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#HACK_DESIGNTHINKING
Copyright © 2019 FSA Prabowo & Kiki Sudiana. All Rights Reserved.
“It’s a foggy road out there”
Dr. (Cand) Kiki Sudiana, MM. & Fajar Prabowo, S.E., MBA.
Fakultas Ekonomi & Bisnis
Universitas Telkom
Dr. (Cand) Kiki Sudiana MM.
 Profesional:
 Direktur SDM, Universitas Telkom
(2019-sekarang)
 Dosen Creative Thinking in Business
(2018-sekarang)
 Dosen eCommerce & Internet
Business (2013-sekarang)
 GM Incubation & Tenant Service,
Bandung Technopark (2014-2018)
 Kontak:
 WA 08112101700
 ksudiana@telkomuniversity.ac.id
 Pengalaman Konsultan:
 Konsultan pendirian & pendampingan
Technopark
 Konsultan pendirian & pendampingan
inkubator bisnis
 Business coach & Mentor untuk
startup
 Profesional:
 Dosen Koordinator Kreativitas dalam Bisnis,
Universitas Telkom (2015 – Sekarang)
 Dosen Pembina HIPMI Universitas Telkom
(2014 – Sekarang)
 Tenaga Ahli Inovasi Divisi CSR Bio Farma
dan Advisor of PT. TMU (2019 – sekarang)
 PIC Divisi Platform & Kolaborasi Strategis di
GRIT e-Lab (2019 – Sekarang)
 Sekretaris Prodi Magister Manajemen
Telkom University (2016 – 2018)
 Kepala Editor Jurnal Manajemen Indonesia
(2015 – 2017)
 TEDx Tel-U Speaker in April 2016
 Kontak:
 WA 082127664266
 fajarmotekar@telkomuniversity.ac.id
 Awards:
 Dosen Terbaik Fakultas Ekonomi dan
Bisnis, Univ. Telkom di 2016
 Dosen Terbaik Prodi S1 Manajemen,
Univ. Telkom di 2015
Fajar Prabowo, S.E., MBA
“… cintailah masalahnya, bukan solusinya”
-----
Ash Maurya (2012)
TIPE-TIPE MASALAH
Well-structured problempemecah
masalah mengenal masalah yang hendak
dipecahkan dan dapat diselesaikan
menggunakan solusi rutin (contoh: SOP)
Semi-structured problemsebagian
elemen dari masalah belum diketahui.
Karenanya masalah harus dipecahkan
menggunakan solusi rutin yang dimodifikasi
Ill-structured problempemecah
masalah baru mengenal masalahnya dan
karenanya harus dipecahkan menggunakan
solusi baru yang dibuat secara khusus
Pengelompokkan masalah
ditentukan oleh (1) tingkat
kesulitan mendefinisikan masalah
and (2) keselutan menemukan
solusinya
WICKED PROBLEM
• Masalah bersifat unik dan baru
• Masalah dapat dipandang dari berbagai sudut
pandang dan meliputi berbagai pemangku
kepentingan yang saling bertolak belakang
• Masalah tidak memiliki akhir yang jelas
• Masalah merupakan gejala dari masalah lain
yang lebih luas
• Pemecah masalah tidak memiliki kesempatan
untuk melakukan uji coba atas solusi
• Pemecah masalah menanggun risiko
kegagalan yang besar
KARAKTERISTIK
METODE:
DESIGN
THINKING
KRITERIA MASALAH YANG BAIK
• Kriteria masalah: (i) teramat mengganggu, (ii)
dialami orang banyak, (iii) tidak ada solusi efektif
di mata pelanggan
• Pilihlah masalah yang cocok dengan kompetensi
anda. Masalah yang baik membangun
kepedulian dalam diri pemecah masalah
• Manfaat bagi pelanggan (solusi) harus menjadi
dasar bagi setiap pengambilan keputusan
pada setiap level organisasi dalam rangka
membangun daya saing
Belajarlah melihat
masalah masyarakat
di sekitar kita sebagai
peluang bisnis
DESIGN THINKING: DEFINISI
“Design Thinking adalah metode untuk
menciptakan inovasi guna memecahkan masalah-
masalah kompleks…”
-----
Beyhl and Giese (2016)
MODEL PEMECAHAN MASALAH
Wallas CPS*
Model
Van Gundy CPS*
Model
IDEO Model of
Design Thinking
(Tim Brown)
HPI Stanford
Model of Design
Thinking**
IBM Model of
Design Thinking
Lean Design
Thinking
(Mueler &
Thoring)
Preparation Objective Finding Preparation Preparation Preparation Preparation
Immersion
• Fact Finding
• Problem
Finding
Inspiration
• Empathize
• Synthesize
Observing
• Understand and
observe
• Point of View
Incubation Tidak ditemukan Tidak ditemukan Tidak ditemukan Tidak ditemukan Tidak ditemukan
Illumination Idea Finding Ideation • Ideate Reflecting Ideation
Verification
• Solution
Finding
• Acceptance
Finding
Implementation
• Prototyping
• Testing
Making
• Prototyping /
Customer
Discovery
• Customer
Validation
*CPS = Creative Problem Solving; **Telah diterapkan di FEB Telkom University
PROPOSED DESIGN STEPS
Empathize
Synthesize
IdeatePrototype
Test
Source: Hasso Platner Institut (HPI) Model (2009)
Q: When do we iterate?
A: When the insights (unexpected
learning) found during any of these
steps compelled us to do so
Q: How many times should we
iterate?
A: Number of iteration will be varied
from one project to another because
it relied on our findings in any of
those design steps
PROPOSED DESIGN STEPS
Empathize
Synthesize
IdeatePrototype
Test
Source: Hasso Platner Institut (HPI) Model (2009)
Q: Kapan iterasi dilakukan?
A: saat temuan (insights) dari proses
Design Thinking yang dilakukan
memerlukan adanya iterasi
A: Berapa kali seharusnya iterasi
dilakukan?
A: jumlah iterasi akan bervariasi
bergantung pada kualitas
pembelajaran yang terjadi. Semakin
baik kualitas pembelajaran, semakin
sedikit pula iterasi yang dibutuhkan
Based on
HPI Model
Empathize, Synthesize, Ideate, Prototype,
Testing / Validation
(Platner et al., 2011)
Humanistic approach, preserving ambiguity,
redesign / iterative, tangibility of ideas
(Platner et al., 2011)
Empathy, Integrative Thinking,
Experimentalism, and Collaboration
(Brown, 2008)
Empathy Map, Persona, Customer Journey Map,
Research Wall, Body Storming, Storyboard, Paper
Prototype, etc. (from various sources)
From: various sources and my own experiences (FSA Prabowo, 2019)
PIRAMIDA DESIGN THINKING
Source: FSA Prabowo & Kiki Sudiana (2019)
ABDUCTIVE THINKING
• Objek diketahui
• Cara objek dioperasikan diketahui
• Hasilnya pengoperasian objek belum diketahui
• Objek diketahui
• Cara objek dioperasikan belum diketahui
• Hasil dari pengoperasian objek diketahui
• Objek belum diketahui
• Cara objek dioperasikan belum diketahui
• Hasil dari pengoperasian objek diketahui
BERPIKIR
DEDUKTIF
BERPIKIR
INDUKTIF
BERPIKIR
ABDUKTIF
• PLUS: siswa termotivasi untuk memecahkan
masalah mereka diperbolehkan
memecahkan masalah mereka (siswa
diposisikan sebagai pemilik masalah)
• GAP: siswa measa kebingungan oleh
proses Design Thinking karena tidak adanya
aturan yang jelas. Siswa juga kesulitan
melakukan iterasi karena proses HPI model
memerlukan waktu yang cukup panjang
• QUESTION: bagaimana seharusnya kita
menyederhanakan dan memberikan struktur
pada proses Design Thinking tanpa
kehilangan keunggulan-keunggulannya?
• IDEA: mengembangkan model baru yang
lebih sederhana untuk memfasilitasi iterasi
untuk memaksimalkan pembelajaran
tentang masalah pelanggan
FEEDBACK CAPTURE GRID
+ ∆
?
Launch Pad Model as the modification of
HPI Model of Design Thinking Process
(Prabowo & Sudiana, 2019)
Humanistic approach, preserving ambiguity,
redesign / iterative, tangibility of ideas
(Platner et al., 2011)
Empathy, Integrative Thinking,
Experimentalism, and Collaboration
(Brown, 2008)
From: various sources and my own experiences (FSA Prabowo, 2019)
Source: FSA Prabowo & Kiki Sudiana (2019)
PIRAMIDA DESIGN THINKING: DIBALIKKAN
Customer Journey Map, Affinity
Diagraming, Storyboard, Paper
Prototype, etc. (from various sources)
LAUNCHPAD MODEL: THE REASONS
CUSTOMER PROBLEM
SCENARIO SOLUTION
Launch-Pad Model is a repository system for learning generated during D.T.
• Reduce ambiguity by providing a
structure that help students and lecturers
to trace the whole process of Design
Thinking
• Help students and lecturers to identify the
essential data to be gathered
• Facilitate rapid iteration process due to
it’s simplicity
• Help students and lecturers to evaluate
the fit between the essential components
of Design Thinking
Source: FSA Prabowo & Kiki Sudiana (2019)
LAUNCHPAD MODEL: THE COMPONENTS
CUSTOMER PROBLEM
SCENARIO SOLUTION
It is developed for Tel-U to simplify the method of Design Thinking
• Problems: what is the problem that we
are going to solve? Why do we need to
solve this problem?
• Customers: who are the persons that we
are going to help? Who are suffer the most
when the problem occurred?
• Scenarios: in what scenarios or situations
the problem occurred?
• Solutions: how are we going to solve the
problem? Who are the stakeholders that
can be involved?
Source: FSA Prabowo & Kiki Sudiana (2019)
CUSTOMER PROBLEM
SCENARIO SOLUTION
LAUNCHPAD MODEL: REINVENTION
How to use: Clockwise Cycle
• Reinvention is a situation in which the
solution is already exist but regarded by
customers as not effective
• It is advised that the cycle begin with
current solutions and current scenarios
• The purpose is to identify how customers
currently solve the problem which
occurred in what scenario
• Then, the next step is to identify who
suffers the most from the problem and
how we are going to help them by using
ideation methods
Source: FSA Prabowo & Kiki Sudiana (2019)
CUSTOMER PROBLEM
SCENARIO SOLUTION
EXAMPLE: GOJEK
How to use: Clockwise Cycle
THE RESULT OF OBSERVATION
1. Solution: ojek pangkalan is used …
2. Scenario: to go through busy traffic
in major cities in Indonesia …
3. Customers: by people with high
mobility …
4. Problems: unfortunately, ojek
pangkalan is difficult to be found and
the price is uncertain  go to
ideation
Source: FSA Prabowo & Kiki Sudiana (2019)
CUSTOMER PROBLEM
SCENARIO SOLUTION
LAUNCHPAD MODEL: NEW INVENTION
How to use: Counter Clockwise Cycle
• New invention is a situation in which the
problem is already existed but the
solution is not exist yet
• It is advised that the cycle begin with
problems and customers
• The purpose is to identify what is the
problem that we are going to solve the
problem and WHO suffers the most from
that problem
• Then, the next step is to identify the
scenario in which the problem occurs
and how should we solve it (solution) by
using ideation methods
Source: FSA Prabowo & Kiki Sudiana (2019)
CUSTOMER PROBLEM
SCENARIO SOLUTION
EXAMPLE: SEARCH ENGINE
How to use: Counter Clockwise Cycle THE RESULT OF OBSERVATION
1. Problems: the proliferation of new
contents in the internet make it
difficult for …
2. Customers: people with average
technology literacy …
3. Scenarios: to find the relevant
content in the internet …
4. Solutions: therefore, we need a way
to find a mechanism to find contents
in the internet  go to ideation
Source: FSA Prabowo & Kiki Sudiana (2019)
“Designing a desirable product isn’t about having a good
idea. It’s about making insightful observations about existing
behavior and transforming that behavior into a more
desirable one [i.e. unexpected discovery]…”
-----
Kolko
IN THE SEARCH OF INSIGHT
IMMERSION EMPATHIZE SINTHESIZE
Obtain empirical facts
to enrich Design
Challenge: who is the
customer? What does
he do? What is the
triggering event? What
is the means that she
used? In what situation
she use it?
Establish emotional
connection or
acquisition with the
customers by seeing the
problem from the eyes
of customers.
Mindfulness is the key
to empathizing
Infer unexpected
learning about
customers’ motivation
or provocative
statement of truth
(insights). Insight can
be perceived as the
AHA MOMENT or
illumination
From: Various Sources
PROBLEM AREA: GOLD MINER
THE
BRIEF
What are
the
problems
that I
sense? Who else
that might
be inflicted
by the
problem?
What are
my wishes
or dreams?
What are
my skills?
What are
my
resources?
Who do I
know?
Source: FSA Prabowo & Kiki Sudiana (2019)
1. IMMERSION: 5W1H
What Who Why Where When How
What is the
problem?
Who is
involved?
Why is the
problem
important?
Where does
the problem
occur?
When did
the problem
begin?
How could
this problem
be an
opportunity?
What would
we like to
know?
Who is
affected by
the
situation?
Why does it
occur?
Where was it
already
resolved
before?
When do
people want
to see
result?
How could it
be solved?
What are the
assumptions
that are
scrutinized?
Who
decides?
Why was it
not yet
solved?
Where did
similar
situation
exist?
When can
the project
be started?
What has
already been
tried to
resolve the
problem?
Source: Lewrick et al. (2018)
2. EMPATHIZE: EMPATHY MAP
1. Set the theme for empathizing
activities
2. Empty your mind and defer any
judgement
3. Identify any pain and gain
along the way (during
observation and interview)
“The goal is to acquiring
feelings by exploring what do
the customers see, say, do,
hear, think, and feel”
3. SYNTHESIZE: AFFINITY DIAGRAMING
1. Record needs, motivation, interest on
yellow notes as many as possible. Each
note contain single data gathered by
observation
2. Rearrange similar observation data in a
single column that contain 3 to 6 notes.
3. Use blue note to label each cluster.
Group blue notes and label that group by
using pink notes
4. Review (walk the wall) the affinity
diagram and begin to search for insights
about the problem
5. Ideate possible solutions for each
problem and use green notes
4. IDEATE: SCAMPER
• What component of solution that can be substitute?S
• What component of solution that can be combined?C
• What component of solution that can be adapted?A
• What component of solution of that can be modified?M
• What component of solution that can be put to another use?P
• What component of solution that can be eliminated?E
• What component of solution that can be reversed?R
RISKIEST ASSUMPTIONS IDENTIFICATION
High
Impact,
distant
future
High
Impact,
near
future
Low
impact,
distant
future
Low
Impact,
near
future
• Riskiest assumptions or LOFA
(Leap of Faith Assumption) are
assumptions that must be
held true to ensure business
viability and growth
• It can be perceived as threat to
the viability of startup and
usually can be identified at
the very beginning
EXAMPLE: LAUNDRIANA
High
Impact,
distant
future
High
Impact,
near
future
Low
impact,
distant
future
Low
Impact,
near
future
RISKIEST ASSUMPTIONS:
1. Women prefer their clothing to
be handled by other women up
to a point they are willing to
pay a premium for it
2. Women in major cities are
willing and able to use chat bot
to support ordering and
tracking activities of their
clothes
5. PROTOTYPING
• In Design Thinking,
visualization of thinking is
very important. Prototyping is
used during and after the
ideation phase of the HOW
• Prototyping is not the final
product. It is created merely
as a learning tool about the
problem and the possible
solutions
• Use prototype to test the
riskiest assumptions only.
Not the whole features of our
product
PROTOTYPING
• Prototyping is to “make
believe.” It demands us
to be creative in
utilizing anything
around us to build the
prototypes (paper,
cardboard, ppt slides,
videos etc.)
• Choose the tools that
are most comfortable
to us and good
enough (not perfect)
to serve the testing
purpose
CUSTOMER PROBLEMS
SCENARIOS SOLUTIONS
6. LAUNCHPAD MODEL: TESTING
Must be applied for both cycles • When problem match with the customers
from the perspective of customers, we
already meet the customer-problem fit
(see A)
• When problems match with the solutions
from the perspective of customers, we
already meet the problem-solution fit
(see B)
• Both of the fits reflect the riskiest
assumptions that should be tested
• The fits must be observed and further
confirm by using interviews with real
customers that suffers the most
Source: FSA Prabowo & Kiki Sudiana (2019)
B
A
AFTER TESTING: PIVOT VS PERSEVERE
PERSEVERE
Stay on the current
course and move to
the next iteration of
design activities
PIVOT
Special kind of
change designed
to test a new
fundamental
hypothesis about
the product,
business model,
and engine of
growth
Zoom-in: a single feature become the
whole product (change solution box)
Zoom-out: the product become a feature
of a larger product (change solution box)
Customer segment: the product solves
the problem of different customers
(change problem and customer box)
Customer segment: the product solves the
problem that is regarded as unimportant
(change problem or customer box)
Possible pivots that might be revealed after testing
DESIGNING BUSINESS MODEL
KP
KA
KR
VP
Ch
CR
CS
CS RS
1. Value Proposition (VP)
2. Customer Segment (CS)
3. Channel (Ch)
4. Customer Relationship (CR)
5. Revenue Stream (RS)
6. Key Activities (KA)
7. Key Resources (KR)
8. Key Partner (KP)
9. Cost Structure (CS)
Yellow colored building blocks are parts of business
model that are affected by the result of problem-
customer fit and problem-solution fit. The
decision could be: to pivot or to persevere
Value
Proposition
Customer
segment
Created for
ChannelsCommunicated and delivered
through To reach
Customer
relationship
Key
Resources
Key
Activities
Produced by doing
By exploiting
Key Partners
Cost
structure
By cooperating with
By cooperating with
As reflected in
As reflected in
Revenue
stream
Compared with
That willing to gave up
To keep and growTo support
Thank you

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Hack designthinking 2019 ver. 7

  • 1. #HACK_DESIGNTHINKING Copyright © 2019 FSA Prabowo & Kiki Sudiana. All Rights Reserved. “It’s a foggy road out there” Dr. (Cand) Kiki Sudiana, MM. & Fajar Prabowo, S.E., MBA. Fakultas Ekonomi & Bisnis Universitas Telkom
  • 2. Dr. (Cand) Kiki Sudiana MM.  Profesional:  Direktur SDM, Universitas Telkom (2019-sekarang)  Dosen Creative Thinking in Business (2018-sekarang)  Dosen eCommerce & Internet Business (2013-sekarang)  GM Incubation & Tenant Service, Bandung Technopark (2014-2018)  Kontak:  WA 08112101700  ksudiana@telkomuniversity.ac.id  Pengalaman Konsultan:  Konsultan pendirian & pendampingan Technopark  Konsultan pendirian & pendampingan inkubator bisnis  Business coach & Mentor untuk startup
  • 3.  Profesional:  Dosen Koordinator Kreativitas dalam Bisnis, Universitas Telkom (2015 – Sekarang)  Dosen Pembina HIPMI Universitas Telkom (2014 – Sekarang)  Tenaga Ahli Inovasi Divisi CSR Bio Farma dan Advisor of PT. TMU (2019 – sekarang)  PIC Divisi Platform & Kolaborasi Strategis di GRIT e-Lab (2019 – Sekarang)  Sekretaris Prodi Magister Manajemen Telkom University (2016 – 2018)  Kepala Editor Jurnal Manajemen Indonesia (2015 – 2017)  TEDx Tel-U Speaker in April 2016  Kontak:  WA 082127664266  fajarmotekar@telkomuniversity.ac.id  Awards:  Dosen Terbaik Fakultas Ekonomi dan Bisnis, Univ. Telkom di 2016  Dosen Terbaik Prodi S1 Manajemen, Univ. Telkom di 2015 Fajar Prabowo, S.E., MBA
  • 4. “… cintailah masalahnya, bukan solusinya” ----- Ash Maurya (2012)
  • 5. TIPE-TIPE MASALAH Well-structured problempemecah masalah mengenal masalah yang hendak dipecahkan dan dapat diselesaikan menggunakan solusi rutin (contoh: SOP) Semi-structured problemsebagian elemen dari masalah belum diketahui. Karenanya masalah harus dipecahkan menggunakan solusi rutin yang dimodifikasi Ill-structured problempemecah masalah baru mengenal masalahnya dan karenanya harus dipecahkan menggunakan solusi baru yang dibuat secara khusus Pengelompokkan masalah ditentukan oleh (1) tingkat kesulitan mendefinisikan masalah and (2) keselutan menemukan solusinya
  • 6. WICKED PROBLEM • Masalah bersifat unik dan baru • Masalah dapat dipandang dari berbagai sudut pandang dan meliputi berbagai pemangku kepentingan yang saling bertolak belakang • Masalah tidak memiliki akhir yang jelas • Masalah merupakan gejala dari masalah lain yang lebih luas • Pemecah masalah tidak memiliki kesempatan untuk melakukan uji coba atas solusi • Pemecah masalah menanggun risiko kegagalan yang besar KARAKTERISTIK METODE: DESIGN THINKING
  • 7. KRITERIA MASALAH YANG BAIK • Kriteria masalah: (i) teramat mengganggu, (ii) dialami orang banyak, (iii) tidak ada solusi efektif di mata pelanggan • Pilihlah masalah yang cocok dengan kompetensi anda. Masalah yang baik membangun kepedulian dalam diri pemecah masalah • Manfaat bagi pelanggan (solusi) harus menjadi dasar bagi setiap pengambilan keputusan pada setiap level organisasi dalam rangka membangun daya saing Belajarlah melihat masalah masyarakat di sekitar kita sebagai peluang bisnis
  • 8. DESIGN THINKING: DEFINISI “Design Thinking adalah metode untuk menciptakan inovasi guna memecahkan masalah- masalah kompleks…” ----- Beyhl and Giese (2016)
  • 9. MODEL PEMECAHAN MASALAH Wallas CPS* Model Van Gundy CPS* Model IDEO Model of Design Thinking (Tim Brown) HPI Stanford Model of Design Thinking** IBM Model of Design Thinking Lean Design Thinking (Mueler & Thoring) Preparation Objective Finding Preparation Preparation Preparation Preparation Immersion • Fact Finding • Problem Finding Inspiration • Empathize • Synthesize Observing • Understand and observe • Point of View Incubation Tidak ditemukan Tidak ditemukan Tidak ditemukan Tidak ditemukan Tidak ditemukan Illumination Idea Finding Ideation • Ideate Reflecting Ideation Verification • Solution Finding • Acceptance Finding Implementation • Prototyping • Testing Making • Prototyping / Customer Discovery • Customer Validation *CPS = Creative Problem Solving; **Telah diterapkan di FEB Telkom University
  • 10. PROPOSED DESIGN STEPS Empathize Synthesize IdeatePrototype Test Source: Hasso Platner Institut (HPI) Model (2009) Q: When do we iterate? A: When the insights (unexpected learning) found during any of these steps compelled us to do so Q: How many times should we iterate? A: Number of iteration will be varied from one project to another because it relied on our findings in any of those design steps
  • 11. PROPOSED DESIGN STEPS Empathize Synthesize IdeatePrototype Test Source: Hasso Platner Institut (HPI) Model (2009) Q: Kapan iterasi dilakukan? A: saat temuan (insights) dari proses Design Thinking yang dilakukan memerlukan adanya iterasi A: Berapa kali seharusnya iterasi dilakukan? A: jumlah iterasi akan bervariasi bergantung pada kualitas pembelajaran yang terjadi. Semakin baik kualitas pembelajaran, semakin sedikit pula iterasi yang dibutuhkan
  • 13. Empathize, Synthesize, Ideate, Prototype, Testing / Validation (Platner et al., 2011) Humanistic approach, preserving ambiguity, redesign / iterative, tangibility of ideas (Platner et al., 2011) Empathy, Integrative Thinking, Experimentalism, and Collaboration (Brown, 2008) Empathy Map, Persona, Customer Journey Map, Research Wall, Body Storming, Storyboard, Paper Prototype, etc. (from various sources) From: various sources and my own experiences (FSA Prabowo, 2019) PIRAMIDA DESIGN THINKING Source: FSA Prabowo & Kiki Sudiana (2019)
  • 14. ABDUCTIVE THINKING • Objek diketahui • Cara objek dioperasikan diketahui • Hasilnya pengoperasian objek belum diketahui • Objek diketahui • Cara objek dioperasikan belum diketahui • Hasil dari pengoperasian objek diketahui • Objek belum diketahui • Cara objek dioperasikan belum diketahui • Hasil dari pengoperasian objek diketahui BERPIKIR DEDUKTIF BERPIKIR INDUKTIF BERPIKIR ABDUKTIF
  • 15.
  • 16. • PLUS: siswa termotivasi untuk memecahkan masalah mereka diperbolehkan memecahkan masalah mereka (siswa diposisikan sebagai pemilik masalah) • GAP: siswa measa kebingungan oleh proses Design Thinking karena tidak adanya aturan yang jelas. Siswa juga kesulitan melakukan iterasi karena proses HPI model memerlukan waktu yang cukup panjang • QUESTION: bagaimana seharusnya kita menyederhanakan dan memberikan struktur pada proses Design Thinking tanpa kehilangan keunggulan-keunggulannya? • IDEA: mengembangkan model baru yang lebih sederhana untuk memfasilitasi iterasi untuk memaksimalkan pembelajaran tentang masalah pelanggan FEEDBACK CAPTURE GRID + ∆ ?
  • 17. Launch Pad Model as the modification of HPI Model of Design Thinking Process (Prabowo & Sudiana, 2019) Humanistic approach, preserving ambiguity, redesign / iterative, tangibility of ideas (Platner et al., 2011) Empathy, Integrative Thinking, Experimentalism, and Collaboration (Brown, 2008) From: various sources and my own experiences (FSA Prabowo, 2019) Source: FSA Prabowo & Kiki Sudiana (2019) PIRAMIDA DESIGN THINKING: DIBALIKKAN Customer Journey Map, Affinity Diagraming, Storyboard, Paper Prototype, etc. (from various sources)
  • 18. LAUNCHPAD MODEL: THE REASONS CUSTOMER PROBLEM SCENARIO SOLUTION Launch-Pad Model is a repository system for learning generated during D.T. • Reduce ambiguity by providing a structure that help students and lecturers to trace the whole process of Design Thinking • Help students and lecturers to identify the essential data to be gathered • Facilitate rapid iteration process due to it’s simplicity • Help students and lecturers to evaluate the fit between the essential components of Design Thinking Source: FSA Prabowo & Kiki Sudiana (2019)
  • 19. LAUNCHPAD MODEL: THE COMPONENTS CUSTOMER PROBLEM SCENARIO SOLUTION It is developed for Tel-U to simplify the method of Design Thinking • Problems: what is the problem that we are going to solve? Why do we need to solve this problem? • Customers: who are the persons that we are going to help? Who are suffer the most when the problem occurred? • Scenarios: in what scenarios or situations the problem occurred? • Solutions: how are we going to solve the problem? Who are the stakeholders that can be involved? Source: FSA Prabowo & Kiki Sudiana (2019)
  • 20. CUSTOMER PROBLEM SCENARIO SOLUTION LAUNCHPAD MODEL: REINVENTION How to use: Clockwise Cycle • Reinvention is a situation in which the solution is already exist but regarded by customers as not effective • It is advised that the cycle begin with current solutions and current scenarios • The purpose is to identify how customers currently solve the problem which occurred in what scenario • Then, the next step is to identify who suffers the most from the problem and how we are going to help them by using ideation methods Source: FSA Prabowo & Kiki Sudiana (2019)
  • 21. CUSTOMER PROBLEM SCENARIO SOLUTION EXAMPLE: GOJEK How to use: Clockwise Cycle THE RESULT OF OBSERVATION 1. Solution: ojek pangkalan is used … 2. Scenario: to go through busy traffic in major cities in Indonesia … 3. Customers: by people with high mobility … 4. Problems: unfortunately, ojek pangkalan is difficult to be found and the price is uncertain  go to ideation Source: FSA Prabowo & Kiki Sudiana (2019)
  • 22. CUSTOMER PROBLEM SCENARIO SOLUTION LAUNCHPAD MODEL: NEW INVENTION How to use: Counter Clockwise Cycle • New invention is a situation in which the problem is already existed but the solution is not exist yet • It is advised that the cycle begin with problems and customers • The purpose is to identify what is the problem that we are going to solve the problem and WHO suffers the most from that problem • Then, the next step is to identify the scenario in which the problem occurs and how should we solve it (solution) by using ideation methods Source: FSA Prabowo & Kiki Sudiana (2019)
  • 23. CUSTOMER PROBLEM SCENARIO SOLUTION EXAMPLE: SEARCH ENGINE How to use: Counter Clockwise Cycle THE RESULT OF OBSERVATION 1. Problems: the proliferation of new contents in the internet make it difficult for … 2. Customers: people with average technology literacy … 3. Scenarios: to find the relevant content in the internet … 4. Solutions: therefore, we need a way to find a mechanism to find contents in the internet  go to ideation Source: FSA Prabowo & Kiki Sudiana (2019)
  • 24. “Designing a desirable product isn’t about having a good idea. It’s about making insightful observations about existing behavior and transforming that behavior into a more desirable one [i.e. unexpected discovery]…” ----- Kolko
  • 25. IN THE SEARCH OF INSIGHT IMMERSION EMPATHIZE SINTHESIZE Obtain empirical facts to enrich Design Challenge: who is the customer? What does he do? What is the triggering event? What is the means that she used? In what situation she use it? Establish emotional connection or acquisition with the customers by seeing the problem from the eyes of customers. Mindfulness is the key to empathizing Infer unexpected learning about customers’ motivation or provocative statement of truth (insights). Insight can be perceived as the AHA MOMENT or illumination From: Various Sources
  • 26. PROBLEM AREA: GOLD MINER THE BRIEF What are the problems that I sense? Who else that might be inflicted by the problem? What are my wishes or dreams? What are my skills? What are my resources? Who do I know? Source: FSA Prabowo & Kiki Sudiana (2019)
  • 27. 1. IMMERSION: 5W1H What Who Why Where When How What is the problem? Who is involved? Why is the problem important? Where does the problem occur? When did the problem begin? How could this problem be an opportunity? What would we like to know? Who is affected by the situation? Why does it occur? Where was it already resolved before? When do people want to see result? How could it be solved? What are the assumptions that are scrutinized? Who decides? Why was it not yet solved? Where did similar situation exist? When can the project be started? What has already been tried to resolve the problem? Source: Lewrick et al. (2018)
  • 28. 2. EMPATHIZE: EMPATHY MAP 1. Set the theme for empathizing activities 2. Empty your mind and defer any judgement 3. Identify any pain and gain along the way (during observation and interview) “The goal is to acquiring feelings by exploring what do the customers see, say, do, hear, think, and feel”
  • 29. 3. SYNTHESIZE: AFFINITY DIAGRAMING 1. Record needs, motivation, interest on yellow notes as many as possible. Each note contain single data gathered by observation 2. Rearrange similar observation data in a single column that contain 3 to 6 notes. 3. Use blue note to label each cluster. Group blue notes and label that group by using pink notes 4. Review (walk the wall) the affinity diagram and begin to search for insights about the problem 5. Ideate possible solutions for each problem and use green notes
  • 30. 4. IDEATE: SCAMPER • What component of solution that can be substitute?S • What component of solution that can be combined?C • What component of solution that can be adapted?A • What component of solution of that can be modified?M • What component of solution that can be put to another use?P • What component of solution that can be eliminated?E • What component of solution that can be reversed?R
  • 31. RISKIEST ASSUMPTIONS IDENTIFICATION High Impact, distant future High Impact, near future Low impact, distant future Low Impact, near future • Riskiest assumptions or LOFA (Leap of Faith Assumption) are assumptions that must be held true to ensure business viability and growth • It can be perceived as threat to the viability of startup and usually can be identified at the very beginning
  • 32. EXAMPLE: LAUNDRIANA High Impact, distant future High Impact, near future Low impact, distant future Low Impact, near future RISKIEST ASSUMPTIONS: 1. Women prefer their clothing to be handled by other women up to a point they are willing to pay a premium for it 2. Women in major cities are willing and able to use chat bot to support ordering and tracking activities of their clothes
  • 33. 5. PROTOTYPING • In Design Thinking, visualization of thinking is very important. Prototyping is used during and after the ideation phase of the HOW • Prototyping is not the final product. It is created merely as a learning tool about the problem and the possible solutions • Use prototype to test the riskiest assumptions only. Not the whole features of our product
  • 34. PROTOTYPING • Prototyping is to “make believe.” It demands us to be creative in utilizing anything around us to build the prototypes (paper, cardboard, ppt slides, videos etc.) • Choose the tools that are most comfortable to us and good enough (not perfect) to serve the testing purpose
  • 35. CUSTOMER PROBLEMS SCENARIOS SOLUTIONS 6. LAUNCHPAD MODEL: TESTING Must be applied for both cycles • When problem match with the customers from the perspective of customers, we already meet the customer-problem fit (see A) • When problems match with the solutions from the perspective of customers, we already meet the problem-solution fit (see B) • Both of the fits reflect the riskiest assumptions that should be tested • The fits must be observed and further confirm by using interviews with real customers that suffers the most Source: FSA Prabowo & Kiki Sudiana (2019) B A
  • 36. AFTER TESTING: PIVOT VS PERSEVERE PERSEVERE Stay on the current course and move to the next iteration of design activities PIVOT Special kind of change designed to test a new fundamental hypothesis about the product, business model, and engine of growth Zoom-in: a single feature become the whole product (change solution box) Zoom-out: the product become a feature of a larger product (change solution box) Customer segment: the product solves the problem of different customers (change problem and customer box) Customer segment: the product solves the problem that is regarded as unimportant (change problem or customer box) Possible pivots that might be revealed after testing
  • 37. DESIGNING BUSINESS MODEL KP KA KR VP Ch CR CS CS RS 1. Value Proposition (VP) 2. Customer Segment (CS) 3. Channel (Ch) 4. Customer Relationship (CR) 5. Revenue Stream (RS) 6. Key Activities (KA) 7. Key Resources (KR) 8. Key Partner (KP) 9. Cost Structure (CS) Yellow colored building blocks are parts of business model that are affected by the result of problem- customer fit and problem-solution fit. The decision could be: to pivot or to persevere
  • 38. Value Proposition Customer segment Created for ChannelsCommunicated and delivered through To reach Customer relationship Key Resources Key Activities Produced by doing By exploiting Key Partners Cost structure By cooperating with By cooperating with As reflected in As reflected in Revenue stream Compared with That willing to gave up To keep and growTo support