Vetches Vicia forage or grain crops and their toxins Les Vesces A Graine

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A seminar presented to students at the University of Pau in Nov 1998

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Vetches Vicia forage or grain crops and their toxins Les Vesces A Graine

  1. 1. Les Vesces, graines du passé ou de l'avenir Dr. Dirk Enneking Centre for Legumes in Mediterranean Agriculture University of Western Australia
  2. 2. Co-operative Research Centre for Legumes in Mediterranean Agriculture
  3. 3. Les Vesces: Vicia spp <ul><li>Fourrages </li></ul><ul><li>Paturages </li></ul><ul><li>Graines </li></ul>
  4. 5. Southern Australia <ul><li>Dryland agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Ley farming system(cereal/pasture/sheep) </li></ul><ul><li>Increased grain cultivation </li></ul><ul><li>Rotation with legumes </li></ul><ul><li>no subsidies </li></ul>
  5. 7. The Mediterranean A source of genetic resources for Australian agriculture
  6. 9. Vesces de fourrages <ul><li>V. sativa L. (V. commune) </li></ul><ul><li>V. monantha Retz (Afrique de Nord) </li></ul><ul><li>V. pannonica Crantz (V. de Hongrie) </li></ul><ul><li>V. villosa Roth (V. de Cerdagne) </li></ul><ul><li>V. benghalensis L. </li></ul>
  7. 10. Vesces de graines +/-fourrages <ul><li>V. articulata Hornem (Lentille d’ESP) </li></ul><ul><li>V. ervilia Willd (Ers officinale) </li></ul><ul><li>V. narbonensis L. (V. de Narbonne) </li></ul><ul><li>V. sativa L. (Lentille de Canada) </li></ul><ul><li>V. faba L. (Fève) </li></ul>
  8. 15. Positives <ul><li>Seed yield (1-2 (3-4) t/ha) </li></ul><ul><li>multipurpose ( grain/ biomass) </li></ul><ul><li>seed, forage, hay are excellent feed for ruminants </li></ul><ul><li>legumes fix nitrogen, rotation benefits </li></ul>Ref. Siddique et al. (1996) Narbon bean: A promising legume for Southern Australia. Aust. J. Exp. Ag. 36:53-62
  9. 16. Ruminant production <ul><li>Sheep: wool and meat, not milk </li></ul><ul><li>Cattle: meat </li></ul><ul><li>Prices for ruminant products are low! </li></ul>
  10. 17. Monogastric markets =large volume <ul><li>Pigs and poultry </li></ul><ul><li>humans </li></ul>
  11. 18. V. narbonensis palatability V. sativa lentil substitute General problem: toxic amino acids
  12. 20. Soy=Glycine max Namoi=V. villosa Narbon= V.narbonensis The effect of Vicia seeds on pig feed intake
  13. 22. Enneking et al. (1998) Phytochemistry 48(4) 643-646
  14. 24. Vicia sativa, a mimic of red lentils 'WHOLE FAMILIES OF PLANTS ARE CHARACTERISED BY A DEFINITE CYCLE OF HEREDITARY VARIATION WHICH MAY BE TRACED THROUGH ALL GENERA MAKING UP THE FAMILY’ Vavilov (1922) J. Genetics (12:1) 47-89
  15. 25. A mess of red pottage Tate & Enneking (1992) Nature 359(6394) pp. 357-8
  16. 26. V. sativa a mimic of red lentils
  17. 27. HPLC analysis
  18. 28. Infrared analysis
  19. 29. Thin Layer Chromatography
  20. 30. http://www.general.uwa.edu.au/u/enneking/VETCHrm.htm
  21. 32. Acknowledgements University Adelaide, South Australia Dr. Max E. Tate Dr. Ian Delaere Dr. Jane Rathjen Dr. Richard Davies Dr. Phil Glatz CLIMA Dr. Neil Rothnie (Chemistry Centre, WA) Dr. Siddique (Agriculture WA) Mike Perry (Agriculture WA) Dr. Clive Francis Victorian Institute for Dryland Agriculture Geoff Castleman Chris Heazlewood

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