Rethinking VLOM …Rethinking VLOM …
WaTER Center
University of Oklahoma
Ned Breslin
Water For People
April 17 2008
The ChallengeThe Challenge
< 1 billion globally without
safe water (JMP 2008)
2.6 billion globally without2.6 billion glob...
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
Reduce by half the
percentage of people
wit...
Water For People and the Global Watsan CrisisWater For People and the Global Watsan Crisis
Conventional Approach - VLOMConventional Approach - VLOM
Village
Level
Operation &Operation &
Maintenance
Principles of VLOMPrinciples of VLOM
Appropriate Technology
Community Responsible for
Operation, Maintenance and
Replaceme...
Baskets of LOCAL Tech Options - Real Choice!
Demand-Driven Labor ,
Materials
AND Cash
The Rarely Discussed Elephant in the Room:
Water Supply Failure!
The Rarely Discussed Elephant in the Room:
Water Supply F...
Broken….Broken….
BrokenBroken
Back to Traditional SourcesBack to Traditional Sources
No spares
Inappropriate/Imported
Technologies
Weak/Rushed Training
Changing
water
quantity/water
Poor water-point
citing
P...
RealityReality
Significant sector finance
goes to rehabilitation of old
projects rather than new
projects
50,000 water poi...
Why Water Flows in North AmericaWhy Water Flows in North America
Government
Civil
Customer – pays, tacit contract
Utility ...
Why Water DOES NOT Flow in Developing
Countries
Why Water DOES NOT Flow in Developing
Countries
Government
Civil
Customer ...
Time – Recent Program in Kerala, India (WSP)Time – Recent Program in Kerala, India (WSP)
Activity Time taken
from Start
Co...
COMMUNITY CAPACITY
60
70
80
90
0
10
20
30
40
50
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 39 40 42
Months
Capaci...
COMMUNITY CAPACITY
60
70
80
90
0
10
20
30
40
50
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 39 40 42
Months
Capaci...
COMMUNITY CAPACITY
60
70
80
90
0
10
20
30
40
50
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 39 40 42
Months
Capaci...
PROGRAMS, NOT STAND-ALONE PROJECTSPROGRAMS, NOT STAND-ALONE PROJECTS
Success:
Rethinking Partnerships –
build capacity rat...
Why Monitoring Matters?Why Monitoring Matters?
Honduras – Water Quality
Challenges
Bolivia – Rethink Sanitation
India – Me...
Rethinking Private Sector – India and MalawiRethinking Private Sector – India and Malawi
Sanitation – a Whole Different StorySanitation – a Whole Different Story
Focus on ImpactFocus on Impact
Edward D. Breslin - Rethinking Water Supply and Sanitation in Developing Countries: Moving to Impact
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Edward D. Breslin - Rethinking Water Supply and Sanitation in Developing Countries: Moving to Impact

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University of Oklahoma College of Engineering - WaTER Center Speaker Series

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Edward D. Breslin - Rethinking Water Supply and Sanitation in Developing Countries: Moving to Impact

  1. 1. Rethinking VLOM …Rethinking VLOM … WaTER Center University of Oklahoma Ned Breslin Water For People April 17 2008
  2. 2. The ChallengeThe Challenge < 1 billion globally without safe water (JMP 2008) 2.6 billion globally without2.6 billion globally without hygienic sanitation (JMP 2008)
  3. 3. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) Reduce by half the percentage of people without access to improved water supply by 2015 (1990 baseline, ON TRACK EXCEPT AFRICA, JMP 2008)2008) Reduce by half the percentage of people without access to hygienic sanitation by 2015 (1990 baseline, OFF TRACK, JMP 2008) Millennium Development Summit, 2000, Johannesburg South Africa
  4. 4. Water For People and the Global Watsan CrisisWater For People and the Global Watsan Crisis
  5. 5. Conventional Approach - VLOMConventional Approach - VLOM Village Level Operation &Operation & Maintenance
  6. 6. Principles of VLOMPrinciples of VLOM Appropriate Technology Community Responsible for Operation, Maintenance and Replacement (finance, repairs, etc.) Community-Driven (planning, decision-making, ownership, control) Newer ideas to emerge that use VLOM Principles: Capital Cost Contributions, Demand Driven Approach (DRA), and big push on technology choice
  7. 7. Baskets of LOCAL Tech Options - Real Choice! Demand-Driven Labor , Materials AND Cash
  8. 8. The Rarely Discussed Elephant in the Room: Water Supply Failure! The Rarely Discussed Elephant in the Room: Water Supply Failure!
  9. 9. Broken….Broken….
  10. 10. BrokenBroken
  11. 11. Back to Traditional SourcesBack to Traditional Sources
  12. 12. No spares Inappropriate/Imported Technologies Weak/Rushed Training Changing water quantity/water Poor water-point citing Poor water quality Lack of finance for O&MCommittee Turnover Vandalism/Theft/Conflict right conflicts Population transience Unpaid user fees Tech problems beyond community capacity
  13. 13. RealityReality Significant sector finance goes to rehabilitation of old projects rather than new projects 50,000 water points, $360 million lost (Financial Times)million lost (Financial Times) Outbreaks of disease in places with new water systems – example, cholera and typhoid in South Africa Arsenic in Bangladesh, India and Honduras
  14. 14. Why Water Flows in North AmericaWhy Water Flows in North America Government Civil Customer – pays, tacit contract Utility – finance, staff, capacity, planning, technical skills Private sector – spares, technical skills, contracted as needed Government – regulations, oversight, finance Civil Society – tariff setting, IWRM
  15. 15. Why Water DOES NOT Flow in Developing Countries Why Water DOES NOT Flow in Developing Countries Government Civil Customer – pays, tacit contract Community – finance, staff, capacity, planning, technical skills Private sector – spares, technical skills, contracted as needed Government – regulations, oversight, finance Civil Society – tariff setting, IWRM
  16. 16. Time – Recent Program in Kerala, India (WSP)Time – Recent Program in Kerala, India (WSP) Activity Time taken from Start Community Mobilization 4 months Formation of Committee 4 months Capital Cost Contributions 8 months Overall Support to Handover 36 months
  17. 17. COMMUNITY CAPACITY 60 70 80 90 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 39 40 42 Months Capacity natural decline
  18. 18. COMMUNITY CAPACITY 60 70 80 90 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 39 40 42 Months Capacity natural decline death / move
  19. 19. COMMUNITY CAPACITY 60 70 80 90 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 39 40 42 Months Capacity natural decline death / move retraining
  20. 20. PROGRAMS, NOT STAND-ALONE PROJECTSPROGRAMS, NOT STAND-ALONE PROJECTS Success: Rethinking Partnerships – build capacity rather than contract Enabling Environments for Projects to Thrive Supply Chains Get Finance Right – get communities and government to pay Training – on-going, not an event Monitoring – Learn and Improve!!!! Scale and Replication!
  21. 21. Why Monitoring Matters?Why Monitoring Matters? Honduras – Water Quality Challenges Bolivia – Rethink Sanitation India – Menstrual HygieneIndia – Menstrual Hygiene Malawi – Moving from labor to cash Mozambique – where has all the water gone?
  22. 22. Rethinking Private Sector – India and MalawiRethinking Private Sector – India and Malawi
  23. 23. Sanitation – a Whole Different StorySanitation – a Whole Different Story
  24. 24. Focus on ImpactFocus on Impact

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