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Netapp Certified Storage Associate (NCSA)

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Netapp Certified Storage Associate (NCSA)
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Netapp Certified Storage Associate (NCSA)

  1. 1. 2016 ENG. Ahmed Gamil NETAPP 4/13/2016 NCSA
  2. 2. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 1 Table of Contents Course Goal:.......................................................................................................................................7 Introduction to Data Storage...............................................................................................................7 Storage solution:.............................................................................................................................7 Disk............................................................................................................................................7 Disk array....................................................................................................................................8 Just a bunch of disks (J-B-O-D) solution.........................................................................................8 Intelligent storage systems ..........................................................................................................8 Storage Types:..................................................................................................................................10 DAS..............................................................................................................................................10 Protocols ..................................................................................................................................10 Advantages...............................................................................................................................10 Disadvantages...........................................................................................................................10 NAS..............................................................................................................................................11 Protocols ..................................................................................................................................11 Advantages...............................................................................................................................11 SAN..............................................................................................................................................11 Protocols ..................................................................................................................................11 Advantages...............................................................................................................................11 Disadvantages...........................................................................................................................11 Virtualization....................................................................................................................................12 Server virtualization......................................................................................................................12 Server virtualization benefits......................................................................................................12 Storage virtualization....................................................................................................................12 Storage virtualization benefits:...................................................................................................12 Data Networks Fundamentals ...........................................................................................................13 Small Computer System Interface (SCSI).........................................................................................13 Internet SCSI (ISCSI) ......................................................................................................................13 Serial-Attached SCSI (SAS) .............................................................................................................13 Fiber Channel (FC).........................................................................................................................14 FC topological implementations.................................................................................................14 Fiber Channel switched infrastructure............................................................................................15
  3. 3. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 2 Zoning Types:............................................................................................................................15 Storage types................................................................................................................................16 Block storage ............................................................................................................................16 File storage...............................................................................................................................16 Object storage...........................................................................................................................16 Some acronyms................................................................................................................................16 Traditional Storage .......................................................................................................................16 Storage terms...............................................................................................................................16 Flash storage....................................................................................................................................17 Flash storage contains:..................................................................................................................18 Types of flash storage:..................................................................................................................18 Solid State Technologies ...................................................................................................................18 SSD Types:....................................................................................................................................18 Flash Endurance...............................................................................................................................19 Endurance metrics:.......................................................................................................................19 Endurance levels(categories)........................................................................................................20 Flash translationlayer...................................................................................................................20 Write amplification (WA)...............................................................................................................20 Garbage collection(GC).................................................................................................................21 Performance curve .......................................................................................................................22 Fresh out of the box (FOB).........................................................................................................22 Write Cliff.................................................................................................................................22 Steady State..............................................................................................................................22 Over-provisioning.........................................................................................................................22 Major Industry Trends per NetApp ....................................................................................................23 OnCommand Management Console ..................................................................................................24 System Manager GUI ....................................................................................................................24 Unified Manager GUI ....................................................................................................................25 Workflow Automation...................................................................................................................25 Performance Manager..................................................................................................................26 OnCommand Insight .....................................................................................................................26 ONTAP OS........................................................................................................................................26
  4. 4. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 3 Clustered Data ONTAP ..................................................................................................................27 ONTAP OS support....................................................................................................................27 Data ONTAP 7-Mode.........................................................................................................................28 NetApp Hardware Basics...................................................................................................................28 Slots and ports..............................................................................................................................29 Slots.........................................................................................................................................29 Ports.........................................................................................................................................29 Disk shelves..................................................................................................................................30 Disk classification ......................................................................................................................30 Diskidentification system..........................................................................................................31 Disk ownership..........................................................................................................................31 Internal components.....................................................................................................................32 Flash Cache 2............................................................................................................................32 FAS 2552 model................................................................................................................................32 Another Model.............................................................................................................................33 Using the CLI ....................................................................................................................................33 Date.............................................................................................................................................33 Version.........................................................................................................................................33 Help “?”.......................................................................................................................................33 System console.............................................................................................................................34 Man page.....................................................................................................................................34 Create volume..............................................................................................................................34 NETAPP technology ..........................................................................................................................34 Disks............................................................................................................................................36 Aggregates(RAID options).............................................................................................................36 Aggregates structure:................................................................................................................36 Snaplock...................................................................................................................................37 Creating Aggregates ..................................................................................................................37 FlashPools ...................................................................................................................................40 Activate flash pools...................................................................................................................40 FlashPools support ...................................................................................................................40 Flash pool Limitation .................................................................................................................41
  5. 5. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 4 FlexArray......................................................................................................................................41 Volume ........................................................................................................................................42 Volume modes..........................................................................................................................42 Volume types:...........................................................................................................................42 Qtrees..............................................................................................................................................47 Create Qtree.................................................................................................................................48 Calculating Usable Disk Space............................................................................................................49 Review.............................................................................................................................................50 SnapShot..........................................................................................................................................50 SnapRestore.....................................................................................................................................52 SnapMirror.......................................................................................................................................52 SnapVault........................................................................................................................................53 Network Administration....................................................................................................................53 Name resolution...........................................................................................................................53 Create the VLANs..........................................................................................................................55 Create VIF....................................................................................................................................57 Interface groups / aggregation...................................................................................................57 Using CLI...................................................................................................................................60 Creating LUNs...................................................................................................................................62 Create LUN GUI ............................................................................................................................62 Delete LUN GUI.............................................................................................................................66 Create LUN CLI..............................................................................................................................67 Using SnapDrive ...............................................................................................................................68 NFS Exports and CIFS Shares..............................................................................................................68 Delete Export ...............................................................................................................................69 Create Export...............................................................................................................................69 Create CIFS share..........................................................................................................................71 Stop Sharing.................................................................................................................................73 Using BranchCache...........................................................................................................................73 Distributed caching.......................................................................................................................74 Hosted Casing...............................................................................................................................74 Branch cache configurations..........................................................................................................74
  6. 6. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 5 Using Quotas....................................................................................................................................75 Create Qtree.................................................................................................................................76 Set Quota.....................................................................................................................................76 RBAC................................................................................................................................................80 Create User..................................................................................................................................80 Review.........................................................................................................................................81 Storage System Maintenance............................................................................................................81 Auto support................................................................................................................................81 Logs.............................................................................................................................................82 Degraded disk...............................................................................................................................82 Disk scrubbing..............................................................................................................................82 sysstat..........................................................................................................................................82 Storage Space Management..............................................................................................................83 Provisioning..................................................................................................................................83 Space allocation............................................................................................................................84 CLI ...............................................................................................................................................84 Storage Efficiency (Deduplication)..................................................................................................85 Clustered Data ONTAP Concepts........................................................................................................86 Clustered Data ONTAP User Interfaces...............................................................................................87 Clustered Volumes and Namespaces .................................................................................................87 Namespace ..................................................................................................................................88 Junction....................................................................................................................................88 Infinite volume .............................................................................................................................88 Clustered File Access.........................................................................................................................89 NFSv4...........................................................................................................................................89 PNFS(Parallel NFS)........................................................................................................................89 LIF............................................................................................................................................89 Common Internet File System (CIFS) ..............................................................................................90 Netapp Networks .............................................................................................................................90 Clustered Load Balancing..................................................................................................................91 Load Sharing Mirrors(LSM) ...........................................................................................................91 SAN Infrastructure............................................................................................................................91
  7. 7. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 6 Unified storage.............................................................................................................................92 Steps for the establishment of the SAN:.........................................................................................92 FC Connectivity.................................................................................................................................92 Fibre Channel connection:.............................................................................................................93 Commands...................................................................................................................................93 sysconfig command...................................................................................................................93 fcadmin command.....................................................................................................................93 License command......................................................................................................................94 To view and add license.........................................................................................................94 References.......................................................................................................................................95
  8. 8. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 7 NCSA NetApp has a lot of great products:  unified storage  high performance san storage  enterprise all-flash storage Course Goal: Understand key storage topics Understand the NetApp product portfolio Describe and configure key NetApp elements Introduction to Data Storage Storage solution: Disk  Is a hard disk that would be a spinning platter  Manufacturers would make the platter spin faster and faster and faster “RPM speeds”  It cause latency due to mechanical parts.  Solid statedrive is even more efficient than the mechanical spinning disk but it is still a traditional type of disks
  9. 9. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 8 Disk array Can do redundant array of inexpensive disks inside the array It Contains:  Firmware of the array  RAID  Power supply  Fans for cooling Just a bunch of disks (J-B-O-D) solution Where we have disks out there that we just keep adding to the network and then the operating system Each disk works as an independent disk in the array Intelligent storage systems A server that needs to access the data. And it does so through a storage area network (SAN)
  10. 10. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 9 Then we connect to this storage system Storage system component:  front end  cache : for fast access to data since data that's frequently accessed will be cached  back end  actual disks Factors before purchase:  Applications : Like Email, DB, etc. How much data do these application store How quickly does the application able to retrieve data from the store What about the requirements like latency?  Data protection : Like back up and disaster recovery  Availability How much downtime can we survive with? How much is acceptable?  99.999 is acceptable Availability could be accomplished by redundancy and disaster recovery systems  Security  Scalability How fast, how easily your storage infrastructure can grow as you need it to  Performance The throughput of a system, the response time, the capacity, the reliability of a system
  11. 11. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 10 Storage Types:  DAS : direct-attached storage  NAS : network-attached storage  SAN : storage area networks DAS Is an external disk system or an internal disk system “Blade Servers” Storage appeared as a block storage which can be formatted by OS Protocols ATA, SATA, eSATA, SCSI, SAS, USB, USB 3.0, and Fiber Channel. Advantages  Not complicated (storage network between the device and the storage itself)  Affordable (good price) Disadvantages  Lack of scalability
  12. 12. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 11 NAS It is storage attached to the network (Server must connect through a network) NAS contains filesystem, CPU and resources Storage appeared on the remote server as a shared folder Protocols Network file system (NFS), or common internet file system (CIFS) Advantages  More scalable (easy to build out the amount of storagethat's connected to the LAN)  Servers worry only about its applications only not storing data to NAS  Easy to install, deploy and then manage.  Cost effective solution  Nice utilization rate SAN It is storage attached to the network (Server must connect through a network) Storage appeared as a block storage which can be formatted by OS Protocols Fiber Channel, Fiber Channel over Ethernet, or iSCSI FCOE: 10-gigabit-per-second Ethernet Advantages  Redundancy “redundant NICs and RAID”  Highest performance  Most reliable infrastructure Disadvantages  The most complex
  13. 13. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 12 Virtualization Server virtualization VMware make server virtualization and what it is called “Server sprawl” Server sprawl: the need of more and more storage “server expansion” Server virtualization benefits  buy fewer servers  better utilization with high flexibility  lower operating costs (like power, human resource)  lower management costs (easy to administer)  support more technologies like “ VMotion, backup and snapshotting technology ” Storage virtualization We can add as much physical storage as we want and it can be located anywhere. Then we will represent it to the end users as one logical entity. End user don’t know the location of the physical storage NetApp tries to do for storage what VMwarehas done for servers (Storage sprawl) Storage sprawl: the need of more and more storage “storage expansion” Storage virtualization benefits:  Resources are pooled  Support multiple protocols  High storage utilization  Create products that lower the total cost of ownership (TCO) when it comes to provisioning and maintaining storage for the data center  RAID-DPwhich is It is a RAID technology that is efficient like RAID-10 but cheap like RAID-5  Snapshot copies which is like a backup with smallest window  reduced space for the backup process and near instantaneous restoration of data  deduplication : in case of many VM uses same files, it will use only one copy for all VMs instead of createa copy for each VM
  14. 14. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 13 Data Networks Fundamentals We will talking about cabling and protocols that are going to run over that cabling inside SAN  SCSI : Small Computer System Interface  ISCSI : internet SCSI  SAS : Serial-Attached SCSI  FC : fiber channel Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) Hook up like printers and scanners to devices. The SCSI system is a client server type of system (initiator - client) Internet SCSI (ISCSI) Used to run SCSI protocol commands for moving data to and from storage over IP networks Uses Ethernet switches Less expensive than FC Support longer distances Client server type of system (initiator - client) Serial-AttachedSCSI (SAS) Used to run SCSI protocol commands over a serial cable Simple and inexpensive Very limited (distance = 8-meter, number of devices that we can attachto the SAS network)
  15. 15. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 14 Fiber Channel(FC) Flexible Reliable Scalable Optical or copper: copper and optics can be utilized for Fiber Channel as well Supercomputers FC topological implementations Fiber Channelpoint-to-point Connect host to storage directly using HBA Fiber ChannelArbitrated Loop Devices being connected in like a ring Fiber Channelswitched infrastructure Device connects to two independent storage area networks If one of the SAN completely fails, the other redundant fabric can still carry the information.
  16. 16. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 15 Fiber Channelswitched infrastructure What is zoning? Zoning means what devices in the fabric can communicate with what other devices. H1 can access LUN2 of S1 and LUN0 of S2 H2 can access LUN1 of S2 and LUN1 and LUN 3 of S1 Zoning Types:  Hard zoning  Soft zoning Hard zoning Assign a certain switch port number to a particular HBA. If the port is down, so we need to assign another port Softzoning If this HBAwith WWPN is connected to any switch port, it will add this HBA to a certain zone
  17. 17. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 16 Storage types Block storage File storage Store things in terms of files on these devices Object storage Identify each thing stored as an object It allows object re-usability (the object could be available for many server) Some acronyms High Performance Computing (HPC): amounts of memory “99.999%” and storage capacity TraditionalStorage Combination between flash and mechanical storage It provide low latency and low cost Storage terms Seek time (rotational disk) The amount of time it takes to move that mechanical head into the correct position over the platter. Rotational latency (rotational disk) The amount of time that it takes to spin the correct sector on the platter into the right position Transfer time (flash / rotational disk) The amount of time it takes to actually read information from the platter or write information to the platter Overhead (flash / rotational disk) How much disk logic stuff has to go on? And what does that do to our latency?
  18. 18. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 17 Longevity/Endurance (flash disk) A lifetime of the flash media that it can endure this process of block writes over the top of other data. Pages: (flash disk) It could be small container of data (512 bytes) or large (8 kilobytes) Erase Block (flash disk) Container of memory pages (32 to 128 pages) that can be buffered Flash storage Is non-volatile storage and it is re-writable memory. Require erasing blocks of data before they can be written to Supports only a finite number of rights and that number is vary by the technology we use SSD drive mean flash drive which provide  High performance and better than mechanical disk drive due to there is no moving parts  lower write performance than a read performance  Electricity is utilized to store and retrieve data storage very quickly  Low latency  High cost/GB
  19. 19. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 18 Flash storage contains: Memory unit (DRAM): Dynamic holding location for the data Access controller (Flash controller): Managethe placement and access of data into the flash storage system Move data between the DRAM and flash memory chip Flash memory chip: The actualstorage of information Types of flash storage:  Flash memory  SD card  SSD drive  Flash based PCI card Solid State Technologies Solid statedrive, or SSD is often used in enterprises today Uses non-moving flash memory technology Increase the reliability of the particular storage media. (Eliminating the moving mechanical parts) Flash memory is non-volatile and it's re-writable memory SSD Types: Negative AND (NAND) SSDs:
  20. 20. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 19 Commonly used because it's more durable, it's less expensive. Has denser cells, and the writeerase operations are faster than NOR SSD Negative OR (NOR) SSDs: Designed to store the binary code of programs Has high performance in read operations Single level cell Flash technology (SLC) Store one bit per cell Has high endurance Multi-level cell Flash technology (MLC) Store two bits per cell. Provide higher capacity Approximately 1/10 the endurance all of single level cell Flash memory. 3-bit per cell and even 4-bit per cell technologies High capacity Very limited number of writes to the memory. Flash Endurance Quality of the flash storage depending on:  How much data we are able to write to that flash media over its lifetime?  How long will the flash storage last us (life time)? Endurancemetrics: 1- Total bytes written (TBW)/ data written per day. 2- Program/erase cycles that are capable for the particular flash media (P/E value) We can categorize endurance based on:  What you need to store?  How much manipulation of that data needs to be done on an ongoing basis?
  21. 21. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 20 E.g. Write intensive storage: High endurance: 25 plus data writes per day Medium endurance: 10 data rights per day Read intensive storage: One to three data rights per day. Endurance levels (categories) We can categorizethe endurance in order to balance between the flash technology and its cost Single level cell NAND technology  very high endurance  very cost Multi-level cell NAND + wear leveling  provide balance between affordability and endurance Over-provisioning  there is a wasted capacity  old technique (we will discuss) Flash translation layer FTL is a layer that introduce wear leveling techniques in order to improve the endurance of the media FTL is a layer is located in the SW layer between the file system part and HW level Write amplification (WA) Flash memory must be erased before it can store new data Data cannot be overwritten directly as it is in a hard disk drive,
  22. 22. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 21 In order to rewrite the data directly to the flash disk, Flash make a process called Write amplification Write amplification (WA) move user data and metadata more than once to the buffer then to the media then to the buffer then to the media again (read, updated and written to a new location) SSDs use a process called garbagecollection (GC) to overcome this behavior Garbage collection(GC) Garbagecollection is a big part of write amplification on the SSD Data is written to the flash memory in units called pages (Multiple cells) The memory can be erased block by block, each block is made up of multiple pages SSDs use garbagecollection to reclaim the space by the flowing steps 1- You write a data to pages (A-D) in Block “X” 2- Then write new data in new pages (E-G) 3- If you need to replace old (A-D) pages with new (A’-D’)pages, you will write new pages normally to the same block “X” 4- Then read and rewrite pages (E-D’) from block “X” to Block “Y”
  23. 23. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 22 5- Then Block “X” is considered as empty and available to use All SSDs include some level of garbagecollection, but they differ in when and how fast they perform the process Performance curve It’sa graph of performance over your gigabits that arebeing stored Fresh out of the box (FOB) Describe a flash memory device that has few or no program/erase (P/E) cycles since the device was manufactured New data written to the flash directly before program/erase (P/E) cycles Write Cliff Performance of an SSD drive drops dramatically It occurs when all of the cells within an individual drive have been written to at least once. So any incoming data is buffered until the cell “flashed” and the new data re-written back to the cell ((P/E) cycles) Steady State It is the state of the SSD over its life time Over-provisioning It is a technique that's used with a solid state drive. It you bought SSD with reported capacity 1TB, the actual capacity is more than 1TB (over-provisioned) This additional space is used as over-provisioned storagespace for wear leveling techniques, buffering and garbagecollection and any other techniques that can improve the endurance performance
  24. 24. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 23 Major Industry Trends per NetApp 1- Flash-based storagetechnologies If you're implementing flash smartly, it will lead to lower costs. 2- Cloud-based technologies Reduce energy cost, space saving, enhance services 3- Software-defined data centers An extension of cloud-based technologies It is based on “ONTAP software” which creates a storagevirtual machine (SVM) from fabric- attached storage(FAS) and provide logical views of that hardware for our end users 4- Converged infrastructures Easier to manage Cost savings Example for converged infrastructure technology: Fiber Channel over Ethernet (FCOE) to carry 10 gbps Ethernet. LAN technology that's utilizing Ethernet (eth) + SAN technology using Fiber Channel (FC) 5- Mobility Is to be able to access the data regardless its location or size or the device we're using 6- big data Term for these huge data sets that is difficult to process using traditional applications
  25. 25. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 24 OnCommandManagement Console NetApp has its own operating system which called ONTAP operating system ONTAP operating system can be managed by GUI or CLI NetApp named their graphical user interface stuff OnCommand OnCommand is the umbrella software for a bunch of packages System Manager GUI  This is a day-to-day management and monitoring tool  Interacting with the clustered Data ONTAP operating system.  Manageyour particular system  Manipulating the volumes  Manipulating the shares  Getting a snapshot of the usage of a particular device.
  26. 26. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 25 Unified Manager GUI  Monitoring and alerting tool  Give a dashboard to get any required information about the system  Support 3rd party APIs to provide multi-vendor dashboard Workflow Automation  Allows to createa workflow to automate a process like (create a basic cluster mode volume)  Workflow Automation permits
  27. 27. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 26 Performance Manager  Biggest level of monitoring in detail OnCommand Insight  It is a tool that designed for hybrid cloud environments  Monitor and managehybrid cloud ONTAP OS ONTAP OS has 2 different versions: 1- Clustered Data ONTAP 2- Data ONTAP 7-mode
  28. 28. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 27 Clustered Data ONTAP Open Network Technology for Appliance Products (ONTAP) It is an operating system from NetApp, for the management, maintenance, initial set-up, and configuration ONTAP use RAID Dual Parity (RAID-DP) with 2 parity disks ONTAP operating system goal: 1- to be able to do high availability (in case of maintenance or upgrade) 2- to be efficient (apply compression to save capacity, thin replication of data, data deduplication to get rid of redundant copies ) 3- scalability (Through a clustered solution that's virtualized with our storage virtual machines) ONTAP OS support 1- Unified StorageArchitecture (USA): NFS, CIFS, Fiber Channel, iSCSI, Fiber Channel over Ethernet, 2- Unify Fabric Attached Storage: SAS, SATA, Fiber Channel, SSD 3- Storage Virtual Machines (SVM) It is a logical representations of the storage that might have a lot of physical hardware. Its own Logical interfaces, logical volumes and LUNs 4- Non-volatile RAM (NV-RAM): There's a batteryconnected to this RAM so that we can preserve the data in case of a power failure 5- Write Anywhere File Layout File System (WAFL) Is a file layout (like file system) that supports large, high-performance RAID arrays
  29. 29. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 28 In case of a crash or power failure, it will restart without long consistency checks 6- Snapshots Is a pointer for the original data Data ONTAP 7-Mode Data ONTAP 7-Mode Support Multi-protocol capabilities (NFS, CIFS, Fiber Channel, iSCSI, Fiber Channel over Ethernet) NAS/SAN RAID-DP Snapshot Improve Compression Improve Encryption 64-bit aggregation Move the running 32-bit aggregates, toa 64-bit aggregationnon-disruptively. IPv6 Flash Pools: we can add Flash to the system, and the Data ONTAP will use it for caching BranchCache: provide caching features to company branches which has slow WAN Data ONTAP 7-Mode contains: 1- Disk Blade (D-Blade): a. to manage WAFL, RAID and Storage (SAS, NFS, FC) 2- Management host (M-host) : a. Managenodes by using i. Command line interface “ng shell” or “ngsh” to managethe nodes ii. Element Manager User interface from the browser NetApp Hardware Basics Let’s talk about some of the basic hardware components we should be familiar with
  30. 30. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 29 All hardware components can be break down into three general categories. 1- slots and ports 2- disk shelves 3- internal components Slots and ports Slots Used to plug stuff, taking ports out, putting new ports in or configuring what the port will do in the software Ports ManagementPort“e0M” Connected to a separate network (management network) Remote LAN Module (RLM) interface We can use this port to manage the node remotely, even if the NetApp device itself is down or ONTAP OS is down It provides remote access, monitoring, troubleshooting, logging, and alerting features We can interact with RLMusing: SSH (default)
  31. 31. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 30 Telnet (disabled by default) Remote Shell (disabled by default) Data ports “e0a, e0b,…..” Connected to data network Data interfaces support 802.3ad technology to aggregatelinks together So you can aggregate“e0a” and “e0b” to “group1” to take advantageof link aggregation(high performance and availability) Unified port/Unified targetadapter (UTA2) Is the port that can act as Fiber Channel or 10-gigabit Ethernet port Disk shelves The physical disks where we're storing information We can put different drives in, and going from SSD technology to mechanical back to SSD technology again Clients see volumes or aggregatesinstead of physical disks Physical disks support Fiber Channel, ATA, Serial ATA, SAS, and SSD  FC and ATA use the Fiber Channel Arbitrated Loop (FC-AL) connection-type  SATA, SAS, and SSD use a SAS connection-type Disk aggregationand RAID improve the performance and availability of the disk Disk classification  Data disk: contain all data
  32. 32. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 31  Hot Spare disk: used in case of a disk failure  Parity disk: to store the parity information Disk identification system The disk identification name is based on its location in the NetApp appliance The disk location is based on “slot no.”, “port no.” and “device_ID” For disks that used FC-AL: the location is based on “shelf identifier”, “bay number” and “device ID” Disk ownership Disk ownership is controlled by a controller and disk pool For single system set up There is one controller that is in charge of that disk, There is only one pool (pool 0) that the disk is a part of For high availability set up We have 2 controllers and 2 pools Disk ownership is controlled by software settings (system manager)
  33. 33. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 32 Internal components Like CPU, RAM, non-volatile RAMand Flash Cache 2. Flash Cache 2 It is a technology that allow the mechanical drives that can act as SSD performance by caching the frequently information in a Flash Cache on the device It provide lower cost per TB, less power, more capacity storage, more IOPS and improve response time FAS 2552 model
  34. 34. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 33 Another Model Using the CLI Date Version For firmware version Help “?” To get help bout the available commands To get help about a certain command
  35. 35. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 34 System console To go to the system console CTRL + D to exit system console Man page Then “q” to quit Create volume To create new volume with name “my_cli_test_ncsa” and size “2g” on aggregate“aggr0” NETAPP technology
  36. 36. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 35  Storage  Disks  Aggregates(RAID options)  Volumes (FlexVol and Traditional)  FlexCache  FlexClone  Deduplication  QTrees  CIFS Oplocks  Security styles  Quotas  aggregatesnapshotting  data compression  sync mirroring  snap blocking  metro clustering  FlexArray 
  37. 37. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 36 Disks This is the physical disk reside in a disk enclosure Disk has a pathname like 2a.17, where 2a = SCSI adapter and 17 = disk SCSI ID Spare will be used in any group or any aggregatetoreplace failed disks. There are 4 types of disks: 1- Data : holds data stored within the RAID group 2- Spare: Does not hold usable data but is available to be added to a RAID group in an aggregate, also known as a hot spare 3- Parity: Store data reconstruction information within the RAID group 4- dParity: Stores double-parity information within the RAID group, if RAID-DPis enabled Aggregates (RAID options) An aggregateisa component in NetApp that contains disks, RAID groups, etc. Disks are grouped together in aggregatestoprovide storage volumes All disks in the same aggregatehave to be same type Each aggregatehas its own RAID configuration, and disks and luns When using RAID4 or RAID-DPthe largest disks will be used as the parity disk/s You can createtraditional volumes or NetApp's FlexVol volumes We are using aggregate to createvolumes, specifically “FlexVols” which can be used by the end user To create the aggregate wewill: 1- give aggregate a name 2- type of RAID 3- define a size 4- select no. of disks Aggregates structure: 32-bit: low performance, limited size (16 terabytes) 64-bit: support up to 100 terabytes
  38. 38. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 37 32-bit and 64-bit aggregatescan co-exist now on the same device. Fewer aggregatesreduces the overall management workload Snaplock It is a technology to write once, read many" (WORM) data Administer non-rewritable storage of data Creating Aggregates Using system manager:
  39. 39. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 38
  40. 40. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 39
  41. 41. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 40 Flash Pools It is a cash memory storage for NETAPP appliances Flash pools used to createa flash cash which contains the frequently accessed data The controller is ensuring that frequently accessed data is put on the flash, and less frequently accessed data put on the mechanical disk drive Flash Pools are differ from flash cache, Flash cache is used for read operation Flash pools are used for read, write, metadata operations Fusion Drive is a type of drives that is contains a mechanical drive included with flash Activate flash pools From CLI: 1- select our aggregate 2- run command “aggregateoptions hybrid enabled on” Flash Pools support SnapMirror aggregatesnapshotting data compression
  42. 42. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 41 sync mirroring snap blocking metro clustering, Flash pool Limitation Flash Pool aggregatescannot be used in the following configurations:  flash pool is not supported on ONTAP7.2 and earlier  32-bit aggregates  Aggregatescomposed of arrayLUNs  SnapLock aggregates  Traditional volumes  A storage system that uses StorageEncryption FlexShare is not supported for volumes associated with Flash Pool aggregates. Read-only volumes, such as SnapMirror destinations, are not cached in the Flash Pool cache. FlexArray V-Series runs behind FAS arrays and other storage from other major vendors. FlexArray is a software that will replace NetApp's V-Series (virtualization gateways). FlexArray is built into Ontap. The first version supports NetApp FAS, EMC and Hitachi storage. FlexArray also supports NetApp's E-Series high-performance arrays Aggrigatewill use RAID type “Hyprid”
  43. 43. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 42 Volume Volumes contain file systems that hold user data User can access the data using NFS, CIFS, HTTP, FTP, FC, and iSCSI. Volume modes Online Read and write access to this volume is allowed. Restricted Some operations, such as parity reconstruction, are allowed, but data access is not allowed. Offline No access to the volume is allowed. Volume types: 1- Traditional volume 2- FlexVol 3- Flex clone 4- Flex cache 5- Root volume Traditionalvolume Traditional volume tightly tied to the aggregate No other volumes can get their storage from this aggregate. To increase the traditional volume, we have to increase the size of the aggregateby adding physical disks. MAX traditional volume size is 16 TB
  44. 44. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 43 Traditional volume cannot be decreased/shrink The smallest traditional volume contains two disks (for RAID4) or three disks (for RAID-DP) It is available in 32bit only Traditional Volumes cannot be cloned, but we can create a copy of the volume with space equivalent to the amount of the original storagespace FlexVol Volume (flexible volume) It is a volume that is not depend on the aggregate:  We can decoupling the flex volume from the aggregate  Every FlexVol can be administer independently, grow independently, set up particular features independently  Choose independently the flexible volumes that are sharing the aggregate. You can increase or decrease the size of FlexVol volumes online We can clone the volume (FlexClone) As mentioned in the image,  Each set of Hard Disks grouped in a RAID groups  All RAID groups aggregatedtoone aggregate.  Then, we can divide the aggregateto“flex volumes”,  Each flex volume can be used as a lun or NFS volume,  5% of the aggregatecapacityreserved for snapshot  20% of the flexvol size reserved for snapshot  0.5% of the flexvol size reserved for volume metadata (space guarantee)
  45. 45. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 44 There are two types of FlexVolume  32-bit  64-bit To use Data ONTAP to move data between a 32-bit volume and a 64-bit volume, you must use “ndmpcopy” or “qtree SnapMirror”. (vol copy command or volume SnapMirror cannot be used) Create FlixVol volume Creating FlexVol requires: Name Type of FlexVol (NAS/SAN) Related aggregate The size of the FlexVol Snapshot reserve: what will be reserved in that FlexVol for snapshotting technology? 20% Space guarantee: free space in the aggregatefor creating FlexVol, if it set to none, then at a certaintime, users couldn’t write to the FlexVol, and the aggregatecould run out of space.
  46. 46. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 45 FlexClone volumes Copies (point-in-time copies) of a parent flex volume. FlexVol use its snapshot copy to create FlexClone,
  47. 47. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 46 FlexVol is Writable volumes We can managethem separately as a regularFlexVol volume After createFlexClone, any changes in the parent FlexVol will not reflected in the FlexClone volume. Any LUNs present in the parent volume are present in the FlexClone volume but are unmapped and offline. FlexClone volumes always exist in the same aggregateastheir parent volumes. FlexClone volumes and parent volumes share the same disk space for any common data (no additional disk space) until changes are made to the FlexClone volume or its parent We can Split the FlexClone volume connection with the parent volume, so the FlexClone volume will use its own disk space instead of sharing it with its parent FlexClone volumes also can be cloned The space guarantee and space reservation of the FlexClone volume is created as its parent if the aggregate has enough space Root volume Every aggregatehaveroot volume Root Volume contains system files, log files, core files, home directory and /etc directory We can use system manager and the CLI in order to interact with those files Root volume contain files that can be edit in order to change NetApp system behaviors. FlexCache Volumes It is a local volume (in our storage) that is used to cache data for other remote volume (remote storage) to speeds up data access to remote data When a client requests data from the FlexCache volume, the data is read from the origin system and cached on the FlexCache volume, this data is then served directly from the local FlexCache volume.
  48. 48. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 47 FlexShare: Is a features that applied to the volumes to provide: 1- Volume Priority: A higher priority gives a volume a greater percentage of available resources when a system is fully loaded. 2- User versus system priority : Prioritize user workloads (application and end-user traffic) versus system work (backup, replication, and so on) 3- Cache utilization : Optimizing cache usage by Configuring the cache to retain data in cache or reuse the cache depending on workload characteristics Qtrees Qtrees enable you to partition your volumes into smaller segments that you can manage individually Qtrees used to organize the data and apply the following:  Quotas: to limit the size of the data  Backup: to keep backups more modular, flexible backup schedules  Security style: for Windows files and applications, you can group the data in a qtree and set its security style to NTFS  CIFS oplocks (opportunistic locks): opportunistic locks is a database concept that may require to be “OFF” or “ON”, So you can assign Qtree to a certain type We can't do snapshot copies of a Qtree,
  49. 49. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 48 We can't do space reservations or guarantees within a Qtree structure. Create Qtree
  50. 50. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 49 Calculating Usable Disk Space In earlier versions of the ONTAP software, When NetApp prepare a physical disk, it reserve: 10% for the WAFL file system and 90% for aggregate 5% of the aggregatespace was reserved for the snapshot copy We createour FlexVol inside the aggregate, 20%of the FlexVol is reserved for snapshot In new versions 10% for the WAFL file system and 90% for aggregate 0% of the aggregatespace was reserved for the snapshot copy but it is configurable
  51. 51. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 50 We createour FlexVol inside the aggregate, 20%of the FlexVol is reserved for snapshot Review All physical disks in NetApp are part of what type of grouping?  RAID  Aggregate  FlexVol  Qtree Which statement is false?  You can increase the size of a FlexVol.  You can decrease the size of a FlexVol.  A FlexVol is tied to a physical disk.  A FlexVol permits the reduction in administrative scope SnapShot Snapshot copies are frozen read-only views of our particular volume It is the first line of defense for backup and recovery of software We can have up to 255 snapshot per volume We can do automatic snapshot scheduling, or manually using CLI or GUI (system manager) We can see
  52. 52. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 51 We can take snapshot in hourly basis We can reserve a space in “%” for snapshot copies We can check the space allocation for snapshot
  53. 53. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 52 SnapRestore Very easy automated restoration of data SnapMirror Technology for replication and disaster recovery SnapMirror is a DR application that make a replication from primary controller and secondary controller Then use the SnapUpdate to performing Data Migrations to apply any changes
  54. 54. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 53 SnapVault SnapVault is a backup application Moving SnapShot copy data to other locations SV can be scheduled at multiple intervals Network Administration How you can set up that NetApp device to easily interact with the network around it. Name resolution As Linux machines, network setting contains hosts file, resolve.conf and NIS which contains IP-Name resolution or DNS settings
  55. 55. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 54 And And we can configure the storageto use ordered setting from “nsswitch.conf” file
  56. 56. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 55 Create the VLANs Network interface tap contains all NIC types and configuration (Physical, Virtual, VLANs)
  57. 57. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 56
  58. 58. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 57 Create VIF VIF is a virtual interface that linked to multible physical interfaces to provide FT Interface groups / aggregation If one physical interface is down, no effect on the group Aggregationof links is part of the 802.3ad standard Single mode:  One interface is active Multimode staticconfig:  All interfaces are active  Provide LB for the traffic Multimode dynamic config:  A dynamic protocol (LACP) is used to determine which interface will be used  Take advantage of link aggregationcontrol protocol (LACP) to support LB  Connected switches should support (LACP)
  59. 59. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 58
  60. 60. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 59
  61. 61. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 60 Using CLI version Get the firmware on this particular service processor system See all of the system commands
  62. 62. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 61 system console connect to the system console Ifconfig Configure and monitor interfaces Ifgrp Configure and monitor Interfacegroup
  63. 63. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 62 setup Will reconfigure basic configuration files like “/etc/rc”, “/etc/exports”, “/etc/nsswitch.conf”, etc……. Creating LUNs There are many ways to createLUNs Create LUN GUI Or
  64. 64. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 63 Then
  65. 65. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 64 Then choose the relatedvolume that will createthe LUN inside
  66. 66. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 65 Then createthe igroup: the initiator group that's allowed to access this LUN (just a table of who can access the particular LUN)
  67. 67. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 66 Delete LUN GUI We cannot delete online LUN, we have to make it offline first
  68. 68. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 67 Create LUN CLI Go to system console
  69. 69. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 68 Using SnapDrive Snapdrive is a software addons for WIN and Linux desktop Used to expand the storage, managesnapshot copies, cloning disks NFS Exports and CIFS Shares In System Manager:  Create Share  for a Windows based CIFS Share  Create Export  for NFS export
  70. 70. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 69 For CIFS, WIN users has to Map network drive to share the location for all users For NFS export, Linux host has to createdirectory and mount the exported NFS in order to use the storage If we go to export TAP, we will find our previous FlixVol we had created“East” In order to createnew export, lets delete “/vol/East” and createit again Delete Export Create Export Choose the volume you need to export
  71. 71. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 70 Then set permissions
  72. 72. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 71 Create CIFS share No CIFS share automatically created, System Manager contains only hidden shares in windows env. We will create new CIFS share with same steps as Export
  73. 73. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 72 Also you can “Edit” and change permissions and other options
  74. 74. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 73 Stop Sharing Using BranchCache BranchCache is a feature used when your remote office is connected with a low-bandwidth WAN connection, and you have many devices in remote site needs the same file, so using BranchCache will send the file to only one remote device then cache it to others
  75. 75. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 74 Distributed caching Any remote device can cache the file and provide it to other devices like “P2P” Hosted Casing Use a server instead of normal devices to cache files and provide them to devices like “client-server” Branch cache configurations Most branch cache configurations done by CLI Branch cache should be enabled per service 1- Go to system Console 2- Check Branch cache for CIFS share 3- Create Branch cache for CIFS share cifs shares -add share_name path –branchcache
  76. 76. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 75 cifs shares -add projects /vol/East –branchcache Using Quotas We have many types of quotas: Qtree quota, user quota, group quota Qtree is seems to be as flexvol volumes but there aresome differences  You can enable/disable snapshot feature  Space guarantee  Support quotas  Support backup  Security styles (NTFS, UNIX, MIXED)  CIFS oplock
  77. 77. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 76 Create Qtree Set Quota You can set quota based on the used space or no. of files
  78. 78. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 77
  79. 79. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 78 Then set hard limits, soft limit “warning” and threshold
  80. 80. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 79 To get information about the quota: /etc/quotas  to see raw storageinformation about the quota
  81. 81. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 80 RBAC Role-Based Access Control used to enhance the security of your organization by: Provide differing levels of access for different users or groups Apply Least Privilege concept: createaccount that has the least level of privileges Able to log what one administrator is doing from another Provide Capabilities, Roles, Create User Create new user “gamil” and assign it to Administrator group
  82. 82. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 81 Review Which statement regarding RBAC in NetApp is incorrect?  Capabilities refer to specific actions  User accounts are placed in groups  Capabilities areassigned users  NetApp includes an Admin and Power Users group Storage System Maintenance Auto support
  83. 83. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 82 Logs Through Event Management System (EMS) that generatethe logs, you can filter the logs Degraded disk It is a situation that we have RAID-DPwith 5 disks, then 2 disks failed, and no other spare disks Disks will stay in this degraded mode for 24 hours by default, then shutdown So data is still exist but there's no spares, this situation called degraded disk If the situation occurred, you will receive auto support e-mails and Disk scrubbing NetApp check media for errors, check the parity information Start checking Manually CLI:  disk scrub start  disk scrub stop We can start checking automatically sysstat sysstat is a CLI tool that doing a certain number of queries of the system statistics, or set the interval
  84. 84. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 83 Storage Space Management How you aredoing space guaranteeor disk provisioning Provisioning  Full provisioning: full space guarantee  Thin provisioning: allocate space as it is stored  File provisioning: need space guarantee for a certain file
  85. 85. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 84 Space allocation You can check space summary from “space allocation tap” CLI df –h ncsa_class aggrshow_space –h aggr0
  86. 86. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 85 Storage Efficiency (Deduplication) Take fingerprint of the block, then looking for blocks with identical fingerprints, then erase that blocks and add pointer that points to the other block that has the identical fingerprint. So that there's no identical storage.
  87. 87. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 86 Clustered Data ONTAP Concepts In 2011, we had ONTAP 8.1 referring to two different modes of operation:  The 7-mode  Clustered mode o For NAS, we can have 24 nodes inside of our clustered environment. o For SAN, we can have 8 nodes inside of our clustered environment Clustering = HA pair = multiple node is working together with 10 GB connection between each other
  88. 88. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 87 ONTAP 8.2 support single node cluster, 2 node switchless cluster Virtual storage servers (VSS) Data Vserver is presenting a particular namespace to clients Clustered Data ONTAP User Interfaces There are 2 user interfaces:  OnCommand system manager (GUI)  Cluster shell (CLI) For CLI, you can use “tab” to auto complete “..”  go back one step “top”  go to the top of hierarchy st  get statistics or storage Clustered Volumes and Namespaces In a clustered environment we deal with only FlexVol
  89. 89. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 88 FlexVol can move through the cluster FlexVol owned by Vservers Namespace Volumes from all over the cluster become a Namespace Access to the root of the Namespace allow access to volumes information that exists below it Junction Bind the volumes together in the Namespace. In order to createa namespace, we have to create a junction for all volumes Junction looks like a directory path “/eng/p7/source” Infinite volume Starting from clustered data ontap 8.1.1 Provides a single mount point that can scale to 20PB and 2 billion files Infinite volume integrates with deduplication, compression, and NetApp SnapMirror replication technology From clustered data ontap 8.1.1, they started to add disaster recovery features Infinite volume doesn’t support Qtrees or its quota To create Infinite volume, you have to activate“IS repository switch”
  90. 90. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 89 Clustered File Access Enabled NFS on the Storage Virtual Machine (SVM) to managefile access using NFS. NFS v4 and later are stateful technology Clustered Data ONTAP 8.1 support NFS4 and 4.1, PNFS (Parallel NFS) and CIFS NFS4 use referrals concept that allow users to obtain the information from the storage system If the user request for information comes into node1, but the information is actually stored in node2.or, if volume is moved from one node to another, SO: NFSv4 Clients have to unmount and remount the file system manually PNFS (Parallel NFS) Does not have to unmount or remount to access the new location of the volume PNFS uses logical interface (LIF) to communicate with the cluster LIF There is LIF Inside clustered Data ONTAP, which is logical interface owned by storage virtual machine (SVM)
  91. 91. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 90 LIF Is an IP address associated with a physical port. If there is any component failure, a LIF can fail over to or be migrated to a different physical port, thereby continuing to communicate with the cluster. PNFS allows us to separate the Metadata Path from the actual Data Path, so the client can reach the data wherever it is stored in any node PNFS does not support FlexCache volumes, coral volumes, and load-sharing volumes. Common Internet File System (CIFS) Used SMP protocol version 2, 2.1 and 3, it is stateful technology since SMB v2 SMB v2.1 Support Oplock leasing SMB v3 support BranchCache 2, Witness Protocol and Hyper-V over Server Message Block Netapp Networks Management Network Admin use LIF to access the management network and managethe infrastructure Cluster Interconnect There's logical interfaces for the cluster interconnecting for the inter-cluster communications Data network There's LIF for end user who is accessing the data that's stored in the cluster
  92. 92. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 91 Clustered Load Balancing The ability to smooth out load, to load balance in your storage enterprise. Natapp allow LB through DNS You can createvolumes across NetApp cluster in a round-robin fashion, and we can move volumes within the vserver between nodes or aggregates In a CIFS environment, the CIFS clients might see a slight degradation in performance Load Sharing Mirrors (LSM) We can take a particular FlexVol, then createa load-sharing mirror and copy a read-only copy of that FlexVol. The read-only copy exist in the same location in the namespace, but it's help with our load-balancing implementation. There is automatic and manual sync between original FlexVol and the read-only copy SAN Infrastructure There are 2 operating systems:  data ontap  SANtricity  used in big data environments (E-Series NetApp devices)
  93. 93. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 92 Unified storage NetApp can easily address both NAS and SAN and at the same time NAS : file-based access to storageusing CIFS or NFS SAN : Block Level access using iSCSI or FC or FCOE For FC, the connection terms are: WWNN: Worldwide Node Names, a unique identifier for the device itself. WWPN: Worldwide Port Names that areidentifiers for the particular portal For ISCSI:  IQN style  EUI style Steps for the establishment of the SAN: 1- Disc system  use as our Target device 2- Create a session  from the Initiator to this Target 3- Create an igroup  controls access to the LUNs. (Like Zoning) 4- Create a LUN 5- Map a LUN to igroup 6- Find a LUN  on the OS by the user 7- Prepare the LUN FC Connectivity What is NetApp going to plug in to?
  94. 94. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 93 What is end host systems going to plug in to? How's that all going to work? The parallel SCSI has scalability issues with limited speed Fibre Channel connectivity is faster and can accommodate 12 million addresses Fibre Channel connection:  P2P : legacy  Arbitrated Loop (AL): used when connecting Fibre Channel disks inside of the NetApp  Fabric Config : used today FC support Dual Fabric (switches) to provide redundancy to prevent single point of failure We can do dual path with single fabric and dual path with dual fabrics The initiator for the fabric can be Linux, WIN, and VMwareand the endpoint for the Initiators is a Host Bus Adapter (HBA). The target device is like Brocade, Cisco So the initiator connect to HBAof the FC switch and the switch is connected to the NETAPP target FC interface (fc0b) Commands sysconfig command  Allow you to identify your onboard Fibre Channel adapters on the particular NetApp device  Allow you to do the Fibre Channel Admin command fcadmin command  Let you view the current configuration in Fibre Channel config,  configure particular Fibre Channel
  95. 95. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 94 License command To view and add license FCOE is not a Host Bus Adapter “HBA”, it is Converged Network Adapter FCOE converge our network traffic, it take FC traffic and lay it through the LAN (encapsulating it in Ethernet frames) FCOE requires 10 gigabit per second connectivity
  96. 96. ENG. AHMED GAMIL 95 References https://www.cbtnuggets.com/it-training/netapp-certified-storage-associate-ncsa-ns0-145 http://www.datadisk.co.uk/html_docs/netapp/netapp_disk.htm

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