From Central America to the       South Caucasus:Water Resources in Developing          Countries  OU WaTER Center/CEES Se...
Talk Organization• I t d ti  Introduction: Significant Water Events,                Si ifi     tW t E     t  and Hydrophil...
Significant ‘Water’ Events• 1975: Finished graduate work at U of AZ; began 12+  year career at Desert Research Institute, ...
Hydrophilanthropy - 1Definition: Altruistic concern for the water, sanitation, andrelated needs of humankind, as          ...
Hydrophilanthropy - 2   Operational definition:     p       “I can’t define  hydrophilanthropy,  hydrophilanthropy but I  ...
Hydrophilanthropy in Action:H d    hil th     i A tiWater Resources in Honduras“Be ashamed to die until you have won some ...
Honduras Project                     j• From 2001-2005, I conducted field course  for U of NM Master of Water Resources  s...
Five villageslocated in theSierra de Omoa, arugged mountainrange ~20 km NW         20of San Pedro SulaClimate: Warm andhum...
Alex del Cid Vásquez, “el jefe de agua”
Rural Water ProjectSanta TS t Teresa, Honduras              H d     WR573 2004
Building the Dam• Ad dam site was cleared above the village at           it       l    d b     th ill       t  ~800 m abov...
Tank and Distribution System• We leveled a site above the village for a 5000  gallon water tank and dug a pit for the tank...
Accomplishments• Helped build five gravity-flow potable  water systems serving about 2,000 people• Provided instruction to...
Shortcomings• No follow-up – Honduran  government agency SANAA dropped  the ball (no circuit riders)• N d continued traini...
Common Mistakes• Appropriate technology essential• I  Involve stakeholders! If we don’t ask for input and       l     t k ...
Water Resources in the  South Caucasus
Central Asia and the South Caucasus
The South Caucasus:    A Nice Place to Visit, But…    “Handguns are acceptable; semi-  automatic weapons must be checked a...
Georgian Military Highway    g           y g     y
Kura – Araks River Basin
Kura Araks           Kura-Araks Basin:              Some Facts•Kura Q ddownstream from Araks – mean: 443 m3/              ...
Water Supply and Wastewater - Kura-AraksWastewaterReceives storm water discharge andindustrial and domestic sewage•100% of...
Transnational River Basin –            Water Problems•Water resource problems could threaten thestability of the region.•A...
South Caucasus River Monitoring           Project      NATO Science for Peace Programme      (1 November 2002 – 31 Decembe...
South Caucasus Pipelines
Project Goal   Technical cooperation will    “diffuse upward” into thehighest levels of government in the three republics,...
Project Overall Objective            O erall Objecti e  To build trust and establish the social and     technical bases fo...
Sources of Conflict   (Ethnic and Other Factors)• ‘Autonomous’ (‘breakaway’)  republics – South Ossetia,  Abkhazia (Georgi...
Contributing Factors to              Conflict•C Corruption        ti•Internal strife (distribution of wealth,  desire f  d...
Water Reso rce Problems         Resource•Water quantity•Water quality        q      y•Ecosystem degradation•Effects of cli...
Water Quality - Pollution• Sediments from erosion due to     deforestation and land-use practices•   Heavy metals from min...
Metals: Maximum       ConcentrationsMetal Concentration WHO CountryMercury    26 μg/L     6 μg/L  ArNickel     45 μg/L    ...
DDT and Related Compounds –                     pConcentrations in Caspian Sea         Sediments            (pg/g)Compound...
So What s The Bottom Line?     What’s•Project promoted and developed stronger technical tiesamong professional colleagues ...
Recommendations•Establish committee to coordinate various projects•Form basin commission to provide water resources   coor...
The Region s Future?        Region’s“The optimist learns English.The pessimist learns Chinese                       Chines...
Honduras & HP R di H d           Readings       1) September 2010    Water Resources IMPACT      (http://bit.ly/9ColgZ)2) ...
South Caucasus Readings                             gVan Harten, M. 2002. Europe’s troubled waters. A role for the OSCE: t...
Thank You!                WaterWired blog:     http://aquadoc.typepad.com/waterwired                WaterWired Twitter:   ...
Michael Campana - From Central American to South Caucus: Water Resources in Developing Countries
Michael Campana - From Central American to South Caucus: Water Resources in Developing Countries
Michael Campana - From Central American to South Caucus: Water Resources in Developing Countries
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Michael Campana - From Central American to South Caucus: Water Resources in Developing Countries

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Michael Campana - From Central American to South Caucus: Water Resources in Developing Countries

  1. 1. From Central America to the South Caucasus:Water Resources in Developing Countries OU WaTER Center/CEES Seminar 28 January 2011 Michael E C Mi h l E. Campana Professor, Department of Geosciences Oregon State University www.geo.oregonstate.edu t t d President, Ann Campana Judge Foundation www.acjfoundation.org President, President AWRA www.awra.org
  2. 2. Talk Organization• I t d ti Introduction: Significant Water Events, Si ifi tW t E t and Hydrophilanthropy• H d Honduras P j t Project• Accomplishments, Mistakes• W t Resources i the South Caucasus Water R in th S th C• Conflict, Water, Gas & Oil• Outcomes & Recommendations• Readings
  3. 3. Significant ‘Water’ Events• 1975: Finished graduate work at U of AZ; began 12+ year career at Desert Research Institute, UN-Reno.• 1989: Left DRI to assume professorship at University of New Mexico.• Mid-1990s: went over to “dark side” - policy, management, etc. Hung out with economists, sociologists, lawyers, et al. S b i l i t l t l Subsequently banned from tl b df many scientific meetings. 1993: Married Mary Frances• Late 1990s: Started focusing on WaSH (water, sanitation, sanitation and hygiene) issues in developing regions regions. Volunteer work with LI and LWI.• 2002: Founded 501(c)(3) - Ann Campana Judge Foundation (www.acjfoundation.org) – funds and ( j g) undertakes water and sanitation projects in Central America• 2006: Rehydration phase: moved to Oregon State University Uni ersit• 2007: Social Media – Blogging, Tweeting, Facebook
  4. 4. Hydrophilanthropy - 1Definition: Altruistic concern for the water, sanitation, andrelated needs of humankind, as , manifested by donations of work, money, work money or resources.
  5. 5. Hydrophilanthropy - 2 Operational definition: p “I can’t define hydrophilanthropy, hydrophilanthropy but I know it when I see it.”(apologies to former Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart)
  6. 6. Hydrophilanthropy in Action:H d hil th i A tiWater Resources in Honduras“Be ashamed to die until you have won some victory for humanity.” – Horace humanity ” Mann
  7. 7. Honduras Project j• From 2001-2005, I conducted field course for U of NM Master of Water Resources students in Honduras - three weeks each June. See JCWRE and IMPACT articles.• We worked with Hondureños Alex del Cid Vásquez, Rolando López, and local q p , villagers to build gravity-flow water systems in five villages.• Introduced students to hydrophilanthropy and the struggles of many just to obtain clean drinking water
  8. 8. Five villageslocated in theSierra de Omoa, arugged mountainrange ~20 km NW 20of San Pedro SulaClimate: Warm andhumid with distinctwet and dryseasons. Averageannual rainfall of250 cm (~100inches)
  9. 9. Alex del Cid Vásquez, “el jefe de agua”
  10. 10. Rural Water ProjectSanta TS t Teresa, Honduras H d WR573 2004
  11. 11. Building the Dam• Ad dam site was cleared above the village at it l d b th ill t ~800 m above sea level, near a spring with an average flow of 100 gallons per minute. g g p• A local mason was hired to build the forms and work with the concrete.• Using only a chainsaw and machete, forms were hand-hewn on site using timber.• S d from the streambed along with nearly Sand f th t b d l ith l 30 bags (1.5 tons) of cement were used.• It took 6 days to build the dam and then 14 days for the concrete to cure.
  12. 12. Tank and Distribution System• We leveled a site above the village for a 5000 gallon water tank and dug a pit for the tank platform• After the tank site was cleared 2 inch diameter cleared, (ID) galvanized iron (GI) pipe was laid between the dam and the tank site• The pipe was provided by S SANAA, the Honduran government agency responsible for rural water supply• The head of rural water for SANAAs northern division inspected the dam and pipeline and was p impressed
  13. 13. Accomplishments• Helped build five gravity-flow potable water systems serving about 2,000 people• Provided instruction to locals in sanitation and hygiene• Cross-cultural, life-changing (for some) experience for 65 students i f t d t• Empowered local women – can do other things besides gathering water; girls can ater go to school• Gringos can be “good neighbors good neighbors”
  14. 14. Shortcomings• No follow-up – Honduran government agency SANAA dropped the ball (no circuit riders)• N d continued training, support Need ti dt i i t• Sustainability and monitoring & evaluation issues (see IMPACT articles by Christine Casey Matute and Stephanie Moore)• Change in social dynamics of g y villages – gender roles. Is this good?
  15. 15. Common Mistakes• Appropriate technology essential• I Involve stakeholders! If we don’t ask for input and l t k h ld ! d ’t k f i t d participation, then there is no “buy in” - “not my well – not my problem – she’ll come back and fix her h well”ll”• Failure to learn from mistakes• Neglecting economic development: people need means to maintain wells, pumps, etc.• Multidisciplinary perspective often lacking• S lf Self-congratulatory, feel-good approach t l t f l d h• Overlooking public health!• Governance, socio-cultural issues, etc. socio cultural
  16. 16. Water Resources in the South Caucasus
  17. 17. Central Asia and the South Caucasus
  18. 18. The South Caucasus: A Nice Place to Visit, But… “Handguns are acceptable; semi- automatic weapons must be checked at reception. reception ” -- sign on the door, Metechi Palace Hotel,Tbilisi,Tbilisi Georgia (removed when it became a Sheraton) “He who shoots first, laughs last.”-- Aleksandr Lebed (Boris Yeltsin advisor)
  19. 19. Georgian Military Highway g y g y
  20. 20. Kura – Araks River Basin
  21. 21. Kura Araks Kura-Araks Basin: Some Facts•Kura Q ddownstream from Araks – mean: 443 m3/ f k /s(15,600 cfs); max: 2,250 m3/s; min: 206 m3/s•Total basin area: 188 200 km2•Basin area in SC countries: 122 200 km2•Kura: 1 360 km Kura: Araks: 1 070 km•Both streams rise in Turkey, join in Azerbaijan, flow to Caspian Sea•No formal agreements among riparians regarding water allocation, quality, ecosystem maintenance
  22. 22. Water Supply and Wastewater - Kura-AraksWastewaterReceives storm water discharge andindustrial and domestic sewage•100% of Armenia s Armenia’s•60% of Georgia’s•50% of Azerbaijan’sWater Supply•None of Armenia’s and Georgia’s drinkingwater,water but provides most water foragricultural production and industry •Provides over 50% of Azerbaijan’s drinking d i ki water and 60% of it water f t d f its t for agricultural production
  23. 23. Transnational River Basin – Water Problems•Water resource problems could threaten thestability of the region.•Azerbaijan is especially vulnerable as it is farthestdownstream and relies on the Kura Araks for over Kura-Araks50% of its drinking water and about 60% of itswater for agricultural production. It is energy-rich. energy rich.•Kura-Araks discharges into Caspian Sea; Azerbaijanis often blamed for pollution contributed by all three.
  24. 24. South Caucasus River Monitoring Project NATO Science for Peace Programme (1 November 2002 – 31 December 2008) Partner Country Project Director (PPD) Prof. Prof Nodar Kekelidze, Georgia Kekelidze Partner Country Co-Directors Dr. Armen Saghatelyan, Armenia g y , Dr. Bahruz Suleymanov, AzerbaijanNATO Project Director (NPD) Prof. Michael E. Campana, USA P f Mi h l E CNATO Project Co-Directors Prof. Freddy Adams, Belgium Prof. Eiliv Steinnes, Norway
  25. 25. South Caucasus Pipelines
  26. 26. Project Goal Technical cooperation will “diffuse upward” into thehighest levels of government in the three republics, leading to peace and stability (anduninterrupted flows of gas and oil! – my cynical comment) y y
  27. 27. Project Overall Objective O erall Objecti e To build trust and establish the social and technical bases for a transboundary,cooperative,cooperative and transparent water resourcesmanagement agreement among the Republics of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia. The agreement will cover water quantity and quality and stream ecosystem maintenance. Bottom-up project! (http://www.kura-araks-natosfp.org) (http://www kura araks natosfp org)
  28. 28. Sources of Conflict (Ethnic and Other Factors)• ‘Autonomous’ (‘breakaway’) republics – South Ossetia, Abkhazia (Georgia)•Nagorno-Karabakh [Ar-Az]•Javakheti (Georgia-Armenia)•Bak Tbilisi Ce han (oil) and Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan Baku-Tbilisi-Erzurum (gas) pipelines (terrorist targets?)
  29. 29. Contributing Factors to Conflict•C Corruption ti•Internal strife (distribution of wealth, desire f d i for autonomy, etc.) t t )•Deteriorating water quality•R d ti in water supply (whether Reduction i t l ( h th anthropogenic, climate-induced, etc.)•E Economic conditions i diti•Hegemony (Russian Federation, USA, EU) – th new “G t G the “Great Game””
  30. 30. Water Reso rce Problems Resource•Water quantity•Water quality q y•Ecosystem degradation•Effects of climate change Effects•Poor management and regulation•Infrastructure decrepit or lacking
  31. 31. Water Quality - Pollution• Sediments from erosion due to deforestation and land-use practices• Heavy metals from mining and industry• Discharge of untreated sewage and industrial waste• Nitrogen, phosphorus from agriculture• Pathogenic organisms• Radionuclides• POPs – Persistent Organic Pollutants (pesticides, etc.)
  32. 32. Metals: Maximum ConcentrationsMetal Concentration WHO CountryMercury 26 μg/L 6 μg/L ArNickel 45 μg/L 70 μg/L ArCadmium 302 μg/L 3 μg/L GeCopper 8 μg/L 2,000 μg/L GeLead 85 μg/L 10 μg/L GeZinc 425 μg/L 3,000 μg/L Ge
  33. 33. DDT and Related Compounds – pConcentrations in Caspian Sea Sediments (pg/g)Compound Mean Max Std.DDT 812 7,400 4,770DDE , 659 1,300 1,220 ,DDD 866 3,400 2,070Petro. HCs -- 1,820 , 500
  34. 34. So What s The Bottom Line? What’s•Project promoted and developed stronger technical tiesamong professional colleagues gp g•Government agencies were involved as end users, but nocivil society representation•Political situation among the countries made it impossible tomeet with all end users at once t ith ll d t•Unsure project has improved intergovernmental relations p j p g•Significance for NATO – first funded environmental project•Better characterization of Kura-Araks water quality
  35. 35. Recommendations•Establish committee to coordinate various projects•Form basin commission to provide water resources coordination; involve Turkey and Iran ; y•Develop “shared vision” model•Update country water codes, allowing for changes in li h f i light of new information/changing conditions. i f i / h i di i Manage water quantity, water quality, land use, and ecosystem health simultaneously•Stakeholder involvement – watershed councils•Continue to address “non-water” problems that Continue non water could lead to conflict
  36. 36. The Region s Future? Region’s“The optimist learns English.The pessimist learns Chinese Chinese. The realist learns Kalashnikov.” -- Armenian colleague
  37. 37. Honduras & HP R di H d Readings 1) September 2010 Water Resources IMPACT (http://bit.ly/9ColgZ)2) August 2010 J. of Contemporary Water Research and Education W R h d Ed i (http://bit.ly/gxwh5h)3) ‘Hydrophilanthropy’ category at:aquadoc.typepad.com/waterwired d t d / t i d
  38. 38. South Caucasus Readings gVan Harten, M. 2002. Europe’s troubled waters. A role for the OSCE: the caseof the Kura-Araks. Helsinki Monitor, 13(4): 338-349.Ewing, Amy, 2003. Water Quality and Public Health Monitoring of SurfaceWaters in the Kura-Araks River Basin of Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia.Publication No. WRP-8, Water Resources Program, University of New Mexico,Albuquerque, NMVener, Berrin Basak, 2006. The Kura-Araks Basin: Common Objectives and Kura-Obstacles for an Integrated Water Resources Management Model amongArmenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia. Master’s Professional Project, WaterResources Program, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM.Vener, Berrin Basak and Michael E. Campana, 2010. C fli and cooperation inV B i B k d Mi h l E C Conflict d i ithe South Caucasus: the Kura-Araks Basin of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia. Kura-In M. Arsel and M. Spoor (eds.), Water, Environmental Security and SustainableRural Development: Conflict and Cooperation in Central Eurasia. Oxford, UK:Routledge, pp. 144-174. [http://bit.ly/a6kDZY] 144-
  39. 39. Thank You! WaterWired blog: http://aquadoc.typepad.com/waterwired WaterWired Twitter: http://twitter.com/waterwired http://twitter com/waterwired AWRA: http://www.awra.org"We make a living by what we get, we make a life by what we give.” – Winston Churchill

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