRUCTURE ARE AT RISK? • WHAT ARE THEIR PHYSICAL VUL- NERABILITIES
  34. 34. PREPAREDNESS PLANNING (Continued)? • WHAT ARE THE SOCIAL VULNERABILITIES • WHAT IS THE LIKELY DAMAGE DISTRIBUTION? • WHAT ARE THE LIKELY CASUALTIES, SOCIO- ECONOMIC, AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS?
  35. 35. ANCHORAGE, AK: PREPAREDNESS PLANNING • HOW LIKELY IS A DAMAGING EARTHQUAKE TO OCCUR? • WHERE AND WHEN WILL IT OCCUR? • HOW BIG WILL IT BE? • HOW STRONG WILL ITS POTENTIAL DISASTER AGENTS BE?
  36. 36. SEATTLE, WA: PREPAREDNESS PLANNING • HOW LIKELY IS A DAMAGING EARTHQUAKE TO OCCUR? • WHERE AND WHEN WILL IT OCCUR? • HOW BIG WILL IT BE? • HOW STRONG WILL ITS POTENTIAL DISASTER AGENTS BE?
  37. 37. LOS ANGELES: PREPAREDNESS PLANNING • HOW LIKELY IS A DAMAGING EARTHQUAKE TO OCCUR? • WHERE AND WHEN WILL IT OCCUR? • HOW BIG WILL IT BE? • HOW STRONG WILL ITS POTENTIAL DISASTER AGENTS BE?
  38. 38. SAN JUAN, PR: PREPAREDNESS PLANNING • HOW LIKELY IS A DAMAGING EARTHQUAKE TO OCCUR? • WHERE AND WHEN WILL IT OCCUR? • HOW BIG WILL IT BE? • HOW STRONG WILL ITS POTENTIAL DISASTER AGENTS BE?
  39. 39. ALASKA, WASHINGTON, OREGON, CALIF., PUERTO RICO HOW BIG WILL THE TSUNAMI WAVE RUN UP BE?
  40. 40. SALT LAKE CITY: PREPAREDNESS PLANNING • HOW LIKELY IS A DAMAGING EARTHQUAKE TO OCCUR? • WHERE AND WHEN WILL IT OCCUR? • HOW BIG WILL IT BE? • HOW STRONG WILL ITS POTENTIAL DISASTER AGENTS BE?
  41. 41. MEMPHIS,TN: PREPAREDNESS PLANNING • HOW LIKELY IS A DAMAGING EARTHQUAKE TO OCCUR? • WHERE AND WHEN WILL IT OCCUR? • HOW BIG WILL IT BE? • HOW STRONG WILL ITS POTENTIAL DISASTER AGENTS BE?
  42. 42. FOCUS ON EMERGENCY RESPONSE
  43. 43. NOTE: EM. RESPONSE IS HIGHLY POLITICAL, SO COMMUNITY LEADERS MUST BE PREPARED FOR ONGOING MULTI- MEDIA COMMUNICATIONS WITH NUMEROUS PUBLICS
  44. 44. TYPICAL SITUATIONS IN EMERGENCY. RESPONSE • DAMAGE; DEBRIS • COLLAPSE • TRAPPED SURVIVORS • SEARCH AND RESCUE CLOCK • FIRE • INUNDATION • EVACUATION CENTERS • EM. MEDICAL • MASS CARE • HAZ MAT RELEASE • INJURIES • DEATHS
  45. 45. KEY ELEMENTS OF EMERGENCY RESPONSE • HISTORIC RESPONSES: The professional and non-professional responders will be making history for at least forty-eight hours (a “place holder” for the intense period of search and rescue operations) and thirty days (a “place holder” for the intense time of the “no room for error” decisions) that must be made.
  46. 46. KEY ELEMENTS OF EMERGENCY RESPONSE • HEROIC RESPONSES: The professional and non-professional responders will be working at the margins of their capability for at least twenty-four hours and twenty-one days.
  47. 47. EXAMPLES OF HISTORIC EMERGENCY RESPONSE SITUATIONS Part 2: The Wise Learn From All Their Earthquake Disasters
  48. 48. EXAMPLE: DAMAGE TO SCHOOL • ALASKA (1964): Timely search and rescue during a forty-eight hour “race against time” to save lives and protect property
  49. 49. EXAMPLE: DAMAGE FROM TSUNAMI WAVE RUN UP • ALASKA (1964): • Timely responses during a thirty day “race against time” to save lives and protect property
  50. 50. EXAMPLE: LOSS OF FUNCTION OF ELEVATED HIGHWAY; DEATHS • LOMA PRIETO, CA (1989): • Timely responses during a forty-eight hour and thirty day “race against time” to save lives and protect property
  51. 51. EXAMPLE: LOSS OF FUNCTION AND COMMUTING CAPABILITY • LOMA PRIETA, CA EARTHQUAKE (1989): • Timely responses during a thirty day “race against time” to save lives and protect property
  52. 52. EXAMPLE: LOSS OF FUNCTION • NORTHRIDGE, CA (1994): • Timely responses during a thirty day “race against time” to save lives and protect property
  53. 53. EXAMPLE: HAZ-MAT RELEASE AND FIRE • ALASKA (1964): Timely responses during a thirty day “race against time” to save lives and protect property
  54. 54. EXAMPLES OF HISTORIC EMERGENCY RESPONSE SITUATIONS Part 2: The Wise ALSO Learn From All Global Earthquake Disasters
  55. 55. EXAMPLE: 240,000 DEAD • TANGSHAN, CHINA (1976) EARTHQUAKE: The impossible situation; too late for a race against time” to save lives and protect property.
  56. 56. EXAMPLE: 230,000 DEAD IN TSUNAMI • INDONESIA (2004): The impossible situation; too late for a race against time” to save lives and protect property.
  57. 57. EXAMPLE: 88,000 DEAD; 50 MILLION BUILDINGS DAMAGED • CHINA (2008): • The impossible situation; too late for a race against time” to save lives and protect property.
  58. 58. EXAMPLE: 30,000 DEAD • JAPAN (2011): • The impossible situation; too late for a race against time” to save lives and protect property.
  59. 59. CONCLUSION EVERY TIME AN EARTHQUAKE DISASTER OCCURS, WE HAVE NEW KNOWLEDGE TO ADD TO OUR “BOOKS OF KNOWLEDGE” FOR THE NEXT STEPS: POST-DISASTER RECOVERY
  60. 60. THE NEXT STEPS: RECONSTRUCTION AND RECOVERY

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