Philosophy of science 3 knowledge, theory, communication

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Philosophy of Science

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Philosophy of science 3 knowledge, theory, communication

  1. 1. PHILOSOPHYOF SCIENCE  3KNOWLEDGE, THEORY, COMMUNICATION John W. Waterhouse: The Crystal Ball (1902)VIDENSKABSTEORI > BEGREBER > VIDEN, TEORI, KOMMUNIKATION
  2. 2. PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE 3 KNOWLEDGE, THEORY, COMMUNICATIONVIDENSKABSTEORI > BEGREBER > VIDEN, TEORI, KOMMUNIKATION Knowledge,  Keywords: knowledge and learning, communication, meta theory Theory andCommunication Scope: Reflection on learning and communication Introductionto the Concepts Note on Literature International class: Danish class: This lesson is generally(!) based based on Lisa  This lesson is generally(!) based based on  Bartolotti (2010): An Introduction to the  Carsten Rønn (2006): Almen introduktion for  Philosophy of Science. Polity, UK.  professionsuddannelserne. Alinea, DK. Author’s profile: www.lisabortolotti.com Se også: www.samfundsviden.dk under  Philosophy ressource: http://www.iep.utm.edu/ teorier og metoder finder du videnskabsteori
  3. 3. PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE 3 KNOWLEDGE, THEORY, COMMUNICATIONVIDENSKABSTEORI > BEGREBER > VIDEN, TEORI, KOMMUNIKATION Knowledge  and Theory Epistemology Distinction between Knowledge that … (propositional knowledge, usual concept) and Knowledge how … (2 + 2 = 4) Know how … (to add numbers) Combined we can add the knowledge that A and B are in the category of C,  beacuse we have the know how and the knowledge of how to find the  relations that form that particular structure we call by the concept of C. What about truth, logic and belief?  See also: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epistemology
  4. 4. PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE 3 KNOWLEDGE, THEORY, COMMUNICATIONVIDENSKABSTEORI > BEGREBER > VIDEN, TEORI, KOMMUNIKATION Knowledge  and Theory The extended stratification model. Carsten Rønn 2006A Good Theory Is Practical Meta theory Meta level Analysis of the epistemological (knowledge, why do we know),  ontological (being, existense and reality),  ethic and scientific basis of the theory. Level of theory Analysis of the strength of the formal,  SCIENCE functional, pragmatic type of theory.  What are the emperical variables,  the hypothetic variables? Data level Analysis of the emperical level Reality
  5. 5. PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE 3 KNOWLEDGE, THEORY, COMMUNICATIONVIDENSKABSTEORI > BEGREBER > VIDEN, TEORI, KOMMUNIKATION Knowledge  and TheoryA Good Theory By studying multiple theories you can understand different relations Is Practical between ways of creating several perspectives on the same concept. By looking at the meta theoretical aspects, the science of theory, you can develop a critical approach to knowledge as a network between the  investigator and the investigated concepts. Knowledge as a network means coherent knowledge: Models, theory and  research fit together and validates each other consistently.
  6. 6. PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE 3 KNOWLEDGE, THEORY, COMMUNICATIONVIDENSKABSTEORI > BEGREBER > VIDEN, TEORI, KOMMUNIKATION Knowledge  and Theory A model of the construction of critical knowledge through the dynamic relations between empirical data and theory (Rønn 2006)A Good Theory Is Practical Meta theory Meta theories ontology, epistemology, ethics methodology Space of reflexivity THEORY  EMPIRICAL DATA KNOWLEDGE
  7. 7. PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE 3 KNOWLEDGE, THEORY, COMMUNICATIONVIDENSKABSTEORI > BEGREBER > VIDEN, TEORI, KOMMUNIKATION Knowledge  and Theory ABSTRACTION For example concepts, theories and models of reality and relationsA Good Theory REDUCTION  Is Practical OF COMPLEXITY CONCRETE From the concrete The reality we meet per se.  to abstraction. Validated knowledge is produced by a scientific approach. When I analyze I keep in mind a certain coherent structure for my thinking. That is a relation between analysis and produced synthesis. When I make a synthesis, a structure of analytic work, I use the several parts of my former analyses as grounds for further development.
  8. 8. PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE 3 KNOWLEDGE, THEORY, COMMUNICATIONVIDENSKABSTEORI > BEGREBER > VIDEN, TEORI, KOMMUNIKATION Knowledge as Differences Source: Saussure See more on: http://www.aber.ac.uk/media/Documents/S4B/sem03.html Associative‐/selective axis PARADIGMATIC AXIS Paradigm and ? ? ? Syntagma ? BIRD SANG A BOY DIED THE MAN CRIED SYNTAGMATIC AXIS Combination‐/narrative axis
  9. 9. PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE 3 KNOWLEDGE, THEORY, COMMUNICATION VIDENSKABSTEORI > BEGREBER > VIDEN, TEORI, KOMMUNIKATION Knowledge  and Signs Charles Kay Ogden & Ivor Armstrong Richards: The concept as it is  understood by me VS The Meaning A definition used Problems related to … of Meaning professionally by  me Language. The same structural language (grammar)  can have different types of meaning and content in  CONCEPT various areas of science. Respect the terminology of  the specific area of science! Concept (meaning). A specific concept is often understood and defined specifically in a particular area of science. But it can be precise and contested as well.LANGUAGE RELEVANCE  Relevance or  reference. You have to define the   or  relevant meaning of a concept according to your scope. REFERENCE
  10. 10. PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE 3 KNOWLEDGE, THEORY, COMMUNICATIONVIDENSKABSTEORI > BEGREBER > VIDEN, TEORI, KOMMUNIKATIONCommunicationA Good Theory CULTURE / IDEOLOGY Is Practical INSTITUTION / MEDIA SOCIALLY DEFINED ROLE Content and Relation Communication Model (Larsen 1988) SOCIALLY DEFINED ROLE SITUATION / GENRE TEXT ME RELATION YOU CONTENT IT SOCIALLY DEFINED REALITY

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