Writing A Research Paper Dr. Nguyen Thi Thuy Minh

7,816 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
7 Comments
35 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Tks for your slides, it's briefly but very helpfull. Please share for me, my via email is: trieunguyen2503@gmail.com.
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • You are welcome to visit our brilliant writing company in order to get rid of your academic writing problems once and for all! DigitalEssay.net
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Thank you very much for your detailed slide presentation.. it's very helpful.. can you please send it to me via e-mail: paulozamudio007@gmail.com. Thank you in advance and God bless
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Thank you very much for your presentation, can you please send it to me via e-mail: ahmed_tawfiek@yahoo.com. Thank you in advance
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Could you send me the slide via my email address: tnhmtam@gmail.com. I'm a Vietnamese graduate. Thank you very much!!!
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
No Downloads
Views
Total views
7,816
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
610
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
7
Likes
35
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • 54
  • 54
  • 54
  • 54
  • Writing A Research Paper Dr. Nguyen Thi Thuy Minh

    1. 1. Writing a research paper: What, how, and why? Nguyen Thi Thuy Minh thuyminhnguyen@gmail.com 05/24/09 ©NTTM 1
    2. 2. Contents • A rhetorical approach to writing • Different aspects of a research paper • Citing, quoting, and paraphrasing • The “Self” in academic writing 05/24/09 ©NTTM 2
    3. 3. Focus 05/24/09 ©NTTM 3
    4. 4. A rhetorical approach to writing • Writing is a social act and involves an interaction between writers and readers. As a writer, we need to keep the reader in mind, and ask ourselves: What is it that I want to do to my reader? What is it that I want my reader to accept from me? 05/24/09 ©NTTM 4
    5. 5. • The basic idea of the rhetorical approach is that everything that the writer does in the essay is geared towards fulfilling a specific rhetorical goal (e.g. to persuade, to prove, to compare and contrast, to argue, etc.). Everything is strategically done in order to fulfill the overall rhetorical goal. 05/24/09 ©NTTM 5
    6. 6. What is a rhetorical goal? in writing what you want to accomplish 05/24/09 ©NTTM 6
    7. 7. • For a research project, the aim of the research and the rhetorical goal of the research paper essay may not be exactly the same. • E.g. the aim of your research project may be to find out whether a group of students finds a particular kind of teacher feedback useful, but by the time we have finished gathering the data for our research, we will know our findings. And as such, when it comes time to write up our research in the form of a research paper/ essay, our macro rhetorical goal would be quite different. It may be, for instance, showing that this group of students finds X type of feedback not useful for several reasons. 05/24/09 ©NTTM 7
    8. 8. This article begins by synthesizing findings from observational classroom research on corrective feedback and then presents an observational study of patterns of error treatment in an adult ESL classroom. The study examines the range and types of feedback used by the teacher and their relationship to learner uptake and immediate repair of error. The database consists of 10 hours of transcribed interaction, comprising 1,716 student turns and 1,641 teacher turns, coded in accordance with the categories identified in Lyster and Ranta’s (1997) model of corrective discourse. The results reveal a clear preference for implicit types of reformulative feedback, namely, recasts and translation, leaving little opportunity for other feedback types that encourage learner-generated repair. Consequently, rates of learner uptake and immediate repair of error are low in this classroom. These results are discussed in relation to the hypothesis that L2 learners may benefit more from retrieval and production processes than from only hearing target forms in the input. 05/24/09 ©NTTM 8
    9. 9. The structure of a research paper • Abstract • Introduction • Literature review • Methodology section/chapter • Results and discussion section/ chapter • Conclusion • References • Appendices 05/24/09 ©NTTM 9
    10. 10. The structure of a research paper Section Purpose of the section Abstract  To briefly introduce the reader to the aims of the study, the methodology, results and findings Introduction To state a clear overall purpose for the study, and often framed in a discussion of the need the Background research is satisfying. To define the research question(s) of the study. To give a very brief background of relevant theory and practice for your topic 05/24/09 ©NTTM 10
    11. 11. The structure of a research paper Section Purpose of the section Literature To demonstrate that you are aware of key review theories and research in this area. To summarise what conclusions have been reached in the research literature and whether different writers agree or not. To highlight main issues and controversies around the problem. To show the gaps in the literature and how your research therefore fits in. 05/24/09 ©NTTM 11
    12. 12. The structure of a research paper Section Purpose of the section Methodology To demonstrate that you are aware of the research methods used to study this topic. To justify the research method and approach you have taken for your study. To show how and why you chose your research participants, and to describe the participants and the context in more detail. To explain and justify the method of data collection and analysis. 05/24/09 ©NTTM 12
    13. 13. The structure of a research paper Section Purpose of the section Results  To present the findings of your research in an orderly manner, using headings planned in your methodology or headings arising from patterns found in the research. Discussion To comment on the trends/findings and show your understanding of what your data suggests. To compare your findings with what the literature says and with what you may have predicted or what you set out to find out more about. To highlight anything unexpected that came up. 05/24/09 ©NTTM 13
    14. 14. The structure of a research paper Section Purpose of the section Conclusion To sum up your findings and highlight the significance of the outcomes of your study. To outline any implications or recommendations indicated by the findings. To discuss the limitations of your study and indicate where further research is needed. Reference To list alphabetically all the reference materials that have been cited in the text of the report. 05/24/09 ©NTTM 14
    15. 15. The structure of a research paper Section Purpose of the section Appendices To present relevant details such as letters (e.g. regarding the ethics & conduct of the project) to participants and organisations. To present details of questionnaires, surveys and other relevant instruments that you developed for the purpose of the study. To present relevant documents, e.g. reports/policy/historical documents. 05/24/09 ©NTTM 15
    16. 16. Writing the abstract • The primary purpose of an abstract is to guide readers: it is a summary of a body of information; it expresses the main claim and argument of a paper and highlights the major points covered along with the content and scope of the writing. • An abstract should include the few things you would like your reader to remember long after the details of your paper may be forgotten. • An abstract can also be a useful tool for you to check that you have a clear grasp of your thesis and argument. 05/24/09 ©NTTM 16
    17. 17. Writing the abstract • Elements of the abstract are: 2. Background: A simple opening sentence or two placing the work in context. 3. Aims: One or two sentences giving the purpose of the work. 4. Method(s): One or two sentences explaining what was done (described at length only if it is unusual). 5. Results: One or two sentences indicating the main findings (absolutely essential). 6. Conclusions: One sentence giving the most important consequence of the work (telling what the results mean). 05/24/09 ©NTTM 17
    18. 18. Writing the abstract • Questions that an abstract answers: 2. Why did you do this study or project? 3. What did you do, and how? 4. What did you find? 5. What do your findings mean? • If the paper is about a new method the last two questions might be changed to: 7. What are the advantages of the method? 8. How well does it work? 05/24/09 ©NTTM 18
    19. 19. Writing the introduction • The purpose of the introduction is to frame the paper for its readers. It should provide: - a brief description of the topic including any background that might be necessary for the general reader to understand the research area - a statement as to why the topic is worth researching or why it could be found interesting - a statement of the research objectives, questions or hypothesis - a statement of the method(s) and the scope of study - an overview of the rest of the paper 05/24/09 ©NTTM 19
    20. 20. Writing the literature review • A literature review discusses published information in a particular subject area, and sometimes information in a particular subject area within a certain time period. Literature reviews provide a solid background for a research paper's investigation • The purpose of reviewing existing information is to find what is already known about the topic and to indicate the gap that the present study can fill 05/24/09 ©NTTM 20
    21. 21. Writing the literature review • The literature review should answer four questions: - What is the present state of knowledge regarding the topic under consideration? - How are the studies related to the one being proposed? - What is the quality of the studies reviewed? - How will the proposed study contribute to the existing literature? 05/24/09 ©NTTM 21
    22. 22. Writing the literature review • Some points to remember when writing a literature review: - it is NOT a descriptive list of the information gathered - it is NOT a summary of one piece of literature after another - the review MUST be defined by a guiding concept (e.g. research question, research objective, etc.) - your purpose is to convey to the reader what knowledge and ideas have been established on a topic - what are the strengths and weaknesses - organise the information gathered into sections that present themes. - DON’T attempt to list all published material, but rather synthesise and evaluate the literature according to your guiding concept 05/24/09 ©NTTM 22
    23. 23. Writing the methodology section/ chapter • The purpose of this section/ chapter is to outline the research methods used and demonstrate that recognized procedures have been followed in the study. • There should be an explanation of the reason why particular methods were chosen and how the research was conducted. For example, if a questionnaire survey was used, there should be an account of how many questionnaires were handed out, how respondents were selected, and what type of information was expected from the questionnaire. • A convenient way of presenting the research methodology is to categorise all information regarding the design as (1) participants, (2) instruments, and (3) procedures, as appropriate and (4) data analysis. 05/24/09 ©NTTM 23
    24. 24. Participants • The first step in identifying the research participants in a study is to describe the population of interests. E.g. who is the study concerned with? • Then we need to describe and explain the procedure for selecting the participants. A careful description of the participants can help the reader to determine if, for example, in the reader’s view, the result of the study can be generalized to the extent intended or can be applied to similar contexts. 05/24/09 ©NTTM 24
    25. 25. Instruments • All the instruments for data collection should be described in details. • If an instrument is one already established, the evidence of its validity for the purpose of the study should be reported. • In cases where the instruments are developed by the researcher, it is necessary to outline the procedure in developing them, including the steps taken to obtain validity and reliability data on these instruments. 05/24/09 ©NTTM 25
    26. 26. Example • A questionnaire, in three parts, on CFL learning was developed. Part One, dealing with strategies for learning Chinese characters, was adapted from Shen (2005), and has twenty-six statements. Part Two, assessing students’ metacognitive knowledge/beliefs, is made up of seventeen statements, and was derived from Pintrich and de Groot (1990). Part Three, consisting of twenty-four statements, deals with metacognitive strategies used by CFL students, and was adapted from Graham (1997) and Wang (2008). There are sixty-seven statements altogether in the questionnaire. All the answers were rated on a seven-point Likert scale, ranged from strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (7). (Wang et al., 2009) 05/24/09 ©NTTM 26
    27. 27. Example • To obtain a valid and reliable picture of the motivational characteristics of the sample, we used three different types of instrument: (a) a classroom observation scheme, (b) a student questionnaire, and (c) a postlesson teacher evaluation scale. All three instruments were developed for this study. Each instrument underwent extensive piloting, which is described in the Procedures section. (Guilloteaux & Dornyei, 2008) 05/24/09 ©NTTM 27
    28. 28. Procedures • In the procedure section we describe the way in which the research is carried out. A careful description of the procedures for carrying out the research is a basic requirement of any research paper. • In survey research the writing of this section is relatively simple because the procedure merely involves sending out a questionnaire to be filled out and returned or conducting an interview. However, all the steps – that is, preparing the questionnaire or interview schedule, training the interviewers, giving them directions as how to approach the participants and how to perform the interview – should be listed and explained. 05/24/09 ©NTTM 28
    29. 29. Analysis • In this section you should describe how you went about analysing the data, e.g. looking for emerging patterns/ themes (with qualitative data), computing means and testing mean differences statistically (with quantitative data). • You should explain why and how the particular procedure for data analysis was employed. E.g. when categorising/ coding qualitative data, if you developed your own coding scheme, explain how you did this. If you modified someone else’s scheme, state this and describe the modifications. • You need also to address the issue of reliability in data coding and analysis (e.g. inter-rater reliability, intra-rater reliability) 05/24/09 ©NTTM 29
    30. 30. Example • Data from the teachers’ interviews and the classroom observations were compared for evidence of convergence or divergence between the teachers’ stated beliefs and their actual practices (Cohen and Manion 1989). The classroom data were transcribed using transcriptions adapted from Richards (2006) (see Appendix C) only for examples on Singlish and the reliability of the data analysis was enhanced by having two independent data coders (McDonough and McDonough 1997) as a check for inter-coder reliability. These coders also functioned as external audits to examine and assess the accuracy of both the process and product of the data collection (Creswell 1998). 05/24/09 ©NTTM 30
    31. 31. • The classroom observation data was analyzed for frequency, strategy, and immediacy of feedback, that is the response provided by the teachers when attempting to modify a particular Singlish feature in their students’ utterances. The following feedback strategies (adapted from Lyster (1998) and Leo (1986)) were used as coding categories for the different strategies the teachers used when giving feedback (see Appendix D for definitions of different feedback strategies): rephrasing, elicitation, metalinguistic feedback, emphasis, and localization. (Ferrel, 2007) 05/24/09 ©NTTM 31
    32. 32. Example • Table 1 presents the taxonomy of criticisms used in the present study, illustrated with samples from the current data. The taxonomy was developed based on my previous study of L2 New Zealand English criticisms and modified to fit the fresh data of the current study. (...) Table 2 presents a taxonomy of mitigating devices adapted from House andKasper (1981). (Nguyen, 2008) 05/24/09 ©NTTM 32
    33. 33. Writing the results and discussion section(s)/ chapter(s) • In results and discussion section(s)/ chapter(s) the results of the research are analyzed and discussed (respectively). • Note that in quantitative research the results and discussion of findings can be combined into one section/ chapter (if the design is relatively simple and the interpretations are fairly straightforward) or presented in separate chapters (if the design and results are complex). • In qualitative research, however, results and discussion are normally grouped together. Reporting the results of a qualitative research study also requires thick and rich description and should include both evidence and counter-evidence 05/24/09 ©NTTM 33
    34. 34. Writing the results section/ chapter • The purpose of a results section is to present and illustrate your findings. Make this section a completely objective report of the results, and save all interpretation for the discussion. • What to do in this section?: - Summarize your findings in text and illustrate them, if appropriate, with figures and tables. - In text, describe each of your results, pointing the reader to observations that are most relevant. 05/24/09 ©NTTM 34
    35. 35. Writing the discussion section/ chapter • The objective of this section is to provide an interpretation of your results and support for all of your conclusions, using evidence from your research and generally accepted knowledge, if appropriate and describe the significance of your findings • When you explain a finding you need to describe theories that may account for it. If your results differ from your expectations, explain why that may have happened. • You also need to decide if your hypothesis is supported, or rejected, or if you cannot make a decision with confidence. • You may suggest future directions, such as how the research might be modified or extended to accomplish another objective or answer the question that remains unanswered within the limits of the current study. 05/24/09 ©NTTM 35
    36. 36. Writing the conclusion • The key points of the whole study should be summarized in this part in a logical order. The ‘Results’ and ‘Discussion’ should be the focus of this part. • This section should also briefly mention the limitations of the study and include any recommendations or suggestions for further studies. 05/24/09 ©NTTM 36
    37. 37. Referencing your paper • References need to contain all works cited in the text • Don’t include materials that you used for background reading but that were never cited • References should consistently follow one recognizable system 05/24/09 ©NTTM 37
    38. 38. Appendices • Should contain copies of research instruments (questionnaire, test), complete coding schemes, complete transcripts etc. • Include anything that a reader may want to look at but that's too large to include in the text 05/24/09 ©NTTM 38
    39. 39. Useful books • Mackey, A. & Gass, S. (2005). Second language research. Methodology and Design. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaun Associatiates, Inc., Publishers. • Creswell, J. (2003). Research design. Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Methods Approaches. California: SAGE Publications. 05/24/09 ©NTTM 39
    40. 40. Why, when and how to document your source? 05/24/09 ©NTTM 40
    41. 41. Plagiarism • Plagiarism is … • Passing off someone else’s work as our own, whether we do this deliberately or not. • Not acknowledging when using information (or data, or tables or figures or graphics) from other writers. • Inadequately paraphrasing a source 05/24/09 ©NTTM 41
    42. 42. Example • You read some information about a topic from a book. You find it useful. You paraphrase what the original author said. But you do not provide a reference, since the words are all your own. Or you provide the reference but use the author’s original wordings. 05/24/09 ©NTTM 42
    43. 43. • Supposed this is the original text from Chandrasegaran & Schaetzel (2004): • Knowledge about cognition is awareness of one’s mental processes during problem solving, reading, and writing. Knowledge about cognition includes knowledge about the conditions most conductive to one’s own learning and the strategies that best promote learning in oneself. • And this is the student’s text: • According to Chandrasegaran & Schaetzel (2004), knowledge about cognition is awareness of one’s mental processes during ©NTTM 05/24/09 problem solving, reading, and43
    44. 44. Documenting your source: the Dos You should document the source: • when you directly quote what an author has said • when you paraphrase what the author has said • when you mention an unusual fact or figure • when you mention the results of other people’s experiments 05/24/09 ©NTTM 44
    45. 45. When to quote and when to paraphrase? • In general, use direct quotations only if you have a good reason. Most of your paper should be in your own words. 05/24/09 ©NTTM 45
    46. 46. When to quote and when to paraphrase? In research papers, you should quote from a source: • to show that an authority supports your point • to present a position or argument to critique or comment on • to include especially moving or historically significant language • to present a particularly well-stated passage whose meaning would be lost or changed if paraphrased or summarized You should summarize or paraphrase when • what you want from the source is the idea expressed, and not the specific language used to express it • you can express in fewer words what the key point of a source is 05/24/09 ©NTTM 46
    47. 47. Reasons for citing • To set out the state of the field • To establish authority (the “I’ve read all this relevant stuff, so I’m qualified to speak” reason) • To show that opinions of a particular topic are divided, so there is scope for further argument • To define terms or establish common ground between writer and reader • To back up their own position • To set up a counter argument (this is when writers cite someone whose view opposes their own) 05/24/09 ©NTTM 47
    48. 48. The mechanics of in-text citation • Check what referencing style is required by your department because each department may requires a different referencing style. 05/24/09 ©NTTM 48
    49. 49. About the APA style • Check out these websites for information about end-of-text citations: • The Purdue OWL: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/ • Colorado State University Writing Centre: http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/researchsourc 05/24/09 ©NTTM 49
    50. 50. The “Self” in academic writing Misconceptions: • All academic writing is essential the same • Academic writing is ‘objective’ and impersonal But … 05/24/09 ©NTTM 50
    51. 51. • Is all academic writing the same?  Not necessarily. Writing is a social process and academic writing is no exception.  Depends on your area of specialization. E.g.: the use of personalized “I” in social sciences and humanities vs. the use of passives in hard sciences.  Depends on how you position yourself with respect to your reader. E.g.: writing for your lecturer or writing a journal article or a textbook. 05/24/09 ©NTTM 51
    52. 52. • Is academic writing is impersonal?  Academic writing is not objective and impersonal. An impersonal style of writing makes it difficult for the reader to work out what the writer really means and where s/he stands.  All writing should start with the question: “What do I want to say?”  Good academic writing is done to inform, question, disagree, and substantiate but not to hide your own self behind the screen of impersonal objectivity 05/24/09 ©NTTM 52
    53. 53. • In his paper “Options of identity in academic writing” Hyland (2002) examines 240 published journal articles, 30 from 8 disciplines and found that “academic writing is not the uniformly faceless prose it is often thought to be, but displays considerable differences between disciplines.” (p. 352) 05/24/09 ©NTTM 53
    54. 54. Average frequency of writer pronouns per research paper Disciplines All writer Singular (I, Me, Plural (We, Us, pronouns My) Our) Marketing 38.2 1.6 36.5 Philosophy 34.5 33.0 1.5 Applied Ling. 32.3 17.2 15.0 Sociology 29.4 11.7 17.7 Physics 17.7 0.0 17.7 Biology 15.5 0.0 15.5 Electronic Eng. 11.6 0.0 11.6 Mechanical Eng. 2.6 0.0 2.6 Overall 22.7 7.9 14.8 05/24/09 ©NTTM 54
    55. 55. “Decisions to employ a writer pronoun here are related to the fact that arguments in such ‘soft knowledge’ domains (as the humanities and social sciences) are less precisely measurable and clear-cut than in the hard sciences, and the extent to which a personal stance can help to promote an impression of confidence and authority.” (Hyland, 2002, p. 353) 05/24/09 ©NTTM 55
    56. 56. • Hyland (2002) explains the following functions of the first pronoun “I”:  Explaining what was done (I have interviewed 10 teachers from 6 schools)  Structuring the discourse (First, I will discuss the method , then present my results)  Showing a result (My findings show that …)  Making a claim (I think two factors are particularly significant in destroying the councils) • He found that students tended to underuse writer pronouns or used them unadventurously, referring to their texts rather than their ideas. 05/24/09 ©NTTM 56
    57. 57. As a writer you should make decisions based on a critical evaluation of published works. Instead of using them as models, think for yourself what you want to identify with. (Ivanic & Simpson, 1992) 05/24/09 ©NTTM 57

    ×