Catastrophic Earthquakes in China PART I

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LESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS: LANDSLIDES. Large volume landslides occur in association with an earthquake’s ground shaking or a typhoon’s rainfall. Presentation courtesy of Dr. Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction

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Catastrophic Earthquakes in China PART I

  1. 1. MAP OF CHINA’S PROVINCES
  2. 2. LESSONS LEARNED FROMPAST NOTABLE DISASTERS PART III D: CHINA LANDSLIDES
  3. 3. NATURAL HAZARDS THAT PLACE CHINA’S NATURAL HAZARDS THAT PLACE CHINA’S COMMUNITIES AT RISK COMMUNITIES AT RISK FLOODSGOAL: DISASTERGOAL: DISASTERRESILIENCERESILIENCE TYPHOONSENACT AND IMPLEMENTENACT AND IMPLEMENT EARTHQUAKES POLICIES HAVING HIGH POLICIES HAVING HIGH BENEFIT/COST FOR BENEFIT/COST FOR LANDSLIDESS COMMUNITY COMMUNITY RESILIENCE RESILIENCE DROUGHT EPISODES GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE
  4. 4. LANDSLIDE RISK ACCEPTABLE RISK• LANDSLIDE HAZARDS RISK• BLDG. INVENTORY• UNACCEPTABLE RISK VULNERABILITY• LOCATION GOAL: LANDSLIDE CHINA’S DISASTER RESILIENCE DATA BASES AND INFORMATION COMMUNITIES POLICY OPTIONS • PREPAREDNESSHAZARDS: • PROTECTION GROUND SHAKING GROUND FAILURE • EARLY WARNING SURFACE FAULTING TECTONIC • EMERGENCY RESPONSE DEFORMATION • RECOVERY and TSUNAMI RUN UP AFTERSHOCKS RECONSTRUCTION
  5. 5. TOWARDS LANDSLIDE DISASTER RESILIENCE RISK ASSESSMENT • VULNERABILITY • COST • EXPOSURELAND- LAND- EXPECTED POLICYSLIDES EXPECTED POLICY SLIDES • EVENT LOSS LOSS ADOPTION ADOPTION • BENEFIT POLICY •CONSEQUENCES ASSESSMENT
  6. 6. MAP OF CHINA’S PROVINCES
  7. 7. LANDSLIDESLARGE VOLUME LANDSLIDES OCCUR INASSOCIATION WITH AN EARTHQUAKE’S GROUND SHAKING OR A TYPHOON’S RAINFALL
  8. 8. M8.0 BEICHUAN EARTHQUAKEGENERATED LARGE VOLUME LANDLIDES 2:30 PM LOCAL TIME MAY 12, 2008
  9. 9. BEICHUAN, CHINAEARTHQUAKE: MAY 12, 2008
  10. 10. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE EARTHQUAKE• Epicenter was located 100 km (60 miles) from Chengdu, the provincial capital, which is on edge of the Tibetan foothills and home to about 10 million people.• This earthquake occurred on a well known fault zone, which has generated destructive earthquakes in the past (e.g., on 25 August 1933).
  11. 11. CHANGDU, 100 KM FROM EPICENTER
  12. 12. COMPARISON WITH 1976 TANGSHAN EARTHQUAKE• The Beichuan earthquake was more than 2 x larger than the July 28,1976 Tangshan earthquake, which caused 255,000+ deaths.
  13. 13. EMERGENCY RESOURCES• More than 20,000 military personnel were ordered immediately to assist in high- damage areas.• The number was increased substantially to deal with the “earthquake lakes.”
  14. 14. SOCIETAL IMPACTS OF THE LANDSLIDES• Some roads were impassable because of landslides, which hindered search and rescue,---• but, worst of all, 69 unique “earthquake lakes” were created by the landslides in mountainous regions.
  15. 15. CAUSES OF DAMAGE CAUSES OF DAMAGE SITING AND BUILDING ON UNSTABLE SLOPES SOIL AND ROCK SUCEPTIBLE TO FALLS SOIL AND ROCK SUCEPTIBLE TO TOPPLES SOIL AND ROCK SUCEPTIBLE LANDSLIDES LANDSLIDES TO SPREADS SOIL AND ROCKCASE HISTORIESCASE HISTORIES SUSCEPTIBLE TO FLOWS PRECIPITATION THAT TRIGGERS SLOPE FAILURE SHAKING GROUND SHAKING THAT TRIGGERS SLOPE FAILURE
  16. 16. LANDSLIDE: JINGXIU
  17. 17. LANDSLIDE: HANWANG
  18. 18. LANDSLIDE: MIANZHU
  19. 19. 69 EARTHQUAKE LAKES Created by the quake- induced landslides
  20. 20. ONE OF 69 "QUAKE LAKES":BEI HE RIVER DAMMED BYLANDSLIDE DEBRIS
  21. 21. DAYS 14-17: CHINA EARTHQUAKE SURVIVORSNOW HAVING TO COPE WITHTHREAT OF FLOODS FROM 69 EARTHQUAKE LAKES
  22. 22. DAYS 14-17: GOVERNMENT MAKESRISK REDUCTION ON 69 "QUAKELAKES" A TOP PRIORITY•Sixty-nine “Quake Lakes” created inmountainous areas by the debrisfrom landslides appeared ready toburst their banks, and continuingrainfall was exacerbating the threat.
  23. 23. $29 million in emergencyfunds and increased military resources were allocated for the priority effort.
  24. 24. DAYS 14-17: GOVERNMENT PLANSEVACUATIONS TO REDUCE RISK IFA "QUAKE LAKE" SHOULD BURST•Authorities announced plansto evacuate more than amillion people in anticipationof failure of the rock-and-mudembankments.
  25. 25. EVACUATION CHALLENGE•Evacuation would have to beaccomplished within one to fourhours, the time for the wall of water toreach and inundate scores of citiesand rural villages that were alreadydevastated.
  26. 26. BEICHUAN: 3.3 KM (2 MI) DOWN-STREAM FROM A "QUAKE LAKE"
  27. 27. LESSONS LEARNED FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE • ALL NATURAL HAZARDS • CAPACITY FOR INTELLIGENT EMERGENCY RESPONSE IS ESSENTIAL FOR COMMUNITY RESILIENCE.
  28. 28. FLEEING POSSIBLE FLOODING
  29. 29. EVACUATIONS TO ESCAPEFLOODING THREAT
  30. 30. EVACUATING
  31. 31. EVERYONE GOES
  32. 32. THIRTY GIANT EARTHMOVERSFLOWN IN TO QUAKE LAKES
  33. 33. SOLDIERS DISPATCHED TO CREATEDIVERSION CHANNELS
  34. 34. GOAL: A DIVERSION CHANNELIN FIVE DAYS OR LESS
  35. 35. EVERY HOUR IS IMPORTANT
  36. 36. TANGJIASHAN, LARGEST OF 69"QUAKE LAKES"
  37. 37. RISING WATER IN TANGJIASHAN CAUSESEVACUATION OF YULI, MAY 31
  38. 38. NO DAMAGE TO THREEGORGES DAM:1,000 KM AWAY
  39. 39. SOLDIERS REPAIR CRACKS INZIPINGPU DAM:DUJIANGYAN
  40. 40. LESSONS LEARNED FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE • ALL NATURAL HAZARDS • CAPACITY FOR RECOVERY AND RECONSTRUCTION IS ESSENTIAL FOR COMMUNITY RESILIENCE.

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