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Development Of Ro Membrane & Its Characterization


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Development Of Ro Membrane & Its Characterization

  1. 1. Development of RO Membrane & Its Characterization<br />9/21/2010<br />1<br />Project Presentation On:<br />
  2. 2. Tables Of Content<br />History<br />What is Reverse Osmosis?<br />Membrane & Its types<br />Reverse Osmosis Membranes & its comparison<br />Membrane Materials<br />Membrane Modules<br />Membrane Fouling<br />Work Plan of our Project<br />Testing<br />Desalination<br />Benefits <br />Future Aspects<br />9/21/2010<br />2<br />Plastic Technology Center, Karachi<br />
  3. 3. History<br /><ul><li>The first studies on osmosis were carried out as early as 1748 by the French scientist Nollet.
  4. 4. The early 1960's, Loeb and Sourirajan developed a method for making asymmetric Cellulose acetate membranes
  5. 5. In 1970, the development of new-generation membranes such as the thin-film, composite Membrane that can tolerate wide pH ranges, higher temperatures and harsh chemical environments.
  6. 6. An estimate indicated that sales of RO membrane products had grown to $280 million yearly in 2006</li></ul>9/21/2010<br />3<br />Plastic Technology Center, Karachi<br />
  7. 7. What is REVERSE OSMOSIS?<br /><ul><li>Osmosis is a natural phenomenon in which a solvent (usually water) passes through a semi permeable barrier from the side with lower solute concentration to the higher solute concentration side. As shown in Figure(a).
  8. 8. A reverse osmosis membrane acts as the semi permeable barrier to flow in the RO process, allowing selective passage of a particular species (solvent, usually water) while partially & completely retaining other species (solutes). As shown in Figure(b).</li></ul>9/21/2010<br />4<br />Plastic Technology Center, Karachi<br />
  9. 9. Membrane & Its types<br />Water treatment processes employ several types of membranes. They include <br /><ul><li>MF membranes have the largest pore size and typically reject large particles and various microorganisms.
  10. 10. UF membranes have smaller pores than MF membranes and, therefore, in addition to large particles and microorganisms, they can reject bacteria and soluble macromolecules such as proteins.
  11. 11. RO membranes are effectively non-porous and, therefore, exclude particles and even many low molar mass species such as salt ions, organics, etc.
  12. 12. NF membranes are relatively new and are sometimes called “loose” RO membranes</li></ul>9/21/2010<br />5<br />Plastic Technology Center, Karachi<br />
  13. 13. Reverse Osmosis Membrane<br /><ul><li>Cellulose Acetate Membrane
  14. 14. Thin Film Composite Membrane</li></ul>9/21/2010<br />6<br />Plastic Technology Center, Karachi<br />
  15. 15. CA Membrane<br /><ul><li>These initial RO membrane was made by the Loeb-Sourirajan
  16. 16. These CA membranes were asymmetric and exhibited NaCl rejection values of approximately 99.5%
  17. 17. The degree of acetylation describes the how many pendent OH groups are replaced acetyl groups, CH3COO.
  18. 18. It ranges from 0 to 3
  19. 19. they have excellent mechanical properties & resistant to chlorine.
  20. 20. CA membranes can tolerate up to 5 ppm</li></ul>9/21/2010<br />7<br />Plastic Technology Center, Karachi<br />
  21. 21. Thin Film Composite Membrane<br /><ul><li>The first TFC RO membrane was developed by John Cadotte at North Star Research in 1972, based on aromatic polyamides.
  22. 22. interfacial polymerization are use to create a polyamide coating.
  23. 23. Most TFC membranes are made with a porous, highly permeable support.
  24. 24. Nowadays, This technique can also be used to produce Commercial RO membranes</li></ul>9/21/2010<br />8<br />Plastic Technology Center, Karachi<br />
  25. 25. Comparison of Reverse Osmosis Membranes<br />9/21/2010<br />Plastic Technology Center, Karachi<br />9<br />
  26. 26. Membrane Materials<br />9/21/2010<br />10<br />Plastic Technology Center, Karachi<br />
  27. 27. RO Membranes<br />There are typically <br />cellulose acetate<br />Polysulfone coated with aromatic polyamides<br />9/21/2010<br />11<br />Plastic Technology Center, Karachi<br />
  28. 28. MF & UF Materials<br />Poly (vinylidene fluoride)<br />Polysulfone<br />Poly (acrylonitrile)<br />Poly (acrylonitrile)-poly(vinyl chloride) copolymers<br />Poly (ether sulfone) is also commonly used for UF membranes<br />poly (tetrafluoroethylene). <br />9/21/2010<br />12<br />Plastic Technology Center, Karachi<br />
  29. 29. Membranes Modules<br />9/21/2010<br />13<br />Plastic Technology Center, Karachi<br />
  30. 30. Modules of membrane<br />There are four main types of modules: <br /><ul><li>plate-and-frame
  31. 31. Tubular
  32. 32. spiral wound
  33. 33. hollow fiber </li></ul>9/21/2010<br />14<br />Plastic Technology Center, Karachi<br />
  34. 34. Membrane fouling<br />9/21/2010<br />15<br />Plastic Technology Center, Karachi<br />
  35. 35. Causes of Fauling <br />Bio-fouling<br />(it results from microbial contamination of feed water)<br />Scaling <br />(It arises from the deposition of salts)<br />Organic<br />(It comes from substances i.e. C-H which coat the surface)<br />Colloidal<br />(It mainly stems from particles)<br />9/21/2010<br />16<br />Plastic Technology Center, Karachi<br />
  36. 36. Work Plan of Project<br />9/21/2010<br />Plastic Technology Center, Karachi<br />17<br />
  38. 38. Testing of Membranes<br />9/21/2010<br />Plastic Technology Center, Karachi<br />19<br />
  39. 39. Major Tests of Membranes<br />Non-Destructive Tests:<br />Bubble test- test physical integrity of the membrane envelope <br />Membrane performance - flux, pressure and percent reject <br />Analysis of cleaning solution<br />Destructive Tests:<br />Internal visual exam<br />Coupon testing of membrane surface<br />Metals analyses<br />Digestion <br />Organic Analyses:<br />FTIR Spectroscopy<br />UV Spectroscopy<br />9/21/2010<br />Plastic Technology Center, Karachi<br />20<br />
  40. 40. Desalination<br />9/21/2010<br />21<br />Plastic Technology Center, Karachi<br />
  41. 41. Desalination Techniques <br />Multi-effect distillation (MED)<br />Multi-stage flash (MSF)<br />Reverse osmosis (RO)<br />Electro dialysis (ED)<br />Capacitive deionization (CDI)<br />Mechanical vapor compression (MVC)<br />9/21/2010<br />22<br />Plastic Technology Center, Karachi<br />
  42. 42. Benefits & Applications of Membrane<br />9/21/2010<br />Plastic Technology Center, Karachi<br />23<br />
  43. 43. CA membranes will reduce the cost of RO treatment processes<br />RO processes are used in the production of food and beverages, pharmaceuticals, and chemical products.<br />a new alternative to many areas where drinking water is in short supply.<br />RO technologies can make use of use an almost unlimited and reliable water source, the sea. <br />RO has a negligible environmental impact<br />RO technologies can be used to remove organic and inorganic contaminants. <br />Most economical process for salinity reduction associated with secondary effluent (or other wastewater source) TDS levels.<br />9/21/2010<br />Plastic Technology Center, Karachi<br />24<br />
  44. 44. Future Aspects<br />9/21/2010<br />Plastic Technology Center, Karachi<br />25<br />
  45. 45. Development of membranes that is less prone to fouling, operate at lower pressures, and require less pretreatment of the feed water.<br />Membranes able to remove hydrocarbons and salt could turn produced water.<br />Reduced fouling would make membranes even more cost effective by extending their operational lifetime.<br />focused on surface modification of membranes and increasing the pretreatment of the feed water.<br />Development of more energy-efficient technologies that are simpler to operate than the existing technology<br />9/21/2010<br />Plastic Technology Center, Karachi<br />26<br />
  46. 46. “End of Presentation”DESIGNED BY:<br />Adeel Fayyaz (12 – PE – 01)<br />Rehan Hasan (12 –PE – 33)<br />Zohaib Siddiqui(12 – PE – 44)<br />9/21/2010<br />Plastic Technology Center, Karachi<br />27<br />