Research Design Adapted From Ha Thanhs


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  • distinguish research subjects and research participants
  • 1. only justified if less risky sampling methods are impossible. caution in generalization 2. motivated by interest in cases of deviance relies on the researcher’s prior ability to determine ‘suitable’ subjects. 3. Appropriate when members of a population are difficult to locate. By definition respondents who are located by snowball sample will be connected to one another and so likely to be more similar to one another than other members of the population.
  • Spring 1907, 85 Triển lãm gia súc và gia cầm hàng năm ở Tây nước Anh: đánh giá chất lượng những con vật nuôi 2 vấn đề: các đặc tính thể chất và tinh thần của các sinh vật và thẩm định xem việc gây giống thành công có tác dụng như thế nào trong việc đảm bảo di truyền các đặc tính tốt và loại bỏ các đặc tính xấu Ông tin rằng rất ít người có được những phẩm chất cần thiết giúp xã hội phát triển hưng thịnh, đánh giá những phẩm chất này, chứng minh rằng đa số những người bình thường hoàn toàn không có chúng 1884 phòng thí nghiệm nhân trắc học, không còn tin vào trí thông minh của những người bình thường và tin rằng chỉ khi quyền lực và sự kiểm soát ở trong tay một số ít cá nhậ đặc quyền thuộc dạng con nhà nòi thì xã hội mới có thể phát triển mạnh mẽ
  • 800 người thử vận may
  • 2004
  • Not clear-cut strategies, but processes within the process of questionnaire development
  • This screen emphasizes the importance of etiquette in the interviewing process. Remind students that the more polite and thoughtful they are, the more their interviewee will be willing to help them.
  • This point in the presentation can be a good time to stop and brainstorm possible questions with your students.
  • This screen provides more brainstorming material.
  • Research Design Adapted From Ha Thanhs

    1. 1. Introduction to Research Design Speaker: Hoàng Thị Hạnh
    2. 2. Acknowledgement <ul><li>Slides and content consultation: Hà Thanh </li></ul><ul><li>Provision of extra materials: Đặng Trang </li></ul>Phùng Hà Thanh
    3. 3. Research <ul><li>A systematic investigation into reality to gain knowledge </li></ul>Phùng Hà Thanh
    4. 4. Contents Phùng Hà Thanh  Definition & Elements 1 Sampling 2 Common Research Methods 3
    5. 5. Research design <ul><li>a detailed plan outlining how a research project will be conducted </li></ul>Phùng Hà Thanh
    6. 6. Research design <ul><li>a plan of what data to gather, from whom, how and when to collect the data, and how to analyze the data obtained (conditions and procedures) </li></ul>Phùng Hà Thanh secondary primary
    7. 7. Sources of information/data <ul><li>Reality </li></ul><ul><li>General sources: Newspapers, magazines, the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary sources: Textbooks, reviews, critiques </li></ul><ul><li>Primary: Journal articles, research reports </li></ul>Phùng Hà Thanh
    8. 8. Basic elements of research design <ul><li>What data would we want, and from what sources? </li></ul><ul><li>How would we collect the data? </li></ul><ul><li>How would we analyzed the data? </li></ul>Phùng Hà Thanh 1. SAMPLING 2. DATA COLLECTION 3. DATA ANALYSIS
    9. 9. Research methods <ul><li>procedures used to collect and analyze data </li></ul>Phùng Hà Thanh 1. SAMPLING 2. DATA COLLECTION 3. DATA ANALYSIS Research Design Research methods Sampling strategies
    10. 10. Contents Phùng Hà Thanh   Definition & Elements 1 Sampling 2 Common Research Methods 3 Common Research Designs 4
    11. 11. Problem <ul><li>“ If you had it to do over again, would you have children?” </li></ul><ul><li>70% of the nearly 10,000 respondents said that they would not have children if they could make the choice to be a parent again. </li></ul>Phùng Hà Thanh
    12. 12. Problem <ul><li>However, when a statistically designed opinion poll on the same issue a few months later was conducted, it was reported that 91% of parents said that they would have children again ! (Mooore & McCabe, 1993, p. 248) </li></ul>Phùng Hà Thanh
    13. 13. Sampling <ul><li>the process of selecting subjects for research </li></ul><ul><li>the process of selecting a number of people/things- a sample - from a population (the group to whom we want to generalize findings) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>not feasible to survey the entire group of interest (the population)  select a subgroup (a sample). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the sample must be similar to the population in important ways if the results of the study are intended to apply to (be representative of) that population. </li></ul></ul>Phùng Hà Thanh
    14. 14. PROBABILITY-BASED SAMPLING <ul><li>Simple Random Sampling </li></ul><ul><li>Systematic Sampling </li></ul><ul><li>Stratified Sampling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proportional stratified sampling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disproportional stratified sampling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cluster Sampling </li></ul><ul><li>Multistage Sampling </li></ul>Phùng Hà Thanh
    15. 15. Phùng Hà Thanh
    16. 16. Non-probability sampling Phùng Hà Thanh PURPOSIVE/ JUDGEMENTAL CONVENIENCE <ul><ul><li>Based on availability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on knowledge of a population, its elements, & the purpose of the study ( selecting people who would be ‘good’ informants ). </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Contents Phùng Hà Thanh    Definition & Elements 1 Sampling 2 Common Research Methods 3
    18. 18. Common research methods <ul><li>Survey: a means of gathering information about the characteristics, actions, or opinions of a large group of people through self-report </li></ul><ul><li>Case study: an in-depth investigation/study of a single individual, group, incident, or community </li></ul>Phùng Hà Thanh
    19. 19. Survey research <ul><li>To produce quantitative descriptions of some aspects of a large population </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike most approaches that involve direct observation of behavior, surveys rely on self reports . </li></ul><ul><li>Main way of data collection: asking people structured and predefined questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Information is generally collected about a fraction of the study population- a sample- but in such a way as to be able to generalize the findings to the population </li></ul>Ahluwalia (2002) 
    20. 20. Sir Francis Galton (1822 – 1911) <ul><li>author of over 340 papers and books </li></ul><ul><li>creator and promoter of some key statistical concepts </li></ul><ul><li>the first to apply statistical methods to the study of human differences and inheritance of intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>introducer of the use of questionnaires and surveys for collecting data on human communities </li></ul>
    21. 21. Sir Francis Galton (1822 – 1911) <ul><li>Francis Galton's surprise: the crowd at a county fair accurately guessed the weight of an ox when their individual guesses were averaged </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the average was closer to the ox's true weight than the estimates of most crowd members, and also closer than any of the separate estimates made by cattle experts </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. The wisdom of crowds <ul><li>Argument: the aggregation of information in groups result in decisions that are often better than could have been made by any single member of the group. </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence: numerous case studies and anecdotes (several fields, primarily economics and psychology. </li></ul>
    23. 23. Data collection methods <ul><li>Questionnaire </li></ul><ul><li>Interview </li></ul><ul><li>Observation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>field observation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>observation of documents or/and artifacts </li></ul></ul>Phùng Hà Thanh
    24. 24. Questionnaires <ul><li>A series of questions or statements to which they are to react either by writing out their answers or selecting from among existing answers </li></ul><ul><li>Aiming to find facts, bahaviours, attitudes, opinions, beliefs, interests, and values </li></ul><ul><li>Practice: Examining your own research topics/questions. Can you use questionnaire as data collection instrument for them? </li></ul>
    25. 25. Advantages <ul><li>Efficiency in terms of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>researcher time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>researcher effort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>financial resources </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Disadvantages <ul><li>Simplicity & superficiality of answers </li></ul><ul><li>Unreliable and unmotivated respondents </li></ul><ul><li>Little or no opportunity to correct the respondent’s mistakes </li></ul><ul><li>Social desirability (saying vs real to sensitive questions) </li></ul><ul><li>Self-deception </li></ul><ul><li>Acquiescence bias (AQ – yessayers) </li></ul><ul><li>Halo effect </li></ul><ul><li>Fatigue effect </li></ul>
    27. 27. <ul><li>“ Questionnaires can be designed to minimize, but not eliminate, dishonest, and careless reporting.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Aiken, 1997, p.58) </li></ul>
    28. 28. Qualities of Good Questionnaires <ul><ul><li>Have a clear purpose or construct(s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be valid and reliable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be simple in terms of interface/presentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be appropriate for the population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Content – can the respondent answer? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Language – will the respondent understand </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be efficient in gathering information </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Developing the Purpose Think about what, specifically, you want to know, why a questionnaire is appropriate, and what you want to do with the data.
    30. 30. Creating the Conceptual Framework <ul><li>a multi-step process with a great deal of brain storming . </li></ul>Step 1: List all the questions/areas you might want to know/Pool ideas from focus group <ul><ul><li>Step 2: Organize these questions into categories and subcategories </li></ul></ul>Step 3: Define these categories <ul><ul><li>Step 4: Make sure that you are asking items that will provide enough data to fully answer your research questions. </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. Step 1: Brainstorming <ul><li>Don’t limit yourself. This is the time for you to say “wouldn’t it be nice to know…” </li></ul>At this phase, don’t focus on the wording of your questions. Just write questions. Work collaboratively with friends and consult supervisors
    32. 32. Step 2: Organize Questions into Categories <ul><li>Group similar questions and think about what these questions are asking. </li></ul>This process may spark even more questions and categories. If so, add them to your list.
    33. 33. Step 3: Define these Categories <ul><li>Think about how you can break down your large topic in meaningful categories. Define each category. </li></ul>
    34. 34. Step 4: Check Your Measurements <ul><li>Ask yourself if you have enough questions to measure each category. </li></ul><ul><li>This step will last until the questionnaire is complete. </li></ul><ul><li>Always keep in mind the your research question and see the purpose of each question item </li></ul>
    35. 35. Rules about item wording <ul><li>Aim for short and simple items - only one complete thought </li></ul><ul><li>Use simple and natural language </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid ambiguous or loaded (leading) words and sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid negative constructions </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid double-barrelled questions </li></ul><ul><li>Include both positively and negatively worded items </li></ul>Phùng Hà Thanh
    36. 36. Contents <ul><li>Develop the Purpose </li></ul>Qualities of Good Questionnaires 1 Process of Questionnaire Development 2 <ul><li>Create the Conceptual Framework </li></ul><ul><li>Write the Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Design the Questionnaire </li></ul> 
    37. 37. General Features <ul><li>Length </li></ul><ul><li>Layout (booklet format, appropriate density, orderly layout, paper quality, sequence marking) </li></ul><ul><li>Sensitive topics and anonymity </li></ul>
    38. 38. Parts of a Questionnaire <ul><li>Title </li></ul><ul><li>Instruction (general & specific) </li></ul><ul><li>Questionnaire Items </li></ul><ul><li>Additional Information </li></ul><ul><li>Final “thank you” </li></ul>
    39. 39. <ul><li>Piloting </li></ul><ul><li>Administering </li></ul>Phùng Hà Thanh
    40. 40. Case study <ul><li>an in-depth investigation/study of a single individual, group, incident, or community </li></ul><ul><li>Purposive sampling: selecting cases must be done so as to maximize what can be learned, in the period of time available for the study </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple cases – replicatory, not sampled </li></ul>Phùng Hà Thanh
    41. 41. <ul><li>Critical case </li></ul><ul><li>Generalization - </li></ul><ul><li>Falsification – </li></ul><ul><li>critical reflexivity </li></ul><ul><li>Black swan </li></ul><ul><li>evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Information-oriented sampling: exploration and description </li></ul>Phùng Hà Thanh
    42. 42. Practice <ul><li>Topics for case studies? </li></ul>Phùng Hà Thanh
    43. 43. Data collection <ul><li>Participant and direct observations </li></ul><ul><li>Interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Tests </li></ul><ul><li>Examinations of records, and collections of writing samples </li></ul><ul><li>Journals, notes </li></ul><ul><li> Multiple sources of data for triangulation </li></ul>Phùng Hà Thanh
    44. 44. Interview <ul><li>Unstructured: guided by response of the interviewees </li></ul><ul><li>Semi-structured: </li></ul><ul><li>Structured: lists of pre-determined questions </li></ul>Phùng Hà Thanh
    45. 45. Semi-structured interview <ul><li>giving the interviewee a degree of power and control over the course of the interview </li></ul><ul><li>giving the interviewer a greater deal of flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>giving one privileged access to other people’s lives </li></ul>Phùng Hà Thanh
    46. 46. Setting up the Interview <ul><li>Contact the potential interviewee in advance </li></ul><ul><li>Be sure that you ask for the interview. This person is doing you a favor </li></ul><ul><li>Arrange a specific time and place, and let the interviewee know how much time it will take </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the topic that you will be discussing during the interview </li></ul>Purdue University Writing Lab
    47. 47. Preparing for the interview <ul><li>Be sure to write out a list of questions in advance </li></ul><ul><li>Find out whatever information you can about the person you’re interviewing </li></ul><ul><li>Decide which questions are highest priority if time runs short </li></ul><ul><li>Decide what your goals are for the interview </li></ul>Purdue University Writing Lab
    48. 48. Coming up with Questions <ul><li>Ask yourself: “What is it that I need to know? </li></ul><ul><li>Write down a list of things that you are hoping to find out </li></ul><ul><li>Write a list of questions that you think will lead to these answers </li></ul><ul><li>Check the questions carefully to see if the wording could be offensive to your interviewee </li></ul>Purdue University Writing Lab
    49. 49. Question wording <ul><li>Open-ended </li></ul><ul><li>Neutral – avoiding evocative, judgmental, leading, loaded </li></ul><ul><li>One at a time </li></ul><ul><li>Clear </li></ul><ul><li>Careful with “why” </li></ul>Phùng Hà Thanh
    50. 50. Carrying Out Interview <ul><li>Tape record if possible – with permission </li></ul><ul><li>Attempt to remain as neutral as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage responses: reflecting, asking further questions, clarification, elaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Summarizing or paraphrasing to verify your understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Be careful about the appearance when note taking </li></ul><ul><li>Don't lose control of the interview </li></ul>Phùng Hà Thanh
    51. 51. Practice <ul><li>A successful learner’s reading practice </li></ul><ul><li>RQ: 1. How does a successful learner practice reading in terms of amount, sources and strategies? </li></ul><ul><li>2. What motivates this successful learner? </li></ul>Phùng Hà Thanh
    52. 52. Data analysis methods <ul><li>Concept-based analysis/Content analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>categorization, classification and analysis according to selected conceptual frameworks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pattern matching </li></ul>Phùng Hà Thanh
    53. 53. Data analysis <ul><li>Show that the analysis relied on all the relevant evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Include all major rival interpretations in the analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Address the most significant aspect of the case study </li></ul><ul><li>Use the researcher's prior, expert knowledge to further the analysis </li></ul>Phùng Hà Thanh
    54. 54. Thank You !