Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Kernel Recipes 2014 - Supporting a new ARM platform: the Allwinner example

2,929 views

Published on

Since last year, we have been working on supporting the SoCs from Allwinner, a chinese SoC vendor, in the mainline kernel. These SoCs are cheap, wide-spread, backed by a strong community and, until last year, only supported by an out-of-tree kernel.

Through this talk, we would like to share the status of this effort: where we were a year ago, what solutions were in place, where we are currently, and what to expect from the future. We will also focus on the community around these SoCs, the work that is done there, etc.

This talk will be useful to developers working on ARM hardware interested in platform code and anyone interested by cool and cheap hardware to hack on.

Maxime Ripard, Free Electrons

Published in: Software
  • Can you earn $7000 a month from home? Are you feeling trapped by your life? Stuck in a dead-end job you hate, but too scared to call it quits, because after all, the rent's due on the first of the month, right? Are you ready to change your life for the better? ➤➤ http://t.cn/AisJWUCf
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Discover A Simple Holistic System For Curing Acne Once And For All using 100% Guaranteed All-Natural Method. Click Here ◆◆◆ http://t.cn/AiWGkfAm
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Justin Sinclair has helped thousands of women get their Ex boyfriends back using his methods. Learn them at: ➤➤ http://ow.ly/f23I301xGAo
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

Kernel Recipes 2014 - Supporting a new ARM platform: the Allwinner example

  1. 1. Embedded Linux Conference 2014 Supporting a new ARM platform: the Allwinner example Maxime Ripard Free Electrons maxime@free-electrons.com Free Electrons. Kernel, drivers and embedded Linux development, consulting, training and support. http://free-electrons.com 1/36
  2. 2. Maxime Ripard I Embedded Linux engineer and trainer at Free Electrons I Embedded Linux development: kernel and driver development, system integration, boot time and power consumption optimization, consulting, etc. I Embedded Linux training, Linux driver development training and Android system development training, with materials freely available under a Creative Commons license. I http://free-electrons.com I Contributions I Kernel support for the sunXi SoCs from Allwinner I Contributor to few open-source projects, Buildroot, an open-source, simple and fast embedded Linux build system, Barebox, a modern bootloader. I Living in Toulouse, south west of France Free Electrons. Kernel, drivers and embedded Linux development, consulting, training and support. http://free-electrons.com 2/36
  3. 3. Introduction Introduction Maxime Ripard Free Electrons c Copyright 2004-2014, Free Electrons. Creative Commons BY-SA 3.0 license. Corrections, suggestions, contributions and translations are welcome! Embedded Linux Developers Free Electrons Free Electrons. Kernel, drivers and embedded Linux development, consulting, training and support. http://free-electrons.com 3/36
  4. 4. Allwinner I Chinese fabless SoC vendor I Founded in 2007, in Zhuhai I Always did ARM SoC, starting with ARM9 CPUs I Mostly doing multimedia SoCs I 550 employees Free Electrons. Kernel, drivers and embedded Linux development, consulting, training and support. http://free-electrons.com 4/36
  5. 5. Tablet Market Share in 2013 Free Electrons. Kernel, drivers and embedded Linux development, consulting, training and support. http://free-electrons.com 5/36
  6. 6. SoC Line-up I F-Series I ARM9-based SoCs I Mostly were running a custom OS called MeliOS, except for the late SoCs in that family I A10 / A10s / A12 / A13 (sun4i/sun5i), A20 (sun7i) I Cortex-A8 based for the sun4i/sun5i I Dual Cortex-A7 for the A20 I A31 / A31s (sun6i) I Quad Cortex-A7 I The GPU is Imagination's PowerVR I Brand new design, a lot of IPs changed I A23/A33 (sun8iw3/sun8iw5) I Dual/Quad Cortex-A7 I An hybrid between the A20 and the A31 I A80 (sun9i) I big.LITTLE with 4 Cortex A15 and 4 Cortex A7 Free Electrons. Kernel, drivers and embedded Linux development, consulting, training and support. http://free-electrons.com 6/36
  7. 7. Development / Hacker-friendly boards I Olimex Olinuxino I Open Source Hardware I Access to most of the SoC pins through 0.1" headers I Very supportive towards the community I Cubieboards I Tiny, and cheap I A very strong community has been built around it I A lot of other boards: pcDuino, Marsboard, Banana Pi, etc. Free Electrons. Kernel, drivers and embedded Linux development, consulting, training and support. http://free-electrons.com 7/36
  8. 8. Boards Free Electrons. Kernel, drivers and embedded Linux development, consulting, training and support. http://free-electrons.com 8/36
  9. 9. Where we were Where we were Maxime Ripard Free Electrons c Copyright 2004-2014, Free Electrons. Creative Commons BY-SA 3.0 license. Corrections, suggestions, contributions and translations are welcome! Embedded Linux Developers Free Electrons Free Electrons. Kernel, drivers and embedded Linux development, consulting, training and support. http://free-electrons.com 9/36
  10. 10. Allwinner's Kernel I Allwinner Kernel are mostly based on two kernels: I Linux 3.0 for Cortex-A8 based SoCs I Linux 3.3/3.4 for Cortex-A7 based SoCs I Just like most vendor code, their focus is primarily on making that particular kernel version working on one SoC I There's one dierent kernel tree for each SoC, even if they are really close I Apart from that, given the version they're based on, they're in pretty decent shape Free Electrons. Kernel, drivers and embedded Linux development, consulting, training and support. http://free-electrons.com 10/36
  11. 11. Allwinner Kernel Issues I However, it suers some major issues I By today standards, the code is pretty outdated I No Common Clock Framework I No pinctrl / GPIOlib I No dmaengine I There's no consolidation at all between the SoCs code I You're pretty much stuck with that kernel version I ... And there's FEX Free Electrons. Kernel, drivers and embedded Linux development, consulting, training and support. http://free-electrons.com 11/36
  12. 12. FEX I It is a binary
  13. 13. le, compiled from a human-readable text
  14. 14. le I Passed along the boot chain to the various components (bootloaders, kernel) I Used to get the hardware con
  15. 15. guration of the board they're running on, in a generic way I In the FEX script, you get I Which device are enabled I The memory timings I The clocks frequency I The pin muxing I The regulators voltage I Plus, various hardware and con
  16. 16. guration information sq Free Electrons. Kernel, drivers and embedded Linux development, consulting, training and support. http://free-electrons.com 12/36
  17. 17. How it looks like [twi1_para] twi_used = 1 twi_scl = port:PH162defaultdefaultdefault twi_sda = port:PH172defaultdefaultdefault [mmc0_para] sdc_used = 1 sdc_detmode = 2 sdc_buswidth = 4 sdc_clk = port:PF02212default sdc_cmd = port:PF03212default sdc_d0 = port:PF01212default sdc_d1 = port:PF00212default sdc_d2 = port:PF05212default sdc_d3 = port:PF04212default sdc_det = port:PA08612default Free Electrons. Kernel, drivers and embedded Linux development, consulting, training and support. http://free-electrons.com 13/36
  18. 18. How it is used I It is then compiled by fexc to a binary
  19. 19. le I Then, Linux will have hardcoded devices, and each matching device will I Be probed I Lookup the FEX to get if it is allowed to probe I Then retrieve whatever parameter it is interested in I Even though it is a lot like the device tree, the logic is completely backward Free Electrons. Kernel, drivers and embedded Linux development, consulting, training and support. http://free-electrons.com 14/36
  20. 20. Pros / Cons I Pros I Most of the DT Pros I Allows to have a completely generic kernel image I Separates the hardware description from the code I Allows a very short time-to-boot, even if you're not really a kernel developer I Cons I Completely non-standard I Only works for a single platform I Not generic enough Free Electrons. Kernel, drivers and embedded Linux development, consulting, training and support. http://free-electrons.com 15/36
  21. 21. FEX moment of glory so. coming back to what you said earlier: I'm formulating what to say to allwinner [and need to pre-send something by monday so that they can consider it before the meeting]. so far, it consists of: * device-tree is what the linux kernel community has come up with, it is equivalent to FEX. * the linux kernel community would like to apologise for not consulting with you (allwinner) on the decision to only accept device tree (Luke Kenneth Casson Leighton, 6/7/2013) Free Electrons. Kernel, drivers and embedded Linux development, consulting, training and support. http://free-electrons.com 16/36
  22. 22. FEX moment of glory Thanks to their script.fex system when i said they only need to develop one kernel and one u-boot i really wasn't kidding around: they really have got to the point which everyone else dreams of with device-tree (Luke Kenneth Casson Leighton, 6/7/2013) Free Electrons. Kernel, drivers and embedded Linux development, consulting, training and support. http://free-electrons.com 17/36
  23. 23. FEX moment of glory I have a Cubieboard and I have a pca9532 on my desk. Now I want to attach this pca9532 to the Cubieboard so I wire them together on I2C. How is the Allwinner kernel going to load the driver for the pca9532? The mainline pca9532 driver does not understand fex so it can't read the necessary initialization data. (Jon Smirl, 6/6/2013) You're immediately outside of the target market for which allwinner designed and deployed script.fex. (Luke Kenneth Casson Leighton, 6/6/2013) Free Electrons. Kernel, drivers and embedded Linux development, consulting, training and support. http://free-electrons.com 18/36
  24. 24. Boot Process Free Electrons. Kernel, drivers and embedded Linux development, consulting, training and support. http://free-electrons.com 19/36
  25. 25. Community Community Maxime Ripard Free Electrons c Copyright 2004-2014, Free Electrons. Creative Commons BY-SA 3.0 license. Corrections, suggestions, contributions and translations are welcome! Embedded Linux Developers Free Electrons Free Electrons. Kernel, drivers and embedded Linux development, consulting, training and support. http://free-electrons.com 20/36
  26. 26. linux-sunxi I A community started around rhombus-tech and their EOMA-68 standard in 2010 I It forked o in 2011, and created http://linux-sunxi.org I It's very active these days, with around 600 subscribers on the ML, and around 150 persons on IRC (idlers included) I Around 10 very active developers, working on dierent areas of the SoC support: bootloader, kernel, VPU and GPU reverse engineering, distribution support, etc. I Libre Software Extremists Free Electrons. Kernel, drivers and embedded Linux development, consulting, training and support. http://free-electrons.com 21/36
  27. 27. Achievements I Documentation of the hardware I Documentation of the BSP I Implementation of needed tools I Maintainance of linux and u-boot I Bring up of Distributions I Reverse engineering of the SoC (NAND, VPU, etc.) Free Electrons. Kernel, drivers and embedded Linux development, consulting, training and support. http://free-electrons.com 22/36
  28. 28. linux-sunxi kernel I Maintains a fork of Allwinner's kernel I Does all the maintenance work I Support most of the SoCs made by Allwinner in one single kernel tree I Factorizes and cleans up the code I Fix bugs I Based on a 3.4 (stable) kernel Free Electrons. Kernel, drivers and embedded Linux development, consulting, training and support. http://free-electrons.com 23/36
  29. 29. Community Kernel: Pros and Cons I Pros I Maintain the code that Allwinner doesn't I Allows to run your own Android/Fedora/Buildroot on your cheap tablet I Slightly better than the Allwinner code I Works well for the hobbyist that just wants to play with his new toy I Cons I Stuck in the past I Doesn't think about the long-term view I Only keeps hacking more without thinking about upstreaming changes to lessen their burden I Not much better than Allwinner code I Support for new generation SoCs? Free Electrons. Kernel, drivers and embedded Linux development, consulting, training and support. http://free-electrons.com 24/36
  30. 30. Mainlining Mainlining Maxime Ripard Free Electrons c Copyright 2004-2014, Free Electrons. Creative Commons BY-SA 3.0 license. Corrections, suggestions, contributions and translations are welcome! Embedded Linux Developers Free Electrons Free Electrons. Kernel, drivers and embedded Linux development, consulting, training and support. http://free-electrons.com 25/36
  31. 31. How it started I Started in late 2011 I First code merged in Linux 3.8, for the Allwinner A13 I Was not doing much at the time I Was only able to boot to an initramfs I Other SoCs and features quickly followed Free Electrons. Kernel, drivers and embedded Linux development, consulting, training and support. http://free-electrons.com 26/36
  32. 32. Contributions Free Electrons. Kernel, drivers and embedded Linux development, consulting, training and support. http://free-electrons.com 27/36
  33. 33. Challenges I Rewrite most of the core drivers to use the new subsystems: CCF, pinctrl, dmaengine I Move away from FEX, to DT I Clean up the code to make it
  34. 34. t for submission I Get the code accepted Free Electrons. Kernel, drivers and embedded Linux development, consulting, training and support. http://free-electrons.com 28/36
  35. 35. Babel
  36. 36. sh I Couldn't boot a generic kernel on every board out there anymore I Worked on sunxi-babel
  37. 37. sh, a runtime FEX-to-DT translator I Behaves like a regular u-boot kernel image, and embeds DTSI and the DT-based kernel image I At runtime, will lookup the data from the FEX
  38. 38. le, and construct the DT from the skeletons it has, and pass it to the DT kernel I Enables to run a DT-based kernel on every cheap tablet out there, without modifying the bootloader. I Not very used, and support only a few devices I Only to be seen as a legacy solution Free Electrons. Kernel, drivers and embedded Linux development, consulting, training and support. http://free-electrons.com 29/36
  39. 39. Babel
  40. 40. sh Free Electrons. Kernel, drivers and embedded Linux development, consulting, training and support. http://free-electrons.com 30/36
  41. 41. Current Status I All the core stu works, only DMA is missing on the older SoCs I Most of the latest fancy stu: PSCI, Virtualization, etc. I Network works I Storage start to works too: SATA and MMC are merged, MMC is pending I Pretty much everything you need for a headless system works nowadays. I The only things missing are the user-friendly one: Display, Audio, touchscreen, etc. Free Electrons. Kernel, drivers and embedded Linux development, consulting, training and support. http://free-electrons.com 31/36
  42. 42. What's next What's next Maxime Ripard Free Electrons c Copyright 2004-2014, Free Electrons. Creative Commons BY-SA 3.0 license. Corrections, suggestions, contributions and translations are welcome! Embedded Linux Developers Free Electrons Free Electrons. Kernel, drivers and embedded Linux development, consulting, training and support. http://free-electrons.com 32/36
  43. 43. Allwinner's usage of the code I Latest kernel still based on Linux 3.4 I They are using some of our code though (clock, pinctrl) I Are switching to standard APIs (dmaengine, ASoC) I But are still using FEX I Joined Linaro Free Electrons. Kernel, drivers and embedded Linux development, consulting, training and support. http://free-electrons.com 33/36
  44. 44. TODO-List I Pretty much all the hard work now I NAND is working, but is going (slowly) through the mainlining process I Audio is working for some SoCs, and is in the cleanup phase I Video is still an issue I Work on newer SoCs (A33, A80, A83) I Plenty of things to do, you're welcome to join! Free Electrons. Kernel, drivers and embedded Linux development, consulting, training and support. http://free-electrons.com 34/36
  45. 45. Lessons Learned I Take your time I Know when to start from scratch and when to clean up I You want documentation I Have as much hardware as you can I You don't want to be alone in there Free Electrons. Kernel, drivers and embedded Linux development, consulting, training and support. http://free-electrons.com 35/36
  46. 46. Questions? Maxime Ripard maxime@free-electrons.com Slides under CC-BY-SA 3.0 http://free-electrons.com/pub/conferences/2014/elc/ripard-mainlining- of-out-of-tree-socs/ Free Electrons. Kernel, drivers and embedded Linux development, consulting, training and support. http://free-electrons.com 36/36

×