GREENER ENERGYIssues and challenges for Pakistan —Solar energy prospective
Table of Contents Slide Name Slide No 1 INTRODUCTION 3 2 SOLAR ENERGY – PAKISTAN’S PROSPECTS 4 3 SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS 5 4 SOLAR ENERGY IN PAKISTAN 9 5 GLOBAL INSOLATION ENERGY FOR PAKISTAN 10 6 PROSPECTS OF SOLAR ENERGY UTILIZATION IN PAKISTAN 12 7 POTENTIAL APPLICATION OF SOLAR ENERGY IN PAKISTAN 14 8 PUBLIC SECTOR WORK FOR ENHANCING GREEN ENERGY 23 9 CONCLUSION 24
1 - INTRODUCTION Solar energy is the most abundant permanent energy resource on earth and it is available for use in its direct (solar radiation) and indirect (wind, biomass, hydro, ocean, etc.) forms. Earth receives about 100,000 TW of solar power at Its surface– enough energy every hour to supply humanity’s energy needs for a year PV technology is proven and easy to use solar of energy to generate electricity. It is being used globally for telecommunication towers, highway telephones and billboard, off-grid cottage/s, resorts in desert areas, water pumping for community and irrigation, municipal park lighting, exterior home lighting etc The cost of generation has to compete with the retail price of electricity, it is subject to less geopolitical, environmental and aesthetic concern than nuclear, wind or hydro, although extremely large desert installations might elicit protests
2 - SOLAR ENERGY – PAKISTAN’S PROSPECTSPakistan is estimated to possess a 2.9-TW solar energy potential. Country has a large number ofremote villages that do not have electricity supplies. Linking the rural areas to national electricitygrid would be very difficult because it would need a lot of time and budgetary investments.The Pakistan Council of Renewable Energy Technologies (PCRET) is undertaken the research ofparabolic/concentrator and box-type solar cookers, solar still for the provision of clean drinkingwater, and ﬂat-collector and evacuated-tube solar water heaters.One particular area of success has been the introduction of solar dryers to the agricultural areas.
3 - SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMSA - Photo VoltaicPV is the technology that generates direct current (DC) electrical power measured in watts (W) or kilowatts (kW)from semiconductors when they are illuminated by photons and give outputs in micro-watts to Mega-watts.The solar cell is the elementary building block of the PV technology. Solar cells are made of semiconductormaterials, such as silicon which have weakly bonded electrons.When energy exceeding a certain threshold, the bonds are broken and the electron is somewhat “free” to move. Thus,these electrons are conduct in conduction band to provide electricity as shown in fig.1Fabrication of PV solar cells is done through Phosphorusand Boron.Ohm metal–semiconductor contacts are made to boththe n-type and p-type sides of the solar cell, and theelectrodes are ready to be connected to an external loadSolar cells can be categorized into two main groups:wafers cut: is a thin slice of semiconductor material, suchas a silicon crystal, used in the fabrication of integratedcircuits and other micro devices.Thin film: are made by depositing silicon directly onto aSubstrate such as glass or steel.
3 - SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMSA - Photo VoltaicWafer-type solar cells dominated 95% of commercial PV market while the remaining 5% were mainly PV siliconthin ﬁlm solar cells because of lack supply in thin materialA number of solar cells electrically connected to each other and mounted in a single support structure or frameis called a „PV module‟.The current produced is directly dependent on the intensity of light reaching the module.The PV modules are integrated with other components such as storage batteries to constitute.The primary component in grid connected PV systems is the inverter, it convert DC power produced by PV arrayinto AC power.The PV system is promising source of electricity generation for energy resource saving and CO2 emissionreductionThe present PV market is growing at the very high rate of 35–40% per year80% of the world PV industry is based on c-Si (crystalline Si, or c-Si, solar cells with efficiency of 6–10%) andpc-Si(polycrystalline Si) wafer technologies.
3 - SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMSB – Concentrated Solar thermal systemssolar thermal systems use mirrors to focus the Sun’s heat, typically heating up a working ﬂuidthat in turn drives a turbine.CSP plants consist of two parts: one that collects solar energy and converts it to heat, andanother that converts the heat energy to electricity.All CSP technological approaches require large areas for solar radiation collection when used toproduce electricity at commercial scale.CSP technology utilizes four alternative technological approaches: parabolic trough, power tower,dish/engine and linear Fresnel reﬂectors.(CSP) technology over the standard PV technology is that it uses less semiconducting material byreplacing most of the PV cell area with a set of reﬂectors in order to reduce the cost.it needs direct sun, whereas PVs can make do with more diffuse light.
3 - SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMSB – Concentrated solar thermal systems
4 - SOLAR ENERGY IN PAKISTANIt is expected that renewable energy will play a signiﬁcant role in Pakistan’s future energy mix.Country is facing serious energy problems. Every day, the country receives an average of about 19MJ/m2 of solar energy.excellent alternative to fossil fuels.
5 - GLOBAL INSOLATION ENERGY FOR PAKISTANFor proper utilization of PV technology for energy generation, thorough and accurate knowledge ofglobal solar radiation variation is required.In Pakistan only ﬁve stations: Karachi, Lahore, Quetta, Multan and Peshawar record global solarradiation on a horizontal surface.The maximum amount of solar radiation in the country is received in and around Quetta.Sind and Baluchistan provinces are receiving more than 440 cal/cm2 day, Punjab and KhyberPakhtunkhwa (KPK) province is receiving between 400 and 440 cal/cm2 day and the northern areasand Kashmir are receiving less than 400 cal/cm2 day.U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed high-resolution (10-km) annual andseasonal wind and solar resource maps and data resource maps of Pakistan.
6 - PROSPECTS OF SOLAR ENERGY UTILIZATION IN PAKISTANSolar energy were unable to advance due to lack of policy instruments to integrate the techno-economicand socio-political behaviors and actions, and inconsistencies of the government policies present themajor barriers to the signiﬁcant utilization of the solar energy.The cost of electricity from solar PV technology can come down by initiative from government suchas indigenization of the technology and giving duty relief on import of technology.Local generation of PV cells on a commercial scale can bring about a substantial decrease in thecapital prices involved in PV cells production, further decreasing the level of cost of energy.The indigenous fabrication facility exists only at PCRET whose capabilities remain at pilot scale.The main constraints to widespread utilization of solar PV technologies are: • high initial cost of PV system, • inadequate renewable energy policy, • unawareness in Local communities, • inadequate availability of technical know how
6 - PROSPECTS OF SOLAR ENERGY UTILIZATION IN PAKISTANThe best way to utilize solar energy is through PVs, which convert the sun energy directly intoelectricity.Currently PV technology is being used in Pakistan for stand-alone rural telephoneexchanges, repeater stations, highway emergency telephones, cathodic protection, refrigerationsystems for vaccine and medicines in hospitals.Siemens Pakistan is also actively involved in Photovoltaic business for more than 10 years. Theyhave installed Complete solar systems in all parts of the country, mainly for houseelectriﬁcation, telecommunication water pumping, navigation, highway communication.
7 - POTENTIAL APPLICATION OF SOLAR ENERGY IN PAKISTANA – Photo VoltaicIn Baluchistan, villages are separated by large distances with absolutely no approach roads, essentiallyneeded to generate local power generation. i.e. solar power energy.Transmission lines are very expensive to build in these areas and there is only a remote possibilityof grid connection in the near future. Also, the extension of grid lines for such small powerrequirements is very costly.Solar PV technology has been proven to be a viable option because of its modular size, small weight, andease of installation.The need of electricity is not only for rural areas, but the grid connected locations are also seekingthe alternate electricity supplies because of big load shedding problem which last for 4–6 h in urbanareas and 8–12 h in rural areas.
7 - POTENTIAL APPLICATION OF SOLAR ENERGY IN PAKISTANA – Photo Voltaic
7 - POTENTIAL APPLICATION OF SOLAR ENERGY IN PAKISTANB - Solar thermalSolar thermal technologies are comparatively simple, relatively low cost and easy to adopt.The potential applications solar thermal technologies in Pakistan includes cooking, heating and cooling of buildings,Generation of high temperature steam, heating water for domestic and industrial applications, and drying agriculturalproducts under controlled temperatures.Following are the process of Solar thermal: i) Solar Desalination ii) Solar Water Pump iii) Solar Water heating in industry iv) Solar Cooker v) Solar Dryers for agricultural products
7 - POTENTIAL APPLICATION OF SOLAR ENERGY IN PAKISTANi) Solar Desalination
7 - POTENTIAL APPLICATION OF SOLAR ENERGY IN PAKISTANii) Solar Water Pump
7 - POTENTIAL APPLICATION OF SOLAR ENERGY IN PAKISTANiii) Solar Water heating in industry
7 - POTENTIAL APPLICATION OF SOLAR ENERGY IN PAKISTANii) Solar Water heating in industry
7 - POTENTIAL APPLICATION OF SOLAR ENERGY IN PAKISTANiV) Solar Cooker
7 - POTENTIAL APPLICATION OF SOLAR ENERGY IN PAKISTANV) Solar Dryers for agricultural products
8 – PUBLIC SECTOR WORK FOR ENHANCING GREEN ENERGYIn Pakistan most of the research, development, promotion and dissemination work in the ﬁeld ofrenewable energy is carried out by Public Sector Organizations. Some of them are: I) Pakistan Council of Renewable Energy Technologies (PCRET) II) Comsats Institute of Information Technology (CIIT) III) Alternative energy development Board IV) Manufacturers of solar geysers and solar lights in Pakistan V) EME College of NUST (National University of Engineering and Technology), Islamabad
8 - CONCLUSIONSolar PV power is a commercially available and reliable technology with a signiﬁcant potential for long-term growth in nearly all world regions.In Pakistan, cheap labor and high levels of solar radiations country receives throughout the year makecondition favorable for development and promotion of solar energy.At present the largest market for PV in Pakistan has been for applications such as telecom power, railwaynetwork, cathodic protection of pipelines, and defense service.Solar thermal systems are particularly effective in industries that require water temperatures in the range40–80CIn Pakistan, textile industry is a major sector in which solar energy can be practically utilizedthe cost effective design of desalination solar can provide the rural communities an efficient way toconvert the brackish Water into potable water.Promotion of solar energy for power generation will require ﬁnancial Support and incentives, facilitation oftechnology transfer, and a large-scale research and development programme.The cost of electricity from solar PV technology can come down by initiative from government such asindigenization of the technology and giving duty relief on import of technology.Governments have to provide long-term targets and supporting policies to build condense forinvestments in manufacturing capacity and deployment of PV systems.