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FLOODS PART II. THE GLOBAL
DISASTER LABORATORY MODEL. AN
INTEGRATED FRAMEWORK FOR
GLOBAL DISASTER RESILIENCE
FLOODING
• Flooding occurs somewhere in
the world approximately 10,000
times every day as the
consequences of a locale
hav...
FLOODS
• Floods occur as the result of:
extreme levels of precipitation
in thunderstorms, tropical
storms, typhoons, hurri...
LOSS OF FUNCTION OF
STRUCTURES IN FLOODPLAIN
FLOODS
INUNDATION
INTERACTION WITH
HAZARDOUS MATERIALS
STRUCTURAL/CONTENTS
DA...
FLOODING ALSO
TRIGGERS LANDSLIDES
THAT CAN ALSO CAUSE A
DISASTER
(see part 9)
ONE OF WORLD’S FLOOD MOST
NOTABLE DISASTER
LABORATORIES:
THE YANGTZE RIVER DRAINAGE
BASIN, CHINA
PAST 2,100 YEARS
FLOODING: YANGTZE RIVER
• Historical records indicate
that in 2,100 years, between
the early Han Dynasty and
late Qing Dyn...
YANGTZE RIVER
CHINA’S FLOOD LABOR-
ATORY: THE YANGTZE RIVER
• The Yangtze River, with over 700
tributaries, is the longest river in Asia...
FLOOD DISASTER
LABORATORY:
PAKISTAN
2010
ONE-FIFTH OF PAKISTAN
FLOODED: JULY 29
HURRICANE DEAN
WAS A FLOOD DISASTER LABORATORY
FROM THE CARIBBEAN TO THE GULF OF
MEXICO
2007
FROM A CATEGORY 2-3 STORM ON ...
HURRICANE DEAN: CATEGORY
2 STORM ON AUGUST 16
PROJECTED STORM TRACK:
AUGUST 17
HURRICANE DEAN: A CATEGORY
2-3 STORM ON AUGUST 17
• The eye of hurricane Dean, the first of
the North Atlantic season, pas...
IMPACTS ON MARTINIQUE
• In Martinique, Hurricane Dean flooded many
locales and ripped roofs from houses and
buildings.
• 1...
FORT DE FRANCE,
MARTINIQUE: WIND AND RAIN
FORT DE FRANCE, MARTINIQUE
FORT DE FRANCE,
MARTINIQUE:BOAT SINKING
FORT DE FRANCE,
MARTINIQUE: FLOODING
FORT DE FRANCE,
MARTINIQUE: FLOODING
FORT DE FRANCE,
MARTINIQUE: FLOODING
JAMAICA: STORM SURGE
DESTROYED HOUSE
FLOODING DAMAGE IN
JAMAICA
FLOODING DAMAGE IN PORT
AU PRINCE: JAMAICA
FLOODING, LANDSLIDES, AND
DEBRIS IN KINGSTON, JAMAICA
FLOODING IN CHETUMAL,
MEXICO ON AUGUST 21
FLOODING:BACALAR, MEXICO
ON AUGUST 21
LIMONES, MX. MAYAN COMMUNITY,
FLOODED: AUGUST 22-23
TYPHOONS KETSANA,
PARMA, AND MIRINAE WERE
FLOOD DISASTER
LABORATORIES IN THE
PHILIPPINES
2007
PHILIPPINES HIT BY KETSANA,
PARMA, MIRINAE: SEPT- NOV
KETSANA FLOODS QUESON
CITY
KETSANA FLOODING IN
PHILIPPINES; SEPT 23-30
KETSANA FLOODS CAINTA
RIZAL
PARMA FLOODS THE
PHILIPPINES; OCT 9
PARMA’S RAIN AND FLOODING
TRIGGERS MUDFLOWS; OCT 12
MIRINAE FLOODING: NOV 2
TWO OF MANY FLASH
FLOOD DISASTER
LABORATORIES:
ISTHANBUL,TURKEY
2007
SAN BERNARDINO, CA
AUGUST 3, 2014
FLASH FLOODS NEAR
ISTHANBUL, TURKEY: SEPT 9
FLASH FLOOD DISASTER
LABORATORY: AUG. 3, 2014
FLASH FLOOD DISASTER
LABORATORY: AUG. 3, 2014
• After a torrential rain storm on Sunday
in southern California’s San
Berna...
FLASH FLOOD TRIGGERS
DEBRIS FLOWS: AUG. 3, 2014
THE TSUNAMI WAVE RUN UP
ON AMERICAN SAMOA WAS A
FLOOD DISASTER
LABORATORY
2007
AMERICAN SAMOA
TSUNAMI: SEPT 29
The M7.7 earthquake generated a
near-source tsunami with 3 m (10 ft)
waves that struck within 5 minutes
after the quake---...
TSUNAMI WAVE RUN UP IN
MENTAWAI ISLAND
PAGO PAGO, ANERICAN SAMOA
AFTER THE TSUNAMI; SEPT 29
LESSON: THE KNOWLEDGE AND TIMING
OF ANTICIPATORY ACTIONS IS VITAL
• The people who know: 1) what to
expect (e.g., inundati...
LESSON: TIMELY, REALISTIC
DISASTER SCENARIOS SAVE LIVES
• The people who have timely,
realistic, advance information that
...
LESSON: EMERGENCY RESPONSE
SAVES LIVES
• The timing of emergency response
operations, especially the search
and rescue ope...
LESSON: EMERGENCY MEDICAL
PREPAREDNESS SAVES LIVES
• The local community’s capacity for
emergency health care (i.e., copin...
LESSON: ENGINEERED
INFRASTRUCTURE SAVE LIVES
• Infrastructure engineered to
withstand the risks from floods (e.g.,
inundat...
WE CONTINUE TO OPERATE WITH
A FLAWED PREMISE:
KNOWLEDGE FROM FLOOD
DISASTERS, WHICH OCCUR EVERY
DAY SOMEWHERE IN THE WORLD...
FACT: GLOBAL CONSTRUCTION IN
THE FLOOD PLAIN OF RIVERS AND
ALONG COASTAL AREAS IS
EXTENSIVE; THE ASSOCIATED
POLITICAL CONT...
YOUR
COMMUNITY
DATA BASES
AND INFORMATION
HAZARDS:
GROUND SHAKING
GROUND FAILURE
SURFACE FAULTING
TECTONIC DEFORMATION
TSU...
PILLARS OF FLOOD DISASTER
RESILIENCE
Anticipatory Preparedness
Adoption and Implementation of urban plans
Realistic Flood ...
THE CHALLENGE:
POLICY CHANGES: CREATE, ADJUST, AND
REALIGN PROGRAMS, PARTNERS AND
PEOPLE UNTIL YOU HAVE CREATED THE
KINDS ...
AN UNDER-UTILIZED GLOBAL
STRATEGY
To Create Turning Points for
Flood Disaster Resilience
 USING EDUCATIONAL SURGES CONTAI...
MOVING TOWARDS THE MUST-
HAPPEN GLOBAL STRATEGY
To Achieve Flood Disaster
Resilience
INTEGRATION OF SCIENTIFIC AND
TECHNI...
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FLOODS PART II. THE GLOBAL DISASTER LABORATORY MODEL. AN INTEGRATED FRAMEWORK FOR GLOBAL DISASTER RESILIENCE

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Flooding occurs somewhere in the world approximately 10,000 times every day as the consequences of a locale having more water than the local water cycle can process within its physical limits. Floods occur as the result of: extreme levels of , precipitation in thunderstorms, tropical storms, typhoons, hurricanes, and cyclones; in storm surges, and in tsunami wave run up. We continue to operate with a flawed premise: Knowledge from flood disasters, which occur in association with great subduction zone earthquakes in the Pacific and Indian oceans and are very well understood, therefore flood disaster resilience should be accomplished relatively easily by vulnerable countries. Unfortunately, the fact of the matter is, floods are not annual events; they are also complex, so most nations, whether impacted or not, usually are slow to adopt and implement policies based on science and recent catastrophic events making flood disaster resilience a very elusive goal to achieve. What have we learned from recent past floods to increase survivability? First of all, the timing of anticipatory actions is vital. People who know: 1) what to expect (e.g., strong ground motion, soil effects, flood wave run up, ground failure), where and when floods have historically happened, and 3) what they should (and should not) do to prepare for them, will survive. Secondly, timely, realistic disaster scenarios save lives. The people who have timely, realistic, advance information that facilitates reduction of vulnerabilities, and hence the risks associated with strong ground shaking, flood wave run up, and ground failure will survive. Thirdly, Emergency preparedness and response. The “Uncontrollable and Unthinkable” events will always hinder the timing of emergency response operations, especially the search and rescue operations that are limited to “the golden 48 hours.” The local community’s capacity for emergency health care (i,e., coping with damaged hospitals and medical facilities, lack of clean drinking water, food, and medicine, and high levels of morbidity and mortality) is vital for survival. And finally, earthquake engineer building save lives. Buildings engineered to withstand the risks from an earthquake’s strong ground shaking and ground failure that cause damage, collapse, and loss of function, is vital for protecting occupants and users from death and injury. Presentation courtesy of Dr. Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction

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FLOODS PART II. THE GLOBAL DISASTER LABORATORY MODEL. AN INTEGRATED FRAMEWORK FOR GLOBAL DISASTER RESILIENCE

  1. 1. FLOODS PART II. THE GLOBAL DISASTER LABORATORY MODEL. AN INTEGRATED FRAMEWORK FOR GLOBAL DISASTER RESILIENCE
  2. 2. FLOODING • Flooding occurs somewhere in the world approximately 10,000 times every day as the consequences of a locale having more water than the local water cycle can process within its physical limits.
  3. 3. FLOODS • Floods occur as the result of: extreme levels of precipitation in thunderstorms, tropical storms, typhoons, hurricanes, and cyclones; after a storm surge, and after tsunami wave run up.
  4. 4. LOSS OF FUNCTION OF STRUCTURES IN FLOODPLAIN FLOODS INUNDATION INTERACTION WITH HAZARDOUS MATERIALS STRUCTURAL/CONTENTS DAMAGE FROM WATER WATER BORNE DISEASES (HEALTH PROBLEMS) EROSION AND MUDFLOWS CONTAMINATION OF GROUND WATER CAUSES OF RISK FLOOD DISASTER LABORATORIES
  5. 5. FLOODING ALSO TRIGGERS LANDSLIDES THAT CAN ALSO CAUSE A DISASTER (see part 9)
  6. 6. ONE OF WORLD’S FLOOD MOST NOTABLE DISASTER LABORATORIES: THE YANGTZE RIVER DRAINAGE BASIN, CHINA PAST 2,100 YEARS
  7. 7. FLOODING: YANGTZE RIVER • Historical records indicate that in 2,100 years, between the early Han Dynasty and late Qing Dynasty, the Yangzte flooded 214 times, an average of once every 10 years.
  8. 8. YANGTZE RIVER
  9. 9. CHINA’S FLOOD LABOR- ATORY: THE YANGTZE RIVER • The Yangtze River, with over 700 tributaries, is the longest river in Asia and the third longest in the World. • Its headwaters are situated at an elevation of 16,000 feet in the Kunlun Mountains, and its mouth is 3,720 miles away in the East China Sea, north of Shanghai.
  10. 10. FLOOD DISASTER LABORATORY: PAKISTAN 2010
  11. 11. ONE-FIFTH OF PAKISTAN FLOODED: JULY 29
  12. 12. HURRICANE DEAN WAS A FLOOD DISASTER LABORATORY FROM THE CARIBBEAN TO THE GULF OF MEXICO 2007 FROM A CATEGORY 2-3 STORM ON 17 AUGUST 2007 TO A CATEGORY 4 STORM ON 18 AUGUST 2007 TO A CATEGORY 5 STORM ON 20 AUGUST
  13. 13. HURRICANE DEAN: CATEGORY 2 STORM ON AUGUST 16
  14. 14. PROJECTED STORM TRACK: AUGUST 17
  15. 15. HURRICANE DEAN: A CATEGORY 2-3 STORM ON AUGUST 17 • The eye of hurricane Dean, the first of the North Atlantic season, passed between the Caribbean islands: St. Lucia and Martinique, on Friday, August 17. • The two islands, less than 80 km (50 mi) apart were, were struck with storm surge, heavy rain, and winds of 165 - 200 km per hour (100 - 125 mi per hour).
  16. 16. IMPACTS ON MARTINIQUE • In Martinique, Hurricane Dean flooded many locales and ripped roofs from houses and buildings. • 100 percent of Martinique’s banana crop and 70 percent of the sugar cane crop were destroyed. • Trees were downed. • Electrical power was knocked out. • Airport were closed. • Tourists in coastal hotels were evacuated. • $270 million damage to infrastructure
  17. 17. FORT DE FRANCE, MARTINIQUE: WIND AND RAIN
  18. 18. FORT DE FRANCE, MARTINIQUE
  19. 19. FORT DE FRANCE, MARTINIQUE:BOAT SINKING
  20. 20. FORT DE FRANCE, MARTINIQUE: FLOODING
  21. 21. FORT DE FRANCE, MARTINIQUE: FLOODING
  22. 22. FORT DE FRANCE, MARTINIQUE: FLOODING
  23. 23. JAMAICA: STORM SURGE DESTROYED HOUSE
  24. 24. FLOODING DAMAGE IN JAMAICA
  25. 25. FLOODING DAMAGE IN PORT AU PRINCE: JAMAICA
  26. 26. FLOODING, LANDSLIDES, AND DEBRIS IN KINGSTON, JAMAICA
  27. 27. FLOODING IN CHETUMAL, MEXICO ON AUGUST 21
  28. 28. FLOODING:BACALAR, MEXICO ON AUGUST 21
  29. 29. LIMONES, MX. MAYAN COMMUNITY, FLOODED: AUGUST 22-23
  30. 30. TYPHOONS KETSANA, PARMA, AND MIRINAE WERE FLOOD DISASTER LABORATORIES IN THE PHILIPPINES 2007
  31. 31. PHILIPPINES HIT BY KETSANA, PARMA, MIRINAE: SEPT- NOV
  32. 32. KETSANA FLOODS QUESON CITY
  33. 33. KETSANA FLOODING IN PHILIPPINES; SEPT 23-30
  34. 34. KETSANA FLOODS CAINTA RIZAL
  35. 35. PARMA FLOODS THE PHILIPPINES; OCT 9
  36. 36. PARMA’S RAIN AND FLOODING TRIGGERS MUDFLOWS; OCT 12
  37. 37. MIRINAE FLOODING: NOV 2
  38. 38. TWO OF MANY FLASH FLOOD DISASTER LABORATORIES: ISTHANBUL,TURKEY 2007 SAN BERNARDINO, CA AUGUST 3, 2014
  39. 39. FLASH FLOODS NEAR ISTHANBUL, TURKEY: SEPT 9
  40. 40. FLASH FLOOD DISASTER LABORATORY: AUG. 3, 2014
  41. 41. FLASH FLOOD DISASTER LABORATORY: AUG. 3, 2014 • After a torrential rain storm on Sunday in southern California’s San Bernardino Mountains, flash floods triggered thick debris flows • The 5 m (15 ft) debris flows cut off access to two towns: Oak Glen, and Forest Falls.
  42. 42. FLASH FLOOD TRIGGERS DEBRIS FLOWS: AUG. 3, 2014
  43. 43. THE TSUNAMI WAVE RUN UP ON AMERICAN SAMOA WAS A FLOOD DISASTER LABORATORY 2007
  44. 44. AMERICAN SAMOA TSUNAMI: SEPT 29
  45. 45. The M7.7 earthquake generated a near-source tsunami with 3 m (10 ft) waves that struck within 5 minutes after the quake---so quickly that the regional tsunami warning system that was improved after the December 26, 2004 tsunami disaster, was ineffective..
  46. 46. TSUNAMI WAVE RUN UP IN MENTAWAI ISLAND
  47. 47. PAGO PAGO, ANERICAN SAMOA AFTER THE TSUNAMI; SEPT 29
  48. 48. LESSON: THE KNOWLEDGE AND TIMING OF ANTICIPATORY ACTIONS IS VITAL • The people who know: 1) what to expect (e.g., inundation from extreme precipitation, storm surge, tsunami wave run up), 2) where and when impacts will happen, and 3) what they should (and should not) do to prepare for them will survive.
  49. 49. LESSON: TIMELY, REALISTIC DISASTER SCENARIOS SAVE LIVES • The people who have timely, realistic, advance information that facilitates reduction of vulnerabilities, and hence the risks associated with floods will survive.
  50. 50. LESSON: EMERGENCY RESPONSE SAVES LIVES • The timing of emergency response operations, especially the search and rescue operations that are limited to “the golden 48 hours,” will increase the likelihood of survival.
  51. 51. LESSON: EMERGENCY MEDICAL PREPAREDNESS SAVES LIVES • The local community’s capacity for emergency health care (i.e., coping with damaged hospitals and medical facilities, lack of clean drinking water, food, and medicine to treat water borne diseases, and high mor- bidity/mortality is vital for survival.
  52. 52. LESSON: ENGINEERED INFRASTRUCTURE SAVE LIVES • Infrastructure engineered to withstand the risks from floods (e.g., inundation, foundation scour, damage, failure, and loss of function), is vital for survival.
  53. 53. WE CONTINUE TO OPERATE WITH A FLAWED PREMISE: KNOWLEDGE FROM FLOOD DISASTERS, WHICH OCCUR EVERY DAY SOMEWHERE IN THE WORLD IN ASSOCIATION WITH RAIN, SEVERE WINDSTORMS, AND TSUNAMIS, IS ENOUGH TO MAKE ANY NATION ADOPT AND IMPLEMENT POLICIES TO FACILITATE DISASTER RESILIENCE
  54. 54. FACT: GLOBAL CONSTRUCTION IN THE FLOOD PLAIN OF RIVERS AND ALONG COASTAL AREAS IS EXTENSIVE; THE ASSOCIATED POLITICAL CONTROVERSY CAUSES MOST NATIONS TO BE SLOW TO ADOPT AND IMPLEMENT POLICIES FOR FLOOD DISASTER RESILIENCE
  55. 55. YOUR COMMUNITY DATA BASES AND INFORMATION HAZARDS: GROUND SHAKING GROUND FAILURE SURFACE FAULTING TECTONIC DEFORMATION TSUNAMI RUN UP AFTERSHOCKS •MONITORING •SCENARIO MAPS •INVENTORY •VULNERABILITY •LOCATION RISK ACCEPTABLE RISK UNACCEPTABLE RISK BOOKS OF KNOWLEDGE •PREPAREDNESS •PROTECTION •/EARLY WARNING •EM RESPONSE •RECOSTRUCTION AND RECOVERY FLOODI DISASTER RESILIENCE
  56. 56. PILLARS OF FLOOD DISASTER RESILIENCE Anticipatory Preparedness Adoption and Implementation of urban plans Realistic Flood Disaster Scenarios Timely Emergency Response (including Emergency Medical Services) Cost-Effective Reconstruction & Recovery
  57. 57. THE CHALLENGE: POLICY CHANGES: CREATE, ADJUST, AND REALIGN PROGRAMS, PARTNERS AND PEOPLE UNTIL YOU HAVE CREATED THE KINDS OF TURNING POINTS NEEDED FOR MOVING TOWARDS FLOOD DISASTER RESILIENCE
  58. 58. AN UNDER-UTILIZED GLOBAL STRATEGY To Create Turning Points for Flood Disaster Resilience  USING EDUCATIONAL SURGES CONTAINING THE PAST AND PRESENT LESSONS TO FOSTER AND ACCELERATE POLICY CHANGES
  59. 59. MOVING TOWARDS THE MUST- HAPPEN GLOBAL STRATEGY To Achieve Flood Disaster Resilience INTEGRATION OF SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS WITH POLITICAL SOLUTIONS IN EVERY NATION FOR REALISTIC POLICIES ON PREPAREDNESS, PROTECTION, EARLY WARNING, DISASTER SCENARIOS, EMERGENCY RESPONSE, RECONSTRUCTION, AND RECOVERY

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