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Oliver twist presentation


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oliver twist by Enggarita Widya SMAN 1 SANGATTA UTARA
charles jhon huffam dickens
presentation about novel.

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Oliver twist presentation

  1. 1. BE EXPLAINED BY ENGGARITA WIDYAHAPSARI Oliver twist Written by Charles jhon Huffam dickens 1
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  3. 3. CHARLES DICKENS • Charles John Huffam Dickens (7 February 1812 – 9 June 1870) was an English writer and social critic who is generally regarded as the greatest novelist of the Victorian period and the creator of some of the world's most memorable fictional characters. During his lifetime Dickens's works enjoyed unprecedented popularity and fame, and by the twentieth century his literary genius was fully recognized by critics and scholars. His novels and short stories continue to enjoy an enduring popularity among the general reading public. • Born in Portsmouth, England, Dickens left school to work in a factory after his father was thrown into debtors' prison. Though he had little formal education, his early impoverishment drove him to succeed. He edited a weekly journal for 20 years, wrote 15 novels and hundreds of short stories and non-fiction articles, lectured and performed extensively, was an indefatigable letter writer, and campaigned vigorously for children's rights, education, and other social reforms. 3
  4. 4. Charles Dickens 4
  5. 5. OLIVER TWIST 5
  6. 6. Context • Oliver Twist opens with a bitter invective directed at the nineteenth-century English Poor Laws. These laws were a distorted manifestation of the Victorian middle class’s emphasis on the virtues of hard work. England in the 1830s was rapidly undergoing a transformation from an agricultural, rural economy to an urban, industrial nation. The growing middle class had achieved an economic influence equal to, if not greater than, that of the British aristocracy. • In the 1830s, the middle class clamored for a share of political power with the landed gentry, bringing about a restructuring of the voting system. Parliament passed the Reform Act, which granted the right to vote to previously disenfranchised middle-class citizens. The middle class was eager to gain social legitimacy. This desire gave rise to the Evangelical religious movement and inspired sweeping economic and political change. 6
  7. 7. Context • In the extremely stratified English class structure, the highest social class belonged to the “gentleman,” an aristocrat who did not have to work for his living. The middle class was stigmatized for having to work, and so, to alleviate the stigma attached to middle-class wealth, the middle class promoted work as a moral virtue. But the resulting moral value attached to work, along with the middle class’s insecurity about its own social legitimacy, led English society to subject the poor to hatred and cruelty. 7
  8. 8. Context • Many members of the middle class were anxious to be differentiated from the lower classes, and one way to do so was to stigmatizethe lower classes as lazy good- for-nothings. The middle class’s value system transformed earned wealth into a sign of moral virtue. Victorian society interpreted economic success as a sign that God favored the honest, moral virtue of the successful individual’s efforts, and, thus, interpreted the condition of poverty as a sign of the weakness of the poor individual. 8
  9. 9. Review and conclusion 9
  10. 10. Review (orientation) • Oliver Twist is born in a workhouse in 1830s England. His mother, whose name no one knows, is found on the street and dies just after Oliver’s birth. Oliver spends the first nine years of his life in a badly run home for young orphans and then is transferred to a workhouse for adults. After the other boys bully Oliver into asking for more gruel at the end of a meal, Mr. Bumble, the parish beadle, offers five pounds to anyone who will take the boy away from the workhouse. Oliver narrowly escapes being apprenticed to a brutish chimney sweep and is eventually apprenticed to a local undertaker, Mr. Sowerberry. When the undertaker’s other apprentice, Noah Claypole, makes disparaging comments about Oliver’s mother, Oliver attacks him and incurs the Sowerberrys’ wrath. Desperate, Oliver runs away at dawn and travels toward London. 10
  11. 11. Outside London, Oliver, starved and exhausted, meets Jack Dawkins, a boy his own age. Jack offers him shelter in the London house of his benefactor, Fagin. It turns out that Fagin is a career criminal who trains orphan boys to pick pockets for him. After a few days of training, Oliver is sent on a pickpocketing mission with two other boys. When he sees them swipe a handkerchief from an elderly gentleman, Oliver is horrified and runs off. He is caught but narrowly escapes being convicted of the theft. Mr. Brownlow, the man whose handkerchief was stolen, takes the feverish Oliver to his home and nurses him back to health. Mr. Brownlow is struck by Oliver’s resemblance to a portrait of a young woman that hangs in his house. Oliver thrives in Mr. Brownlow’s home, but two young adults in Fagin’s gang, Bill Sikes and his lover Nancy, capture Oliver and return him to Fagin. 11
  12. 12. complication • Fagin sends Oliver to assist Sikes in a burglary. Oliver is shot by a servant of the house and, after Sikes escapes, is taken in by the women who live there, Mrs. Maylie and her beautiful adopted niece Rose. They grow fond of Oliver, and he spends an idyllic summer with them in the countryside. But Fagin and a mysterious man named Monks are set on recapturing Oliver. Meanwhile, it is revealed that Oliver’s mother left behind a gold locket when she died. Monks obtains and destroys that locket. When the Maylies come to London, Nancy meets secretly with Rose and informs her of Fagin’s designs, but a member of Fagin’s gang overhears the conversation. When word of Nancy’s disclosure reaches Sikes, he brutally murders Nancy and flees London. Pursued by his guilty conscience and an angry mob, he inadvertently hangs himself while trying to escape. 12
  13. 13. Conflict • Oliver is arrested as a thief. • Oliver doesn’t realize at first that the Dodger and Fagin are thieves—he’s pretty slow. Once he does realize it, he tries to run away. But it’s as though the very fact of consorting with criminals somehow rubbed off on him, or made him look or seem criminal, himself. • The question at this stage isn’t so much whether or not Oliver will actually turn criminal, but whether it even matters—if he can be arrested as a thief without having done anything wrong, does it matter whether he’s corrupted, or innocent? 13
  14. 14. • Oliver is taken in by Mr. Brownlow, but never returns from his errand. • Oliver finally has a friend he can trust, but never gets to tell him his story. In part to prove to Mr. Grimwig that Oliver is trustworthy, Mr. Brownlow sends Oliver off on an errand in the city, from which Oliver never returns. Not, of course, because he was trying to rob Mr. Brownlow, but because he was kidnapped by Sikes and Nancy. • But Mr. Brownlow doesn’t know that, and Oliver knows he doesn’t know. Will Mr. Brownlow lose faith in Oliver? Again, does it matter whether Oliver actually is a thief or not, if he looks and acts like a thief? Everyone seems to assume he’s a thief. 14
  15. 15. Climax • The attempted robbery of the Maylies’ house. • Oliver is forced to participate in the attempted robbery of the Maylies’ house, and has just about made up his mind to risk being shot by Sikes, and go wake up the household to warn them. But he’s trapped between Sikes and his gun on one side, and Giles and his gun on the other. Again—he’s in a position in which everyone assumes he’s a thief because he’s been hanging out with thieves. 15
  16. 16. • Suspense • Oliver’s been the victim of a giant conspiracy from the beginning! • After the Maylies have taken Oliver in and he’s been reunited with Mr. Brownlow, Nancy tells Rose what she overheard between Fagin and Monks. Oliver’s been the victim of a conspiracy, and Monks is behind it all. But they’re not really sure what to do about it. • Denouement • Nancy’s information enables Mr. Brownlow and the Maylie group to force a confession from Monks. • After Nancy overhears the second conversation between Monks and Fagin, she reports back to Mr. Brownlow and Rose. She gives them enough information to be able to find Monks, and bully a confession out of him. The result is a couple of chapters in which Mr. Brownlow forces Monks to tell all. And what Monks doesn’t know, Mr. Brownlow does, so he is able to throw in the necessary bits 16
  17. 17. reorientation • All the loose ends get tied off, and we do mean all: Nancy gets murdered by Sikes, and Sikes accidentally hangs himself, saving the executioner the trouble. Monks’s confession enables Oliver to inherit a bit of his father’s estate. • Knowing that Oliver is the son of his dead best friend, Mr. Brownlow decides to adopt him (although he probably would have adopted him anyway). Rose gets to marry Harry Maylie. Fagin is arrested and hanged, and the rest of his gang is arrested and transported. 17
  18. 18. reorientation • Mr. Brownlow, with whom the Maylies have reunited Oliver, confronts Monks and wrings the truth about Oliver’s parentage from him. It is revealed that Monks is Oliver’s half brother. Their father, Mr. Leeford, was unhappily married to a wealthy woman and had an affair with Oliver’s mother, Agnes Fleming. Monks has been pursuing Oliver all along in the hopes of ensuring that his half-brother is deprived of his share of the family inheritance. Mr. Brownlow forces Monks to sign over Oliver’s share to Oliver. Moreover, it is discovered that Rose is Agnes’s younger sister, hence Oliver’s aunt. Fagin is hung for his crimes. Finally, Mr. Brownlow adopts Oliver, and they and the Maylies retire to a blissful existence in the countryside. 18
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  20. 20. Characters of the Plot Oliver Twist Fagin Nancy The Artful Dodger Charley Bates Bill Sikes Mr. Brownlow Mrs. Maylie Rose Maylie Harry Maylie Mr. Grimwig Mr. Bumble Mr. Losberne Mrs. Corney Edward Monks Agnes Fleming Mr. Leeford Monks’s Mother Noah Claypole Charlotte Mr. Fang 20
  21. 21. Oliver Twist The novel’s protagonist. Oliver is an orphan born in a workhouse, and Dickens uses his situation to criticize public policy toward the poor in 1830s England. Oliver is between nine and twelve years old when the main action of the novel occurs. Though treated with cruelty and surrounded by coarseness for most of his life, he is a pious, innocent child, and his charms draw the attention of several wealthy benefactors. His true identity is the central mystery of the novel. 21
  22. 22. Fagin Fagin is pretty clearly a bad guy. For a long time, people thought that Fagin was based on a real guy who sold stolen goods named Ikey Solomon. Ikey Solomon happened to be Jewish, but the stereotype was there before Solomon or Fagin came along – the limited number of careers open to people of Jewish descent did indeed drive some Jewish people to illegal activity. 22
  23. 23. Nancy As a child of the streets, Nancy has been a thief and drinks to excess. The novel is full of characters who are all good and can barely comprehend evil, such as Oliver, Rose, and Brownlow; and characters who are all evil and can barely comprehend good, such as Fagin, Sikes, and Monks. Only Nancy comprehends and is capable of both good and evil. Her ultimate choice to do good at a great personal cost is a strong argument in favor of the incorruptibility of basic goodness, no matter how many environmental obstacles it may face. 23
  24. 24. The Artful Dodger The Artful Dodger is one of the most famous and memorable characters in the novel. The Dodger’s real name is Jack Dawkins. He provides comic relief in part because of his anti-establishment, devil-may-care attitude, but also because of the odd juxtapositions of opposites that he provides. He can’t be more than twelve, but he acts like a full-grown man, and even wears men’s clothes (with the sleeves rolled way up). He talks and walks like a man, and the contrast between his attitude and his size is pretty funny. He also is one of the main "canters" of the novel – he speaks almost entirely in thieves’ cant, which gives Dickens a chance to show off what he knows, and gives the reader the titillating impression that he or she is glimpsing some authentic view of the criminal underworld. 24
  25. 25. Charley Bates Charley Bates serves the same role as the Dodger – comic relief – but in a slightly different way. The Dodger is funny because he’s so knowing, and knows too much for his age, so that the contrast creates the comedy. Charley is just his dumb sidekick. He thinks everything is hilarious, and that crime is just one long joke against the system. That is, until Sikes murders Nancy. You could say that Charley is the one character in the novel that undergoes a major change: after the murder, Charley decides that crime isn’t actually so funny after all, and goes straight. In the final chapter, Dickens tells us that Charley became a farm hand and was pretty happy with a country life. 25
  26. 26. Bill Sikes Sikes is brave and strong, for sure, and he’s a straight shooter. He doesn’t like it when Fagin talks around the point or tries to cover things up. He’s no liar, whatever else he might be. So, reluctantly, we have to admit that Sikes has a few admirable qualities. But he’s also stubborn, distrustful, and has what one might call some anger management issues.He is also a brutal professional burglar brought up in Fagin’s gang. Sikes is Nancy's pimp and lover, and he treats both her and his dog Bull’s- eye with an odd combination of cruelty and grudging affection. His murder of Nancy is the most heinous of the many crimes that occur in the novel. 26
  27. 27. Mr. Brownlow Mr. Brownlow is Oliver’s first friend and mentor. He’s had a rough life – he was going to marry his best friend’s sister, but she died on the morning of their wedding day. And then his best friend died far from home, too. So one would think that Mr. Brownlow would be a bitter, cynical old man, but he’s not. He still has faith in people. He’s kind of a book worm – the first time we see him, he’s so absorbed in reading a book at a bookseller’s stand in the street that he doesn’t notice the Dodger and Charley trying to pick his pocket. But he’s no wimp, either. When Mr. Fang, the magistrate, insults him, he stands up for himself immediately. He’s also a loyal friend, and dedicated to doing what’s right. Generally, he’s a stand-up guy. 27
  28. 28. Mrs. Maylie Mrs. Maylie is a very kind and wealthy woman. She apparently makes a habit of taking in questionable orphans, even though she already had a son of her own. Once, when she was on a holiday in Wales, she saw a cute little girl who was being brought up by the villagers and, despite the stories that had been circulating about how this girl was bad news, Mrs. Maylie decided to take the girl in. Although an old lady, she’s very firm and vigorous – she goes on long walks, and her posture is pretty amazing 28
  29. 29. Rose Maylie Rose is the sweetest, loveliest, most virtuous young lady ever. She’s pretty much a stock Victorian heroine. She’s self-sacrificing, loving, kind to animals and small children, and blond. She is occasionally prone to fevers, but doesn’t die of them. 29
  30. 30. Harry Maylie Harry doesn’t actually appear all that much in the novel, but from what is able to gather, he’s the typical Victorian hero: young, attractive, active, devoted to his mother and lover, nice to children, good with horses, and blond. He shows up for the first time just as Rose is over the worst of her illness, and it is learnt that he’s been in love with her for pretty much his entire adult life. His devoted adoration of Rose Maylie is pretty much his defining characteristic. 30
  31. 31. Mr. Grimwig Mr. Grimwig is a typical Dickens character: he is eccentric, and his eccentricity takes the form of a frequently repeated verbal or physical tick. His favorite expression is, "I’ll eat my head!" – and he repeats that phrase so often, and so oddly, that that’s pretty much all there is to his character. He’s reducible to his own eccentric expression. He has other characteristics – he’s stubborn, contrary, abrupt, hard on the outside, but marshmallow-y soft on the inside, and very fond of Rose. But he’s memorable primarily as the "I’ll eat my head!" guy, and that’s one of the striking things about how Dickens writes minor characters – they’ll often be reducible to some odd or eccentric expression or gesture. 31
  32. 32. Mr. Losberne Mr. Losberne is a country doctor and old family friend of the Maylies. He’s unmarried and he’s very attached to that family, and actually moves to the country when they leave Chertsey because the neighborhood is too boring with them gone. He’s friendly and gregarious, always ready to pity the unfortunate, but he’s also abrupt and reckless, and occasionally stubborn. No wonder he gets along so well with Mr. Grimwig. 32
  33. 33. Mr. Bumble Mr. Bumble is the beadle in the town where Oliver is born. As beadle, he’s responsible for running all of the "charitable" institutions in the parish – including the baby farms and the workhouse. He also gets to wear a special cocked hat, of which he is very proud. If Mr. Grimwig is the kind of one-sided character who can be reduced to an expression, Mr. Bumble can be reduced to his beadle hat. 33
  34. 34. Mrs. Corney Mrs. Corney is cautious, distrustful, cruel, and power-hungry. We first meet her when she’s fixing herself tea in her snug little room on a blustery winter’s day. The snugness of her little room is in sharp contrast to the bitterness of the rest of the workhouse, where the paupers have to live. She feels sorry for herself, though, despite the snugness, because she’s a widow, and kind of lonely. 34
  35. 35. Edward Monks Edward Monks is the primary villain of the novel, in that he’s the one who’s really out to get Oliver, but because he appears in so few scenes, he’s listed lower than some of the arguably more "minor" characters. George Gissing, another Victorian novelist, argued that one "blemish" of Oliver twist 35
  36. 36. Agnes Fleming Agnes gets the first and the last words of the novel, so even though she’s only alive for about five minutes at the beginning, we figure she’s actually pretty important. Agnes is Oliver’s mother. And that’s where the story picks up in the first chapter: she arrives at a workhouse, has her baby, and dies. 36
  37. 37. Mr. Leeford Oliver and Monks’s father, who dies long before the events of the novel. He was an intelligent, high-minded man whose family forced him into an unhappy marriage with a wealthy woman. He eventually separated from his wife and had an illicit love affair with Agnes Fleming. He intended to flee the country with Agnes but died before he could do so. 37
  38. 38. Monks’s mother • An heiress who lived a decadent life and alienated her husband, Mr. Leeford. Monks’s mother destroyed Mr. Leeford’s will, which left part of his property to Oliver. Much of Monks’s nastiness is presumably inherited from her. 38
  39. 39. Noah Claypole Noah’s another typical minor Dickens character, in that he’s grotesque, absurd, and exaggerated. He’s skinny, lean, and eel-like, and has a taste for oysters and sneaking. Noah’s a pretty fun character. He starts out the novel as an apprentice in Mr. Sowerberry’s shop. He was a charity boy, and the other kids made fun of him. 39
  40. 40. Charlotte The Sowerberry’s maid. Charlotte becomes romantically involved with Noah Claypole and follows him about slavishly. Mr. Fang The harsh, irrational, power- hungry magistrate who presides over Oliver’s trial for pick-pocketing. 40
  41. 41. THANK YOU 41