FLOODS. THE GLOBAL DISASTER LABORATORY
MODEL: AN INTEGRATED FRAMEWORK FOR
GLOBAL DISASTER RESILIENCE
FRAMEWORK 1
A COMPREHENSIVE, INTER-
DISCIPLINARY DIALOGUE
ON
GLOBAL DISASTERS
AND DISASTER RESILIENCE
1. SCOPE
FROM VULNERABLE CONTINUUMS
TO
A DISASTER
TO
DISASTER RESILIENT COMMUNITIES
THROUGH IMPLEMENTATION OF
“THE BEST PO...
A DISASTER is ---
--- the set of failures that occur when
the continuums of: 1) people, 2)
community (i.e., a set of habit...
THREE DYNAMIC CONTINUUMS
• PEOPLE (7+ Billion and
counting)
• COMMUNITIES
• RECURRING EVENTS
(AKA Natural Hazards, which a...
PEOPLE = INNOVATION
200 NATIONS AND 7+
BILLION PEOPLE
NORTH
AMERICA
CARIBBEAN
BASIN
SUB-SAHARA
AFRICA
MEDITER-
RANEAN
ISLA...
INTERSECTION OF THESE
CONTINUUMS IS INEVITABLE
SOME INTERSECTIONS WILL
CAUSE A DISASTER,
AND SOME WON’T
THE PEOPLE CONTINUUM
• 7 + BILLION
(DISTRIBUTED
THROUGHOUT
THE WORLD)
LIKE AN INFINITE SERIES: A CONTINUUM
OF INNOVATION NEVER ENDS
LIKE A CHAIN: A CONTINUUM
HAS WEAK LINKS TO IMPROVE
FOUR UNIVERSAL WEAK-LINKS
• IGNORANCE
• APATHY
• DISCIPLINARY
BOUNDARIES
• LACK OF POLITICAL WILL
THE COMMUNITY CONTINUUM:
(SOCIAL CONSTRUCTS TO BENEFIT THE PEOPLE)
• GOVERNMENT
• DWELLINGS
• SCHOOLS
• HEALTH CARE
FACILI...
EACH COMMUNITY MUST BE
READY FOR THE INEVITABLE
INTERSECTION THAT WILL
CHALLENGE ITS
STATE-OF-RESILIENCE
THE RECURRING - EVENTS
CONTINUUM
• FLOODS
• SEVERE
WINDSTORMS
• EARTHQUAKES
• DROUGHTS
• VOLCANIC
ERUPTIONS
• ETC.
RECURRING EARTHQUAKES
RECURRING TROPICAL STORMS
TYPHOONS, HURRICANES, AND CYCLONES
RECURRING FLOODS
RECURRING DROUGHT
EPISODES
RECURRING VOLCANIC
ERUPTIONS
CURRENT KNOWLEDGE
IS DEFINED BY ANECTDOTAL,
EMPIRICAL, LINEAR, NON-LINEAR,
STATISTICAL, FUZZY,
PROBABILISTIC, . . . AND
TH...
FRAMEWORK 2
A COMPREHENSIVE, INTER-
DISCIPLINARY INTEGRATION
OF KNOWLEDGE FOR
THE END GAME OF
DISASTER RESILIENCE
IN THE 2...
POLICIES AND PRACTICES FOR
DISASTER RESILIENCE
Anticipatory Preparedness
Adoption and Implementation of a Modern
Engineeri...
YOUR
COMMUNITYDATA BASES
AND INFORMATION
HAZARDS:
GROUND SHAKING
GROUND FAILURE
SURFACE FAULTING
TECTONIC DEFORMATION
TSUN...
THE END GAME CHALLENGE
BEST POLICIES AND BEST PRACTICES
INNIVATIVE ACTIONS: CREATE, ADJUST,
AND REALIGN PROGRAMS, PARTNERS...
BEST POLICIES AND BEST
PRACTICES
WILL IDENTIFY/CLOSE
KNOWLEDGE DIVIDES AND GAPS,
AND
IDENTIFY/FIX WEAK LINKS IN THE
PEOPLE...
BEST POLICIES AND BEST
PRACTICES WILL
CALL FOR INNOVATIVE
USE OF TECHNOLOGY
AND STRATEGIC
PLANNING
THE STATE-OF-RESILIENCE WILL
INCREASE EXPONEBTIALLY AS ---
a) The CAPACITY of the PEOPLE is
increased, b) Physical and
org...
FLOODS
INNOVATIVE PREPAREDNESS
USE GLOBAL FLOOD DISASTER
LABORATORIES AS A BASIS FOR
PREPARING FROM “A”
(Emergency Response) TO “...
EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES
EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES FOR
FLOOD DISASTER RESILIENCE
• REAL TIME WEATHER
FORCASTING AND
WARNING SYSTEMS
• MEASURMENT
TECHNO...
FLOOD DISASTER
RESILIENCETRATEGIES
RISK REDUCTION STRATEGIES
FOR FLOODS
• PURPOSE
• PREVENTION
• PROTECTION
• URBAN PLANNING
• TECHNIQUE
• DRAINAGE BASIN
MAN...
DRAINAGE BASIN
MANAGEMENT
• WETLANDS AND ,
UPSTREAM
RESERVOIRS
REDUCE THE
VOLUME OF
WATER REACHING
DOWNSTREAM
LOCATIONS
PROTECTION
USE MODERN ENGINEERING DESIGN
AND CONSTRUCTION
TECHNOLOGIES TO PROTECT THE
PEOPLE AND IMPORTANT
INFRASTRUCTURE ...
DIKES, LEVEES, AND DAMS
• BUILDING AND
MAINTAINING DIKES,
LEVEES, AND DAMS
IN CONCERT WITH
WETLANDS AND
RESERVOIRS CAN
CON...
EXAMPLE: THE LEVEE SYSTEM IN
QUINCY, IL: FLOOD CONTROL
• THE 154-MILE-LONG
LEVEE SYSTEM IS
DESIGNED TO
REDUCE THE
LIKELIHO...
EXAMPLE: THREE GORGES DAM,
CHINA: FLOOD CONTROL
• THE GREATEST
ENGINEERING FEAT
IN CHINA SINCE THE
GREAT WALL IS
DESIGNED ...
THREE GORGES DAM: 2309 M
LONG, 190 M HIGH, 15 M THICK
YANGTZE RIVER
FLOODING: YANGTZE RIVER
• Historical records indicate
that in 2,100 years, between
the early Han Dynasty and
late Qing Dyn...
YANGTZE RIVER AND THREE
GORGES DAM
THREE GORGES DAM
• The Three Gorges
Dam is located in
Central China's Hubei
Province, 600 miles
southwest of Beijing.
• It...
FLOOD CONTROL ON THE THAME
RIVER RIVER: LONDON, ENGLAND
URBAN PLANNING
• LAND USE
REGULATIONS
BASED ON FLOOD
HAZARD MAPS CAN
PREVENT UNWISE
CON-STRUCTION IN
RIVER FLOODPLAINS
AND...
STRATEGIES FOR FLOOD
DISASTER RESILIENCE
• PURPOSE
• SITE MODIFICATION
• ALERT/WARNING
• MONITORING
•
• TECHNIQUE
• EMBANK...
STRATEGIES FOR FLOOD
DISASTER RESILIENCE
• PURPOSE
• RISK ZONES
• PREPAREDNESS
• TECHNIQUE
• STREAM GAGUES;
DRONE PLANES
•...
FORECASTS, ALERTS, AND
WARNINGS; EVACUATION
• WORKS FOR
RIVERINE FLOODS,
BUT NOT FOR
FLASH FLOODS.
SITE MODIFICATION IN THE
MISSISSIPPI RIVER BASIN
• EMPLACING 2.5
MILLION SAND
BAGS REDUCED
LOSSES IN THE
GREAT 1992
FLOOD
SAND BAGS: SITE MODIFICATION IN THE
FLOOD OF JUNE 12, 2008 IN IOWA
FLOOD DISASTER RESILIENCE
STRATEGIES
• PURPOSE
• CLEAR OUT THE
FLOODPLAIN
• FACILITATE
RECOVERY AND
RECONSTRUCTION
• TECHN...
FLOOD INSURANCE: SPEEDING
RECOVERY AND RECONSTRUCTION
• FLOOD INSURANCE
IS OFFERED FOR
PURCHASE BY THE
FEDERAL
GOVERNMENT ...
BUYOUTS: CLEARING THE
FLOODPLAIN
• IN THE USA,
BUYOUTS OF
HOMES IN THE
FLOODPLAIN
(FOLLOWED BY
DEMOLATION OR
RELOCATION)
R...
FLOODS PART I. THE GLOBAL DISASTER LABORATORY MODEL. AN INTEGRATED FRAMEWORK FOR GLOBAL DISASTER RESILIENCE
FLOODS PART I. THE GLOBAL DISASTER LABORATORY MODEL. AN INTEGRATED FRAMEWORK FOR GLOBAL DISASTER RESILIENCE
FLOODS PART I. THE GLOBAL DISASTER LABORATORY MODEL. AN INTEGRATED FRAMEWORK FOR GLOBAL DISASTER RESILIENCE
FLOODS PART I. THE GLOBAL DISASTER LABORATORY MODEL. AN INTEGRATED FRAMEWORK FOR GLOBAL DISASTER RESILIENCE
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FLOODS PART I. THE GLOBAL DISASTER LABORATORY MODEL. AN INTEGRATED FRAMEWORK FOR GLOBAL DISASTER RESILIENCE

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Flooding occurs somewhere in the world approximately 10,000 times every day as the consequences of a locale having more water than the local water cycle can process within its physical limits. Floods occur as the result of: extreme levels of , precipitation in thunderstorms, tropical storms, typhoons, hurricanes, and cyclones; in storm surges, and in tsunami wave run up. We continue to operate with a flawed premise: Knowledge from flood disasters, which occur in association with great subduction zone earthquakes in the Pacific and Indian oceans and are very well understood, therefore flood disaster resilience should be accomplished relatively easily by vulnerable countries. Unfortunately, the fact of the matter is, floods are not annual events; they are also complex, so most nations, whether impacted or not, usually are slow to adopt and implement policies based on science and recent catastrophic events making flood disaster resilience a very elusive goal to achieve. What have we learned from recent past floods to increase survivability? First of all, the timing of anticipatory actions is vital. People who know: 1) what to expect (e.g., strong ground motion, soil effects, flood wave run up, ground failure), where and when floods have historically happened, and 3) what they should (and should not) do to prepare for them, will survive. Secondly, timely, realistic disaster scenarios save lives. The people who have timely, realistic, advance information that facilitates reduction of vulnerabilities, and hence the risks associated with strong ground shaking, flood wave run up, and ground failure will survive. Thirdly, Emergency preparedness and response. The “Uncontrollable and Unthinkable” events will always hinder the timing of emergency response operations, especially the search and rescue operations that are limited to “the golden 48 hours.” The local community’s capacity for emergency health care (i,e., coping with damaged hospitals and medical facilities, lack of clean drinking water, food, and medicine, and high levels of morbidity and mortality) is vital for survival. And finally, earthquake engineer building save lives. Buildings engineered to withstand the risks from an earthquake’s strong ground shaking and ground failure that cause damage, collapse, and loss of function, is vital for protecting occupants and users from death and injury. Presentation courtesy of Dr. Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction

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FLOODS PART I. THE GLOBAL DISASTER LABORATORY MODEL. AN INTEGRATED FRAMEWORK FOR GLOBAL DISASTER RESILIENCE

  1. 1. FLOODS. THE GLOBAL DISASTER LABORATORY MODEL: AN INTEGRATED FRAMEWORK FOR GLOBAL DISASTER RESILIENCE
  2. 2. FRAMEWORK 1 A COMPREHENSIVE, INTER- DISCIPLINARY DIALOGUE ON GLOBAL DISASTERS AND DISASTER RESILIENCE
  3. 3. 1. SCOPE FROM VULNERABLE CONTINUUMS TO A DISASTER TO DISASTER RESILIENT COMMUNITIES THROUGH IMPLEMENTATION OF “THE BEST POLICIES AND BEST PRACTICES” OF DISASTER RESILIENCE
  4. 4. A DISASTER is --- --- the set of failures that occur when the continuums of: 1) people, 2) community (i.e., a set of habitats, livelihoods, and social constructs), and 3) recurring events (e.g., floods, earthquakes, ...,) intersect at a point in space and time, when and where the people and community are not ready.
  5. 5. THREE DYNAMIC CONTINUUMS • PEOPLE (7+ Billion and counting) • COMMUNITIES • RECURRING EVENTS (AKA Natural Hazards, which are proof of a DYNAMIC EARTH)
  6. 6. PEOPLE = INNOVATION 200 NATIONS AND 7+ BILLION PEOPLE NORTH AMERICA CARIBBEAN BASIN SUB-SAHARA AFRICA MEDITER- RANEAN ISLAND NATIONS ASIA SOUTH AMERICA EUROPE
  7. 7. INTERSECTION OF THESE CONTINUUMS IS INEVITABLE SOME INTERSECTIONS WILL CAUSE A DISASTER, AND SOME WON’T
  8. 8. THE PEOPLE CONTINUUM • 7 + BILLION (DISTRIBUTED THROUGHOUT THE WORLD)
  9. 9. LIKE AN INFINITE SERIES: A CONTINUUM OF INNOVATION NEVER ENDS
  10. 10. LIKE A CHAIN: A CONTINUUM HAS WEAK LINKS TO IMPROVE
  11. 11. FOUR UNIVERSAL WEAK-LINKS • IGNORANCE • APATHY • DISCIPLINARY BOUNDARIES • LACK OF POLITICAL WILL
  12. 12. THE COMMUNITY CONTINUUM: (SOCIAL CONSTRUCTS TO BENEFIT THE PEOPLE) • GOVERNMENT • DWELLINGS • SCHOOLS • HEALTH CARE FACILITIES • BUSINESSES • INFRA- STRUCTURE • ETC
  13. 13. EACH COMMUNITY MUST BE READY FOR THE INEVITABLE INTERSECTION THAT WILL CHALLENGE ITS STATE-OF-RESILIENCE
  14. 14. THE RECURRING - EVENTS CONTINUUM • FLOODS • SEVERE WINDSTORMS • EARTHQUAKES • DROUGHTS • VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS • ETC.
  15. 15. RECURRING EARTHQUAKES
  16. 16. RECURRING TROPICAL STORMS TYPHOONS, HURRICANES, AND CYCLONES
  17. 17. RECURRING FLOODS
  18. 18. RECURRING DROUGHT EPISODES
  19. 19. RECURRING VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS
  20. 20. CURRENT KNOWLEDGE IS DEFINED BY ANECTDOTAL, EMPIRICAL, LINEAR, NON-LINEAR, STATISTICAL, FUZZY, PROBABILISTIC, . . . AND THEORETICAL MODELS HAVING DIVIDES, GAPS, AND UNCERTAINTIES
  21. 21. FRAMEWORK 2 A COMPREHENSIVE, INTER- DISCIPLINARY INTEGRATION OF KNOWLEDGE FOR THE END GAME OF DISASTER RESILIENCE IN THE 21ST CENTURY
  22. 22. POLICIES AND PRACTICES FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE Anticipatory Preparedness Adoption and Implementation of a Modern Engineering Building Codes & Standards Timely Early Warning and Evacuation Timely Emergency Response (including Emergency Medical Services) Cost-Effective Recovery/Reconstruction
  23. 23. YOUR COMMUNITYDATA BASES AND INFORMATION HAZARDS: GROUND SHAKING GROUND FAILURE SURFACE FAULTING TECTONIC DEFORMATION TSUNAMI RUN UP AFTERSHOCKS •FLOODS •SEVERE WIND STORMS •EARTHQUAKES …ETC A DISASTER CAUSES FAILURES IN POLICIES FAILURES IN PRACTICES COUNTER MEASURES • BEST POLICIES •BEST PRACTICES DISASTER RESILIENCE
  24. 24. THE END GAME CHALLENGE BEST POLICIES AND BEST PRACTICES INNIVATIVE ACTIONS: CREATE, ADJUST, AND REALIGN PROGRAMS, PARTNERS AND PEOPLE UNTIL YOU HAVE CREATED THE PARA-DIGM SHIFTS THAT ARE NEEDED FOR MOVING TOWARDS DISASTER RESILIENCE
  25. 25. BEST POLICIES AND BEST PRACTICES WILL IDENTIFY/CLOSE KNOWLEDGE DIVIDES AND GAPS, AND IDENTIFY/FIX WEAK LINKS IN THE PEOPLE/COMMUNITY CONTINUUMS
  26. 26. BEST POLICIES AND BEST PRACTICES WILL CALL FOR INNOVATIVE USE OF TECHNOLOGY AND STRATEGIC PLANNING
  27. 27. THE STATE-OF-RESILIENCE WILL INCREASE EXPONEBTIALLY AS --- a) The CAPACITY of the PEOPLE is increased, b) Physical and organizational VULNERABILITIES in the COMMUNITY are eliminated, and c) Each people-community-hazard INTERSECTION is met successfully.
  28. 28. FLOODS
  29. 29. INNOVATIVE PREPAREDNESS USE GLOBAL FLOOD DISASTER LABORATORIES AS A BASIS FOR PREPARING FROM “A” (Emergency Response) TO “Z” (Recovery and Reconstruction)
  30. 30. EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES
  31. 31. EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES FOR FLOOD DISASTER RESILIENCE • REAL TIME WEATHER FORCASTING AND WARNING SYSTEMS • MEASURMENT TECHNOLOGIES (E.G., STREAM GAGUES) • RISK MODELING (E.G., HAZUS, INSURANCE UNDERWRITING) • DATABASES • MAPS: 100-YEAR AND 500-YEAR FLOODS • FLOOD DISASTER SCENARIOS • DRONE PLANES • HAZMAT MANAGEMENT
  32. 32. FLOOD DISASTER RESILIENCETRATEGIES
  33. 33. RISK REDUCTION STRATEGIES FOR FLOODS • PURPOSE • PREVENTION • PROTECTION • URBAN PLANNING • TECHNIQUE • DRAINAGE BASIN MANAGEMENT • FLOOD CONTROL (DIKES, LEVEES, AND DAMS) • HAZARD MAPS (RISK ZONES)
  34. 34. DRAINAGE BASIN MANAGEMENT • WETLANDS AND , UPSTREAM RESERVOIRS REDUCE THE VOLUME OF WATER REACHING DOWNSTREAM LOCATIONS
  35. 35. PROTECTION USE MODERN ENGINEERING DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGIES TO PROTECT THE PEOPLE AND IMPORTANT INFRASTRUCTURE AND TO FIX PHYSICAL VULNERABILITIES IN THE COMMUNITY
  36. 36. DIKES, LEVEES, AND DAMS • BUILDING AND MAINTAINING DIKES, LEVEES, AND DAMS IN CONCERT WITH WETLANDS AND RESERVOIRS CAN CONTROL SERVERITY OF FLOODING .
  37. 37. EXAMPLE: THE LEVEE SYSTEM IN QUINCY, IL: FLOOD CONTROL • THE 154-MILE-LONG LEVEE SYSTEM IS DESIGNED TO REDUCE THE LIKELIHOOD AND SEVERITY OF FLOODS ON THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER.
  38. 38. EXAMPLE: THREE GORGES DAM, CHINA: FLOOD CONTROL • THE GREATEST ENGINEERING FEAT IN CHINA SINCE THE GREAT WALL IS DESIGNED TO REDUCE THE LIKELIHOOD AND SEVERITY OF FLOODS ON THE YANGTZE RIVER.
  39. 39. THREE GORGES DAM: 2309 M LONG, 190 M HIGH, 15 M THICK
  40. 40. YANGTZE RIVER
  41. 41. FLOODING: YANGTZE RIVER • Historical records indicate that in 2,100 years, between the early Han Dynasty and late Qing Dynasty, the Yangzte flooded 214 times, an average of once every 10 years.
  42. 42. YANGTZE RIVER AND THREE GORGES DAM
  43. 43. THREE GORGES DAM • The Three Gorges Dam is located in Central China's Hubei Province, 600 miles southwest of Beijing. • It replaced Brazil's Itaipu Dam as the world's largest hydroelectric and flood-control installation. • After 13 years of work and 35 million cubic yards of concrete, the dam reached its full height of 190 m (606 ft) and width of 2,309 m (7,575 ft) across the Yangtze River.
  44. 44. FLOOD CONTROL ON THE THAME RIVER RIVER: LONDON, ENGLAND
  45. 45. URBAN PLANNING • LAND USE REGULATIONS BASED ON FLOOD HAZARD MAPS CAN PREVENT UNWISE CON-STRUCTION IN RIVER FLOODPLAINS AND IN COASTAL AREAS.
  46. 46. STRATEGIES FOR FLOOD DISASTER RESILIENCE • PURPOSE • SITE MODIFICATION • ALERT/WARNING • MONITORING • • TECHNIQUE • EMBANKMENTS; SANDBAGS • EVACUATION • INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION; WEATHER RADAR
  47. 47. STRATEGIES FOR FLOOD DISASTER RESILIENCE • PURPOSE • RISK ZONES • PREPAREDNESS • TECHNIQUE • STREAM GAGUES; DRONE PLANES • 100-500 YEAR FLOOD MAPS, DISASTER SCENARIOS
  48. 48. FORECASTS, ALERTS, AND WARNINGS; EVACUATION • WORKS FOR RIVERINE FLOODS, BUT NOT FOR FLASH FLOODS.
  49. 49. SITE MODIFICATION IN THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER BASIN • EMPLACING 2.5 MILLION SAND BAGS REDUCED LOSSES IN THE GREAT 1992 FLOOD
  50. 50. SAND BAGS: SITE MODIFICATION IN THE FLOOD OF JUNE 12, 2008 IN IOWA
  51. 51. FLOOD DISASTER RESILIENCE STRATEGIES • PURPOSE • CLEAR OUT THE FLOODPLAIN • FACILITATE RECOVERY AND RECONSTRUCTION • TECHNIQUE • FEDERAL BUYOUT PROGRAM • FEDERAL FLOOD INSURANCE PROGRAM
  52. 52. FLOOD INSURANCE: SPEEDING RECOVERY AND RECONSTRUCTION • FLOOD INSURANCE IS OFFERED FOR PURCHASE BY THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES
  53. 53. BUYOUTS: CLEARING THE FLOODPLAIN • IN THE USA, BUYOUTS OF HOMES IN THE FLOODPLAIN (FOLLOWED BY DEMOLATION OR RELOCATION) REDUCED RISK FROM FLOODING

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