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Indonesia Earthquakes and Tsunamis

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Indonesia’s most notable tsunami disaster tsunamis can accompany large subduction zone earthquakes generated as a result of complex interaction of the indo-australia and eurasiatectonic plates. In 2004, the existing indian ocean warning system was inadequate; so evacuation did not happen. Tsunami waves with wave heights of 4 to 10 m and inland runup of 3.3 km or more reached the coasts of all indian ocean nations- - - whose people were unevacuated and unprepared.As many as 220,000 people killed (120,000 in indonesia) --- and 500,000 injured. Presentation courtesy of Dr Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction
Indonesia Earthquakes and Tsunamis

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Indonesia Earthquakes and Tsunamis

  1. 1. LESSONS LEARNED FROMPAST NOTABLE DISASTERS INDONESIA PART 1B: TSUNAMIS
  2. 2. NATURAL HAZARDS THAT PLACE NATURAL HAZARDS THAT PLACE INDONESIA’S COMMUNITIES AT RISK INDONESIA’S COMMUNITIES AT RISK EARTHQUAKESGOAL: DISASTERGOAL: DISASTERRESILIENCERESILIENCE TSUNAMISENACT AND IMPLEMENT FLOODSENACT AND IMPLEMENTPOLICIES HAVING HIGHPOLICIES HAVING HIGHBENEFIT/COST FORBENEFIT/COST FOR CYCLONESCOMMUNITY RESILIENCECOMMUNITY RESILIENCE VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE
  3. 3. TSUNAMIS TSUNAMIS CAN ACCOMPANY LARGE SUBDUCTION ZONE EARTHQUAKESGENERATED AS A RESULT OF COMPLEXINTERACTION OF THE INDO-AUSTRALIA AND EURASIATECTONIC PLATES
  4. 4. TECTONIC PLATES
  5. 5. INDONESIA
  6. 6. REGIONAL TECTONICS• The Indo-Australian and Eurasian plates meet in Indonesia, creating a tectonic setting that generates earthquakes and volcanoes.
  7. 7. REGIONAL TECTONICS• The Indo-Australian plate is moving northward while being subducted under the Eurasian plate creating a zone marked by a submarine trench that can be traced from the northern tip of Sumatra to the Lesser Islands.
  8. 8. SUBDUCTION ZONE
  9. 9. INDONESIA’S SEISMICITY
  10. 10. TSUNAMI RISK ACCEPTABLE RISK•TSUNAMI HAZARDS•PEOPLE & BLDGS. RISK•VULNERABILITY UNACCEPTABLE RISK•LOCATION GOAL: TSUNAMI INDONESIA’S DISASTER RESILIENCE DATA BASES AND INFORMATION COMMUNITIES POLICY OPTIONS • PREPAREDNESSHAZARDS: •PROTECTIONGROUND SHAKINGGROUND FAILURE •EARLY WARNINGSURFACE FAULTINGTECTONIC DEFORMATION •EMERGENCY RESPONSETSUNAMI RUN UP •RECOVERY andAFTERSHOCKS RECONSTRUCTION
  11. 11. CAUSES OF CAUSES OF DAMAGE DAMAGE INADEQUATE RESISTANCE TO HORIZONTAL GROUND SHAKING SOIL AMPLIFICATION PERMANENT DISPLACEMENT (SURFACE FAULTING & GROUND FAILURE) IRREGULARITIES IN ELEVATIONEARTHQUAKES AND PLAN EARTHQUAKES “DISASTER “DISASTER TSUNAMI WAVE RUNUPLABORATORIES” LABORATORIES” POOR DETAILING AND WEAK CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS FRAGILITY OF NON-STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS
  12. 12. CAUSES OF CAUSES OF LOSS LOSS HIGH VELOCITY IMPACT OF INCOMING WAVES INLAND DISTANCE OF WAVE RUNUP VERTICAL HEIGHT OF WAVE RUNUP INADEQUATE WARNING TSUNAMIS TSUNAMIS SYSTEM “DISASTER FLOODING “DISASTERLABORATORIES” LABORATORIES” INADEQUATE HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL EVACUATION PROXIMITY TO SOURCE OF TSUNAMI
  13. 13. LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCE • ALL TSUNAMIS. • DISASTER- INTELLIGENT COMMUNITIES USE TIMELY EARLY WARNING BASED ON CRITICAL INFORM- ATION TO EVACUATE PEOPLE AND PREPARE.
  14. 14. INDONESIA’S MOST NOTABLE TSUNAMI DISASTER The Great Sumatra Earthquake -Indian Ocean Tsunami Disaster December 26, 2004
  15. 15. LOCATION
  16. 16. BEFORE AND AFTER THE DISASTER• SOURCE OF IMAGES: SPACE IMAGING/CRISP-SINGAPORE• NOTE: A TSUNAMI TRAVELS AT SPEEDS OF ABOUT 800 KM/HR IN THE DEEP OCEAN
  17. 17. BEFORE DECEMBER 26, 2004 EARTHQUAKE-TSUNAMI
  18. 18. AFTER DECEMBER 26, 2004 EARTHQUAKE-TSUNAMI
  19. 19. BEFORE DECEMBER 26, 2004 EARTHQUAKE-TSUNAMI
  20. 20. AFTER DECEMBER 26, 2004 EARTHQUAKE-TSUNAMI
  21. 21. BEFORE DECEMBER 26, 2004 EARTHQUAKE-TSUNAMI
  22. 22. AFTER DECEMBER 26, 2004 EARTHQUAKE-TSUNAMI
  23. 23. BEFORE DECEMBER 26, 2004 EARTHQUAKE-TSUNAMI
  24. 24. AFTER DECEMBER 26, 2004 EARTHQUAKE-TSUNAMI
  25. 25. THE TSUNAMI•THE EXISTING INDIAN OCEANWARNING SYSTEM WASINADEQUATE; SO EVACUATIONDID NOT HAPPEN.
  26. 26. THE TSUNAMI• TSUNAMI WAVES WITH WAVE HEIGHTS OF 4 TO 10 M AND INLAND RUNUP OF 3.3 KM OR MORE REACHED THE COASTS OF ALL INDIAN OCEAN NATIONS- - -• WHOSE PEOPLE WERE UNEVACUATED AND UNPREPARED.
  27. 27. IMPACTS OF THE DISASTER• AS MANY AS 220,000 PEOPLE KILLED (120,000 IN INDONESIA)• --- AND 500,000 INJURED
  28. 28. IMPACTS OF THE DISASTER• URGENT NEED FOR FOOD, WATER, AND HEALTH CARE SERVICES TO PREVENT “A HEALTH-CARE DISASTER AFTER THE TSUNAMI DISASTER”
  29. 29. IMPACTS OF THE DISASTER• MILLIONS DISPLACED FROM HOMES
  30. 30. IMPACTS OF THE DISASTER•BILLIONS OF DOLLARS NEEDEDFOR RESPONSE, RECOVERY, ANDRECONSTRUCTION
  31. 31. IMPACTS OF THE DISASTER•INTERNATIONAL AID WASCOORDINATED BY UN, USA, INDIA,AUSTRALIA, & JAPAN
  32. 32. TOWARDS DISASTER RISK REDUCTION FOR TSUNAMIS RISK ASSESSMENT • VULNERABILITY • COST • EXPOSURETSUNAMIS EXPECTED EXPECTED POLICY POLICY TSUNAMIS • EVENT LOSS LOSS ADOPTION ADOPTION • BENEFIT POLICY •CONSEQUENCES ASSESSMENT

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