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Dansk English
Praktisk projektstyring
Practical Project Management
1.	Hvad	er	et	projekt?
GruppeopGave 1.1:
Lav research på hvad et projekt er som begreb.
Søg online. Skriv nogle få sætninger, som beskri-
ver, hvad et projekt er, generelt set.
GruppeopGave 1.2:
Hvad er vigtigt, når man skal starte et projekt set i
forhold til f.eks. interessenter, ressourcer og i det
hele taget at være SMART?:
S: Specifikke, beskrevne mål
M: Målbare mål og delmål
A: Accepterede mål af alle involverede
R: Realistisk planlægning (mål, ressourser)
T: Tid, dvs. styring af mål og deadlines
Diskuter hvad disse parametre betyder.
Hvordan arbejder disse parametre sammen?
2.	Hvem	er	man	i	et	projekt?
Hvilken type og hvilken rolle har man i en projekt-
gruppe? Se de flg. steder (teoretisk typologi):
Belbins teamroller:
http://potential.dk/belbins-9-teamroller/
Vær opmærksom på, at de omtalte typologise-
ringstest ikke måler færdigheder, det vil sige, hvor
dygtig man objektivt er til noget. De måler, hvad
man selv synes, man er bedst til.
GruppeopGave 2.1:
Præsenter hver især over for hinanden Hvad I tror
I er gode til i hvilke typer faglige og/eller akade-
miske projekter, ifølge Belbin-modellen. Kom med
eksempler fra jeres erfaringer med forskellige
typer af projekter. Hvad er du absolut ikke? Hvad
kunne du godt tænke dig at lære at blive?
Lecture	design: David Engelby
Undervisningsdesign: David Engelby
1.	WHat	is	a	project?
Group task 1.1:
Find out what a project is as a concept. Search on-
line. Write down a few sentences which describes
a project in general.
Group task 1.2:
What is important when you are to start a pro-
ject—in relation to stakeholders, resources and in
general the ways of being SMART?:
S: Specific, described goals
M: Meausurable goals and milestones
A: Accepted goals (by all the involved)
R: Realistic planning (goal, resources)
T: Time: manage goals and og deadlines
Discuss what these parameters mean.
How do these parameters work together?
2.	WHo	are	you	in	a	project?
What type are you and what kind of role do you
have in a project group? See these theories of
typology:
Belbins team roles: http://mindtools.com/pages/
article/newLDR_83.htm
Please observe, that the test doesn’t show what
you are actually good at, but what you think and
believe yourself to be good at in a team context.
Group task 2.1:
Present to each other what you believe you would
be good at in a professional and/or academic
projekt, according to the Belbin model. Give ex-
amples of your former experiences with projects.
What would you say you're definitely not like?
What would you like to learn to be?
2
3.	objective	and	risk	analysis
The assessments of risks are important factors in a
project. It can influence both your initial objec-
tives (overall purpose) and the detailed goals.
Group task 3.1:
First, find out what a stakeholder is.
What is a purpose in relation to goals in a project?
Search online.
Group task 3.2:
Imagine that you are to conduct a research, and
after four months you must hand in a report.
What typical risks could you imagine would poten-
tially be in this project (Ilness, for instance). What
would be easy to solve, what wouldn’t?
Group task 3.3:
Look at the table below and try to come up with
some ideas and examples of how to place stake-
holders and risks in a way that seems plausible.
This will of course take a real analysis under real
project circumstanses, but for now we pretend
you are to make a campaign for a town council in
a small town. They want to reposition the town
via a social media strategy. Draw the table on a
bigger scale on paper. Who is important for what,
what smells like trouble (small or big), who are
responsible for what (roles) in the project group
etc.? Give it a try:
*Importance and problem:
1 = not important/small problem.
Medium 1 og 10 is an assessment,
10 = very important/big problem.
These numbers represent parameters.
Is this logical to you? Why/why not?
Dansk English
3.	Formål	og	risikoanalyse
Vurdering af risici er en vigtig faktor i al projektar-
bejde. Det kan afgøre hele ens målsætning, både
hvad angår mål og delmål.
GruppeopGave 3.1:
Først, find ud af hvad en interessent er.
Hvad er projektmål i forhold til delmål?
Søg online
GruppeopGave 3.2:
Forestil dig, du får til opgave at lave en undersø-
gelse og aflevere en rapport efter fire uger. hvilke
typiske risici kan du forestille dig kunne opstå
(f.eks. sygdom)? Hvilke kunne løses let, og hvad
kræver mere?
GruppeopGave 3.3:
Se på nedenstående figur og kom med et eksem-
pel på en placering af interessenter og risici efter
bedste vurdering: Det kræver naturligvis en rigtig
analyse i et virkeligt projekt, men her lader vi
som om, at I skal lave en social medie kampagne
for et byråd, der vil repositionere en lille by. Tegn
figuren i stor skale på et papir. Hvem er betyd-
ningsfuld i sådan et projekt, efter jeres vurdering?
Hvem og hvad betyder problemer, og hvilken slags
problem (stort eller lille)? Hvilken rolle i projekt-
gruppen kræves til de forskellige interessenter og
udfordringer? Prøv at sætte jer ind i det:
*Betydning og problem:
1 = ikke vigtig/lille problem.
Mellem 1 og 10 er en vurdering,
10 = meget vigtigt/stort problem
Disse tal angiver parametre.
Er det logisk for jer Hvorfor/hvorfor ikke?
Interessenttype
Interessent 1
Interessent 2
Etc. ...
Betydning* Problem* Løsning
og ansvarlig
Stakeholder
type
Stakeholder 1
Stakeholder 2
Etc. ...
Importance* Problem* Solution and
responsibility
3
En anden model kunne også se sådan ud (her har
jeg for eksemplets skyld nedfældet nogle typiske
problemtyper for en social medie strategi):
GruppeopGave 3.4:
Tegn jeres risiko-model. Søg gerne online og lad
jer inspirere af andre modeller. Giv modellen
et cool navn, især forkortelser plejer at være
populære (som f.eks. Consequences Of Risks = the
COR-model, som jeg bare har opfundet her til lej-
ligheden). I skal inkludere en logisk, visuel måde
til at gøre brugeren i stand til at forstå og vurdere
hvordan interessenter og risici kan ses i forhold til
hinanden og i hvilken grad noget er kritisk eller ej.
4.	projektets	tidsramme
En tidsramme for projektet angiver tiden fra
begyndelsen af projektet til det slutter. Undervejs
kan der sagtens være flere delmål (milepæle), der
skal være opfyldt før man kan fortsætte. Det kan
også være projektet er mere frit defineret som et
hovedformål, og inden for en tidsramme skal man
komme frem til en løsning og/eller et produkt
i en mere åben dialog med klienter, brugere,
interessenter etc. En klassisk måde at styre hvilke
elementer der skal starte hvornår, samt hvem der
gør hvad etc., er via et Gantt-kort:
GruppeopGave 4.1:
Søg online:
Find et par eksempler på Gantt-kort.
Kan du forstå parametrene i dtm?
Giver det mening? Hvorfor/hvorfor ikke?
Hvordan kan tidsforbrug og udgifter styres?
Dansk English
Another model could look like this (for the sake of
making an ideal example I've added some typical
problems for a social media strategy):
Group task 3.4:
Draw your own risk-model. Search online and find
inspiration from other models. Give the model a
cool name, especially acronyms seem to be very
popular (Like Consequences Of Risks = the COR-
model, which is something I just made up). You
must include a logical and visual way to make the
user of the model capable of understanding and
assessing how stakeholders and risks can be seen
in relation to each other, on a kind of critical scale.
4.	tHe	time	Frame	oF	tHe	project
The time frame of a project marks the beginning
of the project till it ends. During that process
there can be several goals (milestones), that need
to be settled before you can move on. But some-
times a project can be more losely defined by an
objective, and within a certain time frame you
need to work towards a solution and/or a product
in cooperation with clients, users, stakeholders
etc. A conventinal way to manage your project’s
time frame, i.e. what needs to start when, who
does what etc., is via the use of a Gantt chart:
Group task 4.1:
Search online:
Find a couple of examples of Gantt charts.
Can you understand the parameters in them?
Does it make sense? Why/why not?
How can time and expenses be managed?
Udskiftning i prioriteter
for kampagnen,
fleksibel planlægning
pga. brugeradfærd.
Sygdom i gruppen
(inklusiv barn syg)
Budget nedskæring
Facebook vil blive
et betalingssite
Lav
KONSEKVENS
Høj
Lav
SANDSYNLIGHED
Høj
New priorities in the
campaign process,
flexible planning due
to user activities.
Illness in the group
(including children)
Budget cutbacks
Facebook turns
into a payment site
Low
CONSEQUENCE
High
Low
PROBABILITY
High
4
Dansk English
5.	projektparadigmer	og	Faser
En Gantt-model er bare en oversigt over elemen-
terne og tiden i et projekt, men selv denne model
skal justeres efter det projektparadigme, man
arbejder med. Dvs. hvordan udvikler du projektet
i forhold til tid (varighed), kvalitet og ressourcer:
Typiske projektparadaradigmer:
▪ Vandfaldsparadigmet baserer sig primært på at
projektet bevæger sig lineært fremad, med få
eller ingen skridt tilbage for at ændre i proces-
sen (dvs. få eller ingen iterationer). Man skal
have megen briefing, dokumentere grundigt
samt have klaret vigtige milepæle, før man kan
fortsætte fra fase til fase.
▪ Prototyping. I modsætning til vandfaldsmodel-
len kan hvert trin i prototyping gennemgå flere
skridt (dvs. flere iterationer), indtil man har det
ønkede resultat, f.eks. i samarbejdet med klien-
ten, i brugertests, i researchmængden etc. Evt.
dokumentation udvikles løbende. Prototyping
er typisk udvikling af et produkt (prototype) via
mange tests og undersøgelser. Vandfaldspara-
digmet vil i denne sammenhæng være mere
bundet op på mange grundlæggende undersø-
gelser fra begyndelsen af projektet (altså tung
dokumentation forud for resten af processen).
▪ Udforskende udvikling er en endnu mere åben
tilgang til processen i et projekt, hvor udvik-
ling og undersøgelser konstant understøtter
hinanden, og hvor alle disse elementer skal
munde ud i en løsning/et design. I denne sam-
menhæng er der ikke så megen information fra
begyndelsen af projektet, og der skal løbende
findes og dokumenteres en del. Igen, det er i
kontrast til vandfaldsparadigmet, men også del-
vist til prototyping, der må siges også at skulle
have en vis grad af informationer/briefing fra
starten af. Forestil dig en skala fra a) megen
briefing og bestemte ønsker fra klienten, til en
situation hvor b) klienten overlader meget til
dig og hvor resultatet skal findes ud af løbende
research. Sådan en skala kan ses som a) vand-
faldsparadigme, hvor b) vil være i feltet mellem
prototyping og udforskende udvikling.
▪ Agile metoder (se nedenfor):
GruppeopGave 5.1:
Undersøg agile metoder og SCRUM:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XU0llRltyFM
Hvad er en agil udviklingsmetode?
Hvad er SCRUM?
5.	project	paradigms	and	pHases
A Gantt chart is just an overview of time and ele-
ments in a project. The important thing is to work
with the relevant project paradigm, i.e. how you
develop the project in relation to the task and its
time, quality and resources:
Typical project paradigms:
▪ The waterfall paradigm is based primarely on
a linear process with few or no steps back to
change things in the process (i.e. few or no
iterations). Yo need a lot of briefing, to docu-
ment thoroughly and manage each milestone
completely, before you can move on from one
phase to another.
▪ Prototyping can, as contrast to the waterfall
paradigm, go through several steps (i.e. more
iterations) untill you have the desired result, for
example via cooperation with clients, in user
tests, in research etc. Documentation is devel-
oped constantly. Prototyping is typically used
in developing a product (a prototype) through
tests and research. Seen in this context, the
waterfall paradigm will reqire a lot of funda-
mental research findings in the initial phase (a
large quantitative/qualitative and valid docu-
mentation before the rest of the process).
▪ Explorative development is an even more open
approach to the process in a project; develop-
ment and research are supporting each other
constantly, and all results end up in a final
design. In this context there isn’t a lot of infor-
mation from the beginning of the project, and
there must be a constant development based
on research and valid documetation. Again, it’s
a contrast to the waterfall paradigm, but also
to prototyping, which also requires some infor-
mation/briefing from very ealy on. Imagine a
scale that spans from a) where there are a lot
of briefing and specific wishes from the client,
to b) where the client leaves a lot to you to find
out and where the results stem from ongoing
research. A scale like that can be seen as a) the
waterfall paradigm, to b) as the field between
prototyping and explorative development.
▪ Agile methods (see below):
Group task 5.1:
Explore agile methods and SCRUM:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XU0llRltyFM
What is an agile method of development?
What is SCRUM?
5
Dansk English
eksempel: konventionelt projektforløb
1: foranalyse
▪ Teamroller, indledende projektetablering.
▪ Klientmøde (løbende proces).
▪ Vurder brug af projektstil (paradigme).
▪ Formål, mål, milepæle: projektbeskrivelse.
▪ Interessentanalyse (inkl. konkurrentanalyse)
▪ Indledende produkt- og markedsanalyse.
▪ Risikovurdering/-analyse.
▪ Økonomiske aspekter, budget, tidsramme etc.
2: Undersøgelse
▪ Teamet etableres endeligt/roller.
▪ Kontrakt med klient.
(Her har man allerede kontrakt og betaling for
foranalysen. Den nye kundekontrakt retter sig
mod det videre arbejde.)
▪ Planlægning: Gantt diagram.
▪ Målgruppeanalyse og markedsanalyse.
Kvalitativ og/eller kvantitativ.
▪ Analyse af lignende websites og tests
af det nuværende design, klienten evt. har.
▪ Kortlægning af interessenters behov.
▪ Persona og brugerscenario (repræsentativt).
▪ Valg af positionering (positioneringskort)
▪ Skal brandet udvikles fra bunden?
Eller skal brandet analyseres og kortlægges?
▪ Idé- og konceptudvikling. Creative phase.
▪ Klart budskab og appelstrategi.
▪ Markedsføringsplan og mediestrategi.
3: Design
▪ Udførelse af tests.
▪ Tilpas visuelt design.
▪ Grafisk designmanual til kunden?
Brugermanual?
4: Realisering
▪ Små tests, færdiggørelse, overdragelse:
Implementering
▪ Ansvar for evt. fremtidig drift
(skulle gerne være afgjort via kontrakt,
men der kan være tale om support?).
▪ Evaluering og afslutning af projekt.
Få feedback fra kunden.
Evaluer arbejdsprocessen i teamet.
an example: conventual project process
1: Pre-analysis
▪ Team roles, initiate project establisment.
▪ Client meeting (ongoing process).
▪ Asess project style (paradigm).
▪ Purpose, goals, milestones: project description.
▪ Stakeholder analysis (+ competitor analysis)
▪ Initial product- og market analysis.
▪ Risk analysis/assessment.
▪ Economic aspects, budget, time etc.
2: Research
▪ Team is finally established.
▪ Contract with client.
(At this point you have a contract/been paid
for the pre-analysis. The new client contract is
about the future work of the project.)
▪ Planning: Gantt diagram.
▪ Target group analysis and market analysis.
Qualitative and/or quantitative.
▪ Analysis of similar product websites and tests
of the design, which perhaps is in current use.
▪ Mapping of the needs of stakeholders.
▪ Persona and user scenario (representative).
▪ Select positioning (perceptual map)
▪ Must the brand be developed from scratch?
Or must the brand be analysed and mapped?
▪ Idea-/concept development. Creative phase.
▪ Clear message and strategy of appeal.
▪ Marketing plan, media strategy.
3: Design
▪ Conduct tests.
▪ Adjust visual design.
▪ Graphic design manual for the client?
User manual for the system?
4: Completion
▪ Small adjustment tests, completion,
hand over the product: Implementation.
▪ Responsibilities for the future maintenance
(should be settled already by the contract, but
there might be some support agreements?).
▪ Evaluation and project closure.
Get sfeedback from your customer.
Evaluate the work process in the team.
6
Dansk English
6.	praktisk	WorksHop
Vi har nu set på projektparadigmerne. Lad os så
sætte det hele sammen i en logisk rækkefølge ved
at se på de typiske faser i et projektforløb.
GruppeopGave 7.1:
I skal forestille jer, at I skal udvikle en hjemmeside
for butikskæden „Grønne Drømme“, der sælger
økologisk frugt og grønt. Da de bare var en lille
butik, var det hele enkelt og ligetil: De lokale
kunder elskede butikken, den gode stemning og
ejeren, der selv dyrkede varerne og stod i butik-
ken. Nu har butikken fået vokseværk, og den er
nu blevet til en kæde på fire butikker i Storkøben-
havn. Ejeren har endda fat i kunder længere væk,
og hun (ejeren) sender ofte varer til provinsen,
især andre forretninger (B2B). Men det foregår
på en lidt gammeldags og tidskrævende facon, da
hun skal tjecke mails for ordrer. Hun vil nu gerne
have en ny strategisk forretningsenhed (SBU): en
webshop der markedsfører en økologisk vare-
ekspress samt laver lister og registerer/opretter
kundekonti for kunderne, der så kan få tilsendt
varer. I skal som designere stå for projektet. I skal
vælge projektparadigme og begrunde jeres valg.
I er velkomne til at prøve fx SCRUM eller den
udforskende udvikling i stedet for vandfaldsmo-
dellen. Udviklingsmetoden skal også passe til jeres
gruppes temperament og de roller, I har.
I skal ikke lave et fuldstændigt færdigt projekt, for
det kræver mere data og tid, men skriv nogle ideer
ned til hvordan I ville løse opgaven. Lav et visuelt
forslag til, hvordan projektfaserne kunne se ud.
6.	practical	WorksHop
We have now worked with the project paradigms.
Now we'll take a look at an example of a logic use
of a project's must typical phases.
Group task 7.1:
Imagine that you have been asked to develop a
website for the chain store “Green Dreams.” It
sells organic vegetables and fruit. When it was just
a small shop it was uncomlicated: the locals loved
the shop and the good atmosphere. The owner
was growing and harvesting the goods herself,
and also selling them personally in the shop. Now
it's a bigger chain with four shops in the Copen-
hagen area. The owner has even contact with
customers as far away as small towns all around
in Denmark, mainly small organic shops (B2B).
But everything is still done in an oldfashioned
way, which takes time. For example, the owner
tjecks emails for orders. Now the owner wants
a fully implemented new strategic business unit:
A webshop to market an organic food express,
that enables customers to create accounts and
to order goods. As designers you are in charge of
the project. Choose a relevant project paradigm
in relation to the customer and the media product
to be designed. You can use SCRUM or any other
paradigm—as long as it suits the challenge and
the group’s working preference.
You are not asked to create a complete project
(we have too little data and time for that), but
write down some ideas on how you would solve
the challenge. Make a visual map of the phases.
7
Dansk English
litteratur
Anne Mette Busch (red.), David Engelby,
Gunhild Andersen og Torben Larsen (2011):
Kommunikation i Multimediedesign.
Hans Reitzels Forlag
Fischer & Oosterbaan (2011):
Digital Media Management.
Nyt Teknisk Forlag.
Attrup & Olsson (2008):
Power i projekter og porteføljer.
Jurist- og Økonomiforbundets Forlag.
Tonnquist & Hørlück (2009):
Project Management – a complete guide.
Academica
links til scrum:
http://www.scrumalliance.org/
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XU0llRltyFM
simpel online projektstyrinG:
www.trello.com
literature
Fischer & Oosterbaan (2011):
Digital Multimedia Management.
Nyt Teknisk Forlag.
Tonnquist & Hørlück (2009):
Project Management – a complete guide.
Academica
links to scrum:
http://www.scrumalliance.org/
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XU0llRltyFM
simple online project manaGement:
www.trello.com

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Project management projektstyring dansk_english_by david engelby

  • 1. 1 Dansk English Praktisk projektstyring Practical Project Management 1. Hvad er et projekt? GruppeopGave 1.1: Lav research på hvad et projekt er som begreb. Søg online. Skriv nogle få sætninger, som beskri- ver, hvad et projekt er, generelt set. GruppeopGave 1.2: Hvad er vigtigt, når man skal starte et projekt set i forhold til f.eks. interessenter, ressourcer og i det hele taget at være SMART?: S: Specifikke, beskrevne mål M: Målbare mål og delmål A: Accepterede mål af alle involverede R: Realistisk planlægning (mål, ressourser) T: Tid, dvs. styring af mål og deadlines Diskuter hvad disse parametre betyder. Hvordan arbejder disse parametre sammen? 2. Hvem er man i et projekt? Hvilken type og hvilken rolle har man i en projekt- gruppe? Se de flg. steder (teoretisk typologi): Belbins teamroller: http://potential.dk/belbins-9-teamroller/ Vær opmærksom på, at de omtalte typologise- ringstest ikke måler færdigheder, det vil sige, hvor dygtig man objektivt er til noget. De måler, hvad man selv synes, man er bedst til. GruppeopGave 2.1: Præsenter hver især over for hinanden Hvad I tror I er gode til i hvilke typer faglige og/eller akade- miske projekter, ifølge Belbin-modellen. Kom med eksempler fra jeres erfaringer med forskellige typer af projekter. Hvad er du absolut ikke? Hvad kunne du godt tænke dig at lære at blive? Lecture design: David Engelby Undervisningsdesign: David Engelby 1. WHat is a project? Group task 1.1: Find out what a project is as a concept. Search on- line. Write down a few sentences which describes a project in general. Group task 1.2: What is important when you are to start a pro- ject—in relation to stakeholders, resources and in general the ways of being SMART?: S: Specific, described goals M: Meausurable goals and milestones A: Accepted goals (by all the involved) R: Realistic planning (goal, resources) T: Time: manage goals and og deadlines Discuss what these parameters mean. How do these parameters work together? 2. WHo are you in a project? What type are you and what kind of role do you have in a project group? See these theories of typology: Belbins team roles: http://mindtools.com/pages/ article/newLDR_83.htm Please observe, that the test doesn’t show what you are actually good at, but what you think and believe yourself to be good at in a team context. Group task 2.1: Present to each other what you believe you would be good at in a professional and/or academic projekt, according to the Belbin model. Give ex- amples of your former experiences with projects. What would you say you're definitely not like? What would you like to learn to be?
  • 2. 2 3. objective and risk analysis The assessments of risks are important factors in a project. It can influence both your initial objec- tives (overall purpose) and the detailed goals. Group task 3.1: First, find out what a stakeholder is. What is a purpose in relation to goals in a project? Search online. Group task 3.2: Imagine that you are to conduct a research, and after four months you must hand in a report. What typical risks could you imagine would poten- tially be in this project (Ilness, for instance). What would be easy to solve, what wouldn’t? Group task 3.3: Look at the table below and try to come up with some ideas and examples of how to place stake- holders and risks in a way that seems plausible. This will of course take a real analysis under real project circumstanses, but for now we pretend you are to make a campaign for a town council in a small town. They want to reposition the town via a social media strategy. Draw the table on a bigger scale on paper. Who is important for what, what smells like trouble (small or big), who are responsible for what (roles) in the project group etc.? Give it a try: *Importance and problem: 1 = not important/small problem. Medium 1 og 10 is an assessment, 10 = very important/big problem. These numbers represent parameters. Is this logical to you? Why/why not? Dansk English 3. Formål og risikoanalyse Vurdering af risici er en vigtig faktor i al projektar- bejde. Det kan afgøre hele ens målsætning, både hvad angår mål og delmål. GruppeopGave 3.1: Først, find ud af hvad en interessent er. Hvad er projektmål i forhold til delmål? Søg online GruppeopGave 3.2: Forestil dig, du får til opgave at lave en undersø- gelse og aflevere en rapport efter fire uger. hvilke typiske risici kan du forestille dig kunne opstå (f.eks. sygdom)? Hvilke kunne løses let, og hvad kræver mere? GruppeopGave 3.3: Se på nedenstående figur og kom med et eksem- pel på en placering af interessenter og risici efter bedste vurdering: Det kræver naturligvis en rigtig analyse i et virkeligt projekt, men her lader vi som om, at I skal lave en social medie kampagne for et byråd, der vil repositionere en lille by. Tegn figuren i stor skale på et papir. Hvem er betyd- ningsfuld i sådan et projekt, efter jeres vurdering? Hvem og hvad betyder problemer, og hvilken slags problem (stort eller lille)? Hvilken rolle i projekt- gruppen kræves til de forskellige interessenter og udfordringer? Prøv at sætte jer ind i det: *Betydning og problem: 1 = ikke vigtig/lille problem. Mellem 1 og 10 er en vurdering, 10 = meget vigtigt/stort problem Disse tal angiver parametre. Er det logisk for jer Hvorfor/hvorfor ikke? Interessenttype Interessent 1 Interessent 2 Etc. ... Betydning* Problem* Løsning og ansvarlig Stakeholder type Stakeholder 1 Stakeholder 2 Etc. ... Importance* Problem* Solution and responsibility
  • 3. 3 En anden model kunne også se sådan ud (her har jeg for eksemplets skyld nedfældet nogle typiske problemtyper for en social medie strategi): GruppeopGave 3.4: Tegn jeres risiko-model. Søg gerne online og lad jer inspirere af andre modeller. Giv modellen et cool navn, især forkortelser plejer at være populære (som f.eks. Consequences Of Risks = the COR-model, som jeg bare har opfundet her til lej- ligheden). I skal inkludere en logisk, visuel måde til at gøre brugeren i stand til at forstå og vurdere hvordan interessenter og risici kan ses i forhold til hinanden og i hvilken grad noget er kritisk eller ej. 4. projektets tidsramme En tidsramme for projektet angiver tiden fra begyndelsen af projektet til det slutter. Undervejs kan der sagtens være flere delmål (milepæle), der skal være opfyldt før man kan fortsætte. Det kan også være projektet er mere frit defineret som et hovedformål, og inden for en tidsramme skal man komme frem til en løsning og/eller et produkt i en mere åben dialog med klienter, brugere, interessenter etc. En klassisk måde at styre hvilke elementer der skal starte hvornår, samt hvem der gør hvad etc., er via et Gantt-kort: GruppeopGave 4.1: Søg online: Find et par eksempler på Gantt-kort. Kan du forstå parametrene i dtm? Giver det mening? Hvorfor/hvorfor ikke? Hvordan kan tidsforbrug og udgifter styres? Dansk English Another model could look like this (for the sake of making an ideal example I've added some typical problems for a social media strategy): Group task 3.4: Draw your own risk-model. Search online and find inspiration from other models. Give the model a cool name, especially acronyms seem to be very popular (Like Consequences Of Risks = the COR- model, which is something I just made up). You must include a logical and visual way to make the user of the model capable of understanding and assessing how stakeholders and risks can be seen in relation to each other, on a kind of critical scale. 4. tHe time Frame oF tHe project The time frame of a project marks the beginning of the project till it ends. During that process there can be several goals (milestones), that need to be settled before you can move on. But some- times a project can be more losely defined by an objective, and within a certain time frame you need to work towards a solution and/or a product in cooperation with clients, users, stakeholders etc. A conventinal way to manage your project’s time frame, i.e. what needs to start when, who does what etc., is via the use of a Gantt chart: Group task 4.1: Search online: Find a couple of examples of Gantt charts. Can you understand the parameters in them? Does it make sense? Why/why not? How can time and expenses be managed? Udskiftning i prioriteter for kampagnen, fleksibel planlægning pga. brugeradfærd. Sygdom i gruppen (inklusiv barn syg) Budget nedskæring Facebook vil blive et betalingssite Lav KONSEKVENS Høj Lav SANDSYNLIGHED Høj New priorities in the campaign process, flexible planning due to user activities. Illness in the group (including children) Budget cutbacks Facebook turns into a payment site Low CONSEQUENCE High Low PROBABILITY High
  • 4. 4 Dansk English 5. projektparadigmer og Faser En Gantt-model er bare en oversigt over elemen- terne og tiden i et projekt, men selv denne model skal justeres efter det projektparadigme, man arbejder med. Dvs. hvordan udvikler du projektet i forhold til tid (varighed), kvalitet og ressourcer: Typiske projektparadaradigmer: ▪ Vandfaldsparadigmet baserer sig primært på at projektet bevæger sig lineært fremad, med få eller ingen skridt tilbage for at ændre i proces- sen (dvs. få eller ingen iterationer). Man skal have megen briefing, dokumentere grundigt samt have klaret vigtige milepæle, før man kan fortsætte fra fase til fase. ▪ Prototyping. I modsætning til vandfaldsmodel- len kan hvert trin i prototyping gennemgå flere skridt (dvs. flere iterationer), indtil man har det ønkede resultat, f.eks. i samarbejdet med klien- ten, i brugertests, i researchmængden etc. Evt. dokumentation udvikles løbende. Prototyping er typisk udvikling af et produkt (prototype) via mange tests og undersøgelser. Vandfaldspara- digmet vil i denne sammenhæng være mere bundet op på mange grundlæggende undersø- gelser fra begyndelsen af projektet (altså tung dokumentation forud for resten af processen). ▪ Udforskende udvikling er en endnu mere åben tilgang til processen i et projekt, hvor udvik- ling og undersøgelser konstant understøtter hinanden, og hvor alle disse elementer skal munde ud i en løsning/et design. I denne sam- menhæng er der ikke så megen information fra begyndelsen af projektet, og der skal løbende findes og dokumenteres en del. Igen, det er i kontrast til vandfaldsparadigmet, men også del- vist til prototyping, der må siges også at skulle have en vis grad af informationer/briefing fra starten af. Forestil dig en skala fra a) megen briefing og bestemte ønsker fra klienten, til en situation hvor b) klienten overlader meget til dig og hvor resultatet skal findes ud af løbende research. Sådan en skala kan ses som a) vand- faldsparadigme, hvor b) vil være i feltet mellem prototyping og udforskende udvikling. ▪ Agile metoder (se nedenfor): GruppeopGave 5.1: Undersøg agile metoder og SCRUM: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XU0llRltyFM Hvad er en agil udviklingsmetode? Hvad er SCRUM? 5. project paradigms and pHases A Gantt chart is just an overview of time and ele- ments in a project. The important thing is to work with the relevant project paradigm, i.e. how you develop the project in relation to the task and its time, quality and resources: Typical project paradigms: ▪ The waterfall paradigm is based primarely on a linear process with few or no steps back to change things in the process (i.e. few or no iterations). Yo need a lot of briefing, to docu- ment thoroughly and manage each milestone completely, before you can move on from one phase to another. ▪ Prototyping can, as contrast to the waterfall paradigm, go through several steps (i.e. more iterations) untill you have the desired result, for example via cooperation with clients, in user tests, in research etc. Documentation is devel- oped constantly. Prototyping is typically used in developing a product (a prototype) through tests and research. Seen in this context, the waterfall paradigm will reqire a lot of funda- mental research findings in the initial phase (a large quantitative/qualitative and valid docu- mentation before the rest of the process). ▪ Explorative development is an even more open approach to the process in a project; develop- ment and research are supporting each other constantly, and all results end up in a final design. In this context there isn’t a lot of infor- mation from the beginning of the project, and there must be a constant development based on research and valid documetation. Again, it’s a contrast to the waterfall paradigm, but also to prototyping, which also requires some infor- mation/briefing from very ealy on. Imagine a scale that spans from a) where there are a lot of briefing and specific wishes from the client, to b) where the client leaves a lot to you to find out and where the results stem from ongoing research. A scale like that can be seen as a) the waterfall paradigm, to b) as the field between prototyping and explorative development. ▪ Agile methods (see below): Group task 5.1: Explore agile methods and SCRUM: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XU0llRltyFM What is an agile method of development? What is SCRUM?
  • 5. 5 Dansk English eksempel: konventionelt projektforløb 1: foranalyse ▪ Teamroller, indledende projektetablering. ▪ Klientmøde (løbende proces). ▪ Vurder brug af projektstil (paradigme). ▪ Formål, mål, milepæle: projektbeskrivelse. ▪ Interessentanalyse (inkl. konkurrentanalyse) ▪ Indledende produkt- og markedsanalyse. ▪ Risikovurdering/-analyse. ▪ Økonomiske aspekter, budget, tidsramme etc. 2: Undersøgelse ▪ Teamet etableres endeligt/roller. ▪ Kontrakt med klient. (Her har man allerede kontrakt og betaling for foranalysen. Den nye kundekontrakt retter sig mod det videre arbejde.) ▪ Planlægning: Gantt diagram. ▪ Målgruppeanalyse og markedsanalyse. Kvalitativ og/eller kvantitativ. ▪ Analyse af lignende websites og tests af det nuværende design, klienten evt. har. ▪ Kortlægning af interessenters behov. ▪ Persona og brugerscenario (repræsentativt). ▪ Valg af positionering (positioneringskort) ▪ Skal brandet udvikles fra bunden? Eller skal brandet analyseres og kortlægges? ▪ Idé- og konceptudvikling. Creative phase. ▪ Klart budskab og appelstrategi. ▪ Markedsføringsplan og mediestrategi. 3: Design ▪ Udførelse af tests. ▪ Tilpas visuelt design. ▪ Grafisk designmanual til kunden? Brugermanual? 4: Realisering ▪ Små tests, færdiggørelse, overdragelse: Implementering ▪ Ansvar for evt. fremtidig drift (skulle gerne være afgjort via kontrakt, men der kan være tale om support?). ▪ Evaluering og afslutning af projekt. Få feedback fra kunden. Evaluer arbejdsprocessen i teamet. an example: conventual project process 1: Pre-analysis ▪ Team roles, initiate project establisment. ▪ Client meeting (ongoing process). ▪ Asess project style (paradigm). ▪ Purpose, goals, milestones: project description. ▪ Stakeholder analysis (+ competitor analysis) ▪ Initial product- og market analysis. ▪ Risk analysis/assessment. ▪ Economic aspects, budget, time etc. 2: Research ▪ Team is finally established. ▪ Contract with client. (At this point you have a contract/been paid for the pre-analysis. The new client contract is about the future work of the project.) ▪ Planning: Gantt diagram. ▪ Target group analysis and market analysis. Qualitative and/or quantitative. ▪ Analysis of similar product websites and tests of the design, which perhaps is in current use. ▪ Mapping of the needs of stakeholders. ▪ Persona and user scenario (representative). ▪ Select positioning (perceptual map) ▪ Must the brand be developed from scratch? Or must the brand be analysed and mapped? ▪ Idea-/concept development. Creative phase. ▪ Clear message and strategy of appeal. ▪ Marketing plan, media strategy. 3: Design ▪ Conduct tests. ▪ Adjust visual design. ▪ Graphic design manual for the client? User manual for the system? 4: Completion ▪ Small adjustment tests, completion, hand over the product: Implementation. ▪ Responsibilities for the future maintenance (should be settled already by the contract, but there might be some support agreements?). ▪ Evaluation and project closure. Get sfeedback from your customer. Evaluate the work process in the team.
  • 6. 6 Dansk English 6. praktisk WorksHop Vi har nu set på projektparadigmerne. Lad os så sætte det hele sammen i en logisk rækkefølge ved at se på de typiske faser i et projektforløb. GruppeopGave 7.1: I skal forestille jer, at I skal udvikle en hjemmeside for butikskæden „Grønne Drømme“, der sælger økologisk frugt og grønt. Da de bare var en lille butik, var det hele enkelt og ligetil: De lokale kunder elskede butikken, den gode stemning og ejeren, der selv dyrkede varerne og stod i butik- ken. Nu har butikken fået vokseværk, og den er nu blevet til en kæde på fire butikker i Storkøben- havn. Ejeren har endda fat i kunder længere væk, og hun (ejeren) sender ofte varer til provinsen, især andre forretninger (B2B). Men det foregår på en lidt gammeldags og tidskrævende facon, da hun skal tjecke mails for ordrer. Hun vil nu gerne have en ny strategisk forretningsenhed (SBU): en webshop der markedsfører en økologisk vare- ekspress samt laver lister og registerer/opretter kundekonti for kunderne, der så kan få tilsendt varer. I skal som designere stå for projektet. I skal vælge projektparadigme og begrunde jeres valg. I er velkomne til at prøve fx SCRUM eller den udforskende udvikling i stedet for vandfaldsmo- dellen. Udviklingsmetoden skal også passe til jeres gruppes temperament og de roller, I har. I skal ikke lave et fuldstændigt færdigt projekt, for det kræver mere data og tid, men skriv nogle ideer ned til hvordan I ville løse opgaven. Lav et visuelt forslag til, hvordan projektfaserne kunne se ud. 6. practical WorksHop We have now worked with the project paradigms. Now we'll take a look at an example of a logic use of a project's must typical phases. Group task 7.1: Imagine that you have been asked to develop a website for the chain store “Green Dreams.” It sells organic vegetables and fruit. When it was just a small shop it was uncomlicated: the locals loved the shop and the good atmosphere. The owner was growing and harvesting the goods herself, and also selling them personally in the shop. Now it's a bigger chain with four shops in the Copen- hagen area. The owner has even contact with customers as far away as small towns all around in Denmark, mainly small organic shops (B2B). But everything is still done in an oldfashioned way, which takes time. For example, the owner tjecks emails for orders. Now the owner wants a fully implemented new strategic business unit: A webshop to market an organic food express, that enables customers to create accounts and to order goods. As designers you are in charge of the project. Choose a relevant project paradigm in relation to the customer and the media product to be designed. You can use SCRUM or any other paradigm—as long as it suits the challenge and the group’s working preference. You are not asked to create a complete project (we have too little data and time for that), but write down some ideas on how you would solve the challenge. Make a visual map of the phases.
  • 7. 7 Dansk English litteratur Anne Mette Busch (red.), David Engelby, Gunhild Andersen og Torben Larsen (2011): Kommunikation i Multimediedesign. Hans Reitzels Forlag Fischer & Oosterbaan (2011): Digital Media Management. Nyt Teknisk Forlag. Attrup & Olsson (2008): Power i projekter og porteføljer. Jurist- og Økonomiforbundets Forlag. Tonnquist & Hørlück (2009): Project Management – a complete guide. Academica links til scrum: http://www.scrumalliance.org/ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XU0llRltyFM simpel online projektstyrinG: www.trello.com literature Fischer & Oosterbaan (2011): Digital Multimedia Management. Nyt Teknisk Forlag. Tonnquist & Hørlück (2009): Project Management – a complete guide. Academica links to scrum: http://www.scrumalliance.org/ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XU0llRltyFM simple online project manaGement: www.trello.com