LANDSLIDE HAZARDS: LEARNING FROM GLOBAL DISASTER LABORATORIES

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Landslides Represent Permanent Deformation Caused By The Downward And Outward Movements Of Large Volumes Of Soil And/Or Rock Under The Influence Of Gravity. Landslides Occur Naturally. Landslides Can Be Triggered And/Or Exacerbated By: 1) Water (From Precipitation During A Tropical Storm, Hurricane, Or Typhoon), Or 2) Vibrations (From Ground Shaking) During An Earthquake. Millions Of Communities Are Not Resilient To Landslide Disasters. One Of The Myths Of Disasters Is That Landslide Disasters, Which Occur Annually In Every Nation, Should Be Enough To Make All Nations Adopt And Implement Policies That Will Lead To Landslide Disaster Resilience. But The Fact Of The Matter Is, This Premise Is Wrong; It Usually Takes Multiple Disasters Before A Stricken Nation Will Adopt Policies To Move Towards Disaster Resilience. Lesson: The Timing Of Anticipatory Actions Is Vital. The People Who Know: 1) What To Expect (E.G., Rock Falls, “quake Lakes,” Mud Flows, Etc.), 2) Where And When It Will Happen, And 3) What They Should (And Should Not) Do To Prepare Will Survive. The People Who Have Timely Early Warning In Conjunction With A Modern Monitoring System, And A Community Evacuation Plan That Facilitates Getting Out Of Harm’s Way From The Risks Associated With Rock Falls, Mudflows, Etc. Will Survive. Engineering To Stabilize Slopes Will Reduce Damage To Buildings And Infrastructure And Help Sustain Their Functions And Save Lives. Presentation courtesy of Dr. Walter Hays, Global Alliance For Disaster Reduction

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LANDSLIDE HAZARDS: LEARNING FROM GLOBAL DISASTER LABORATORIES

  1. 1. LEARNING FROM GLOBAL DISASTER LABORATORIES PART 1: LANDSLIDES
  2. 2. LANDSLIDES represent permanent deformation caused by the downward and outward movements of large volumes of soil and/or rock under the influence of gravity.
  3. 3. PHYSICS OF LANDSLIDES • Landslides occur naturally. • Landslides can be triggered and/or exacerbated by: 1) Water (from precipitation during a tropical storm, hurricane, or typhoon), or 2) Vibrations (from ground shaking) during an earthquake.
  4. 4. WORST LANDSLIDE: 1970 IN PERU • A M7.7 earthquake that occurred offshore Peru in 1970 triggered a massive landslide of snow, soil, and rock in the Nevados Huascaran Mountains that buried Yungay, Ramrahirca, and several other villages, killing 18,000.
  5. 5. SITING AND BUILDING ON UNSTABLE SLOPES LANDSLIDES SOIL AND ROCK SUCEPTIBLE TO FALLS SOIL AND ROCK SUCEPTIBLE TO TOPPLES SOIL AND ROCK SUCEPTIBLE TO LATERAL SPREADS SOIL AND ROCK SUSCEPTIBLE TO FLOWS PRECIPITATION THAT TRIGGERS SLOPE FAILURE SHAKING GROUND SHAKING THAT TRIGGERS SLOPE FAILURE CAUSES OF DAMAGE GLOBAL DISASTER LABORATORIES
  6. 6. YOUR COMMUNITYDATA BASES AND INFORMATION HAZARDS: GROUND SHAKING GROUND FAILURE SURFACE FAULTING TECTONIC DEFORMATION TSUNAMI RUN UP AFTERSHOCKS • LANDSLIDE HAZARDS •INVENTORY •VULNERABILITY •LOCATION LANDSLIDE RISK RISK ACCEPTABLE RISK UNACCEPTABLE RISK LANDSLIDE DISASTER RESILIENCE •PREPAREDNESS •PROTECTION •FORECASTS/SCENARIOS •EMERGENCY RESPONSE •RECOVERY and RECONSTRUCTION POLICY OPTIONS
  7. 7. TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS ARE SUSCEPTIBLE TO LANDSLIDE HAZARDS (I.E., FALLS, TOPPLES, SLIDES, SPREADS, AND FLOWS)
  8. 8. MILLIONS OF COMMUNITIES ARE NOT RESILIENT TO LANDSLIDE DISASTERS
  9. 9. LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCE ALL LANDSLIDES PREPAREDNES BEING ABLE TO ANTICIPATE THE EXPECTED AND UNEXPEDTED IS ESSENTIAL FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE
  10. 10. QUAKE-TRIGGERED LANDSLIDES CREATE “EARTH-QUAKE LAKE” TANGJIASHAN, LARGEST OF 69 "QUAKE LAKES"
  11. 11. RISING WATER IN EARTH- QUAKE LAKE, MAY 31, 2008
  12. 12. ANTICIPATE LANDSLIDE-PRONE AREAS IN A COMMUNITY– BEFORE MAY 12, 2008
  13. 13. EARTHQAKE TRIGGERED LANDSLIDES: BEICHUAN, CHINA, MAY 12, 2008
  14. 14. LANDSLIDE: JINGXIU
  15. 15. LANDSLIDE: MIANZHU
  16. 16. LANDSLIDE: HANWANG
  17. 17. HURRICANE TRIGGERED LANDSLIDES IN HONDURAS • HURRICANE STAN: OCTOBER 2005 • DEVASTATING MUDSLIDES WERE TRIGGERED BY PROLONGED, HEAVY PRECIPITATION.
  18. 18. FLOOD TRIGGERED LANDSLIDE IN CHINA: JULY 2007
  19. 19. TYPHOON MORAKOT-TRIGGERED LANDSLIDE IN TAIWAN, AUG 10, 2009
  20. 20. QUAKE-TRIGGERED LANDSLIDE: PADANG PARIAMAN, INDONESIA; 2009
  21. 21. TYPHOON PARMA TRIGGERED: MUD FLOWS; OCT 12, 2009
  22. 22. FLOOD TRIGGERED LANDSLIDE IN CHINA: JULY 2007
  23. 23. RAIN TRIGGERED LANDSLIDE: BAGUIO CITY—OCT 9, 2010
  24. 24. LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCE ALL LANDSLIDES TIMELY EMERGENCY RESPONSE (E.G.,SEARCH AND RESCUE) IS ESSENTIAL FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE
  25. 25. LANDSLIDE: WASHINGTON STATE; MARCH 22, 2014
  26. 26. THE MUDSLIDE
  27. 27. WALL OF MUD MOVED DOWN SLOPE AFTER HEAVY RAINFALL
  28. 28. DESTROYED HOME
  29. 29. SEARCH AND RESCUE
  30. 30. SEARCH AND RESCUE
  31. 31. SAR: SLOW, DANGEROUS WORK
  32. 32. SEARCH AND RESCUE
  33. 33. IT’S TOO LATE; ONE WEEK LATER: SATURDAY, MARCH 29
  34. 34. WE BELIEVE A FLAWED PREMISE: LANDSLIDE DISASTERS, WHICH OCCUR ANNUALLY IN EVERY NATION, SHOULD BE ENOUGH TO MAKE ALL NATIONS ADOPT AND IMPLEMENT POLICIES THAT WILL LEAD TO LANDSLIDE DISASTER RESILIENCE
  35. 35. FACT: BUT, THIS PREMISE IS WRONG; IT USUALLY TAKES MULTIPLE DISASTERS BEFORE A STRICKEN NATION WILL ADOPT POLICIES TO MOVE TOWARDS DISASTER RESILIENCE
  36. 36. LESSON: THE TIMING OF ANTICIPATORY ACTIONS IS VITAL • The people who know: 1) what to expect (e.g., rock falls, “quake lakes,” mud flows, etc.), 2) where and when it will happen, and 3) what they should (and should not) do to prepare will survive.
  37. 37. LESSON: MONITORING, EARLY WARNING AND EVACUATION SAVES LIVES • The people who have timely early warning in conjunction with a modern monitoring system, and a community evacuation plan that facilitates getting out of harm’s way from the risks associated with rock falls, mudflows, etc. will survive.
  38. 38. LESSON: EMERGENCY MEDICAL PREPAREDNESS SAVES LIVES • Damaged hospitals and medical facilities combined with lack of clean drinking water, food, and medicine, and high levels of morbidity and mortality will quickly overrun the local community’s capacity for emergency health care.
  39. 39. LESSON: SLOPE STABILITY ENGINEERING SAVE LIVES • Engineering to stabilize slopes will reduce damage to buildings and infrastructure and help sustain their functions.
  40. 40. LESSON: THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY OFTEN PROVIDES AID • The International Community often provides millions to billions of dollars in relief to help “pick up the pieces, ” but this strategy is not enough by itself to ensure disaster resilience.
  41. 41. THE CHALLENGE: POLICY CHANGES: CREATE, ADJUST, AND REALIGN PROGRAMS, PARTNERS AND PEOPLE UNTIL YOU HAVE CREATED THE KINDS OF TURNING POINTS NEEDED FOR MOVING TOWARDS LANDSLIDE RESILIENCE
  42. 42. POLICIES FOR LANDSLIDE DISASTER RESILIENCE Preparedness Urban Planning to Avoid Locales Susceptible to Landslides Monitoring for Early Warning and Evacuation Timely Emergency Response (including Emergency Medical Services) Cost-Effective Recovery and Reconstruction
  43. 43. CREATING TURNING POINTS FOR LANDSLIDE DISASTER RESILIENCE USING EDUCATIONAL SURGES CONTAINING THE PAST AND PRESENT LESSONS TO FOSTER AND ACCELERATE THE CREATION OF TURNING POINTS
  44. 44. CREATING TURNING POINTS FOR LANDSLIDE DISASTER RESILIENCE INTEGRATION OF SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS WITH POLITICAL SOLUTIONS FOR POLICIES ON PREPAREDNESS, PROTECTION, EARLY WARNING, EMERGENCY RESPONSE, AND RECOVERY

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