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Climate Change and Energy Updated PowerPoint show about climate change and energy sector
Research results of climate change
Global warming is due to strengthened greenhouse effect Greenhouse effect The Earth has a natural temperature control system. Certain atmospheric gases are critical to this system and are known as greenhouse gases. On average, about one third of the solar radiation that hits the earth is reflected back to space. The Earth's surface becomes warm and as a result emits infrared radiation. The greenhouse gases trap the infrared radiation, thus warming the atmosphere. Naturally occurring greenhouse gases create a natural greenhouse effect. However, human activities are causing greenhouse gas levels in the atmosphere to increase. Source: National Geographic
Earth’s energy budget Source: Nasa, Atmospheric Science Data Center
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Strengthening of greenhouse effect is due to increase of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere Source: IPCC Fourth Assessment Report
Different greenhouse gases have different meaning to global warming Source: IPCC Fourth Assessment Report
Meaning of carbon dioxide to global warming ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Source: IPCC Fourth Assessment Report
Sources of EU-27 greenhouse gas emissions Industry Industry
The global atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases has increased
Atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases correlates with temperature
According to researches earth’s mean temperature has risen in the 20th and the 21st century   Source: IPCC Fourth Assessment Report
According to measurements the temperature is rising
Different reconstructions of mean temperature have been published by researchers
Sea level is rising
Change in volume of glaciers Cumulative Change in Volume of Arctic Glaciers since 1960
The average temperature is rising but our choices make a difference   Multi-model averages and assessed ranges for surface warming Source: IPCC Fourth Assessment Report
Effects of climate change Source: IPCC Fourth Assessment Report
Examples of major projected impacts on agriculture, forestry and ecosystems ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Source: IPCC Fourth Assessment Report
Examples of major projected impacts on water resources ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Source: IPCC Fourth Assessment Report
Examples of major projected impacts on human health ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Source: IPCC Fourth Assessment Report
Examples of major projected impacts on industry, settlement and society 1/2 ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Source: IPCC Fourth Assessment Report
Examples of major projected impacts on industry, settlement and society 2/2 ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Source: IPCC Fourth Assessment Report
Impacts of climate change in Finland ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Source: www.ilmastonmuutos.info, www.ilmasto.org
Energy production and consumption
Total energy consumption has increased substantially in Finland *Tähän diaan on liitettynä muistiinpanoja
Electricity consumption has increased even more than energy consumption
Final energy consumption by sectors in Finland  2006
Electricity consumption by sector in Finland  2007 (90,3 TWh)
Electricity supply by energy sources in Finland 2007 (90,3 TWh)
Net supplies of electricity  in Finland 2007 (90,3 TWh)
Market share of space heating in Finland 2006
Fuel consumption in production of district heat and CHP in Finland 2007
Fuel consumption in production of district heat and CHP in Finland 1976-2007
Fuel shares of district heating and CHP in different areas of Finland year 2007
Electricity supply  in the Nordic countries 2006
Electricity consumption   in the Nordic countries 2006
Total gross electricity generation in Europe 2006 
Gross electricity generation by Fuel – EU-27 2005 Source:  Eurostat , European Commission *  Pumped Storage Plants and  Other Power Stations
Final energy consumption in Europe 2006
Final energy consumption by fuel - EU27 2005
Final energy intensity in Europe 2006 per capita
Final energy consumption by sector – EU-27 2005
Electricity consumption by sector EU-27 2005
Global total primary energy supply is increasing
Regional shares of world’s total primary energy supply  2005
Use of all fuels has increased globally
Fuel shares of world’s total primary energy supply
Increasing of electricity generation has been even faster than world’s total primary energy supply
Fuel shares of electricity generation 2005
Evolution from 1971 to 2005 of world’s electricity generation by regions (TWh)
World’s electricity generation by regions in  2005
Remaining natural resources
Renewable Energy
Renewable energy sources ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Renewable energy covered more than a fourth of the electricity supply in Finland 2007
Renewable energy covered almost a fourth of the energy consumption in Finland 2007
The share of renewable energy sources in primary energy consumption increased slowly in the  EU-27
Renewable energy sources in the EU countries 2005
Peat is a slowly renewable biomass fuel ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Green house gases
EU-27 green house gas emissions in 2005
Carbon dioxide intensity in power generation in some European countries in 2003
Greenhouse gas emissions in the EU 1990-2005
Finnish greenhouse gas emissions 1990–2006 and the emissions target
Greenhouse gas emissions by source in Finland in 2006
Sources of EU-27 greenhouse gas emissions
Estimated green house gas emissions in Finland 2010 and 2025
Evolution from 1971 to 2005 of world’s CO2 emissions by fuel  *** Other includes industrial waste and non-renewable municipal waste. Source: IEA
World’s CO 2  emissions by fuel shares in 2005 Source: IEA
Evolution from 1971 to 2005 of world’s CO2 emissions by region  *** Asia excludes China. Source: IEA
World’s regional shares of CO 2  emission in 2005 *** Asia excludes China. Source: IEA
CO 2  emissions avoided by utilization of Combined Heat and Power production
CO 2  emissions avoided by  renewable and nuclear power  70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 MtCO 2 1990  1991 1992  1993  1994  1995  1996  1997 1998  1999  2000  2001  2002  2003  2004 Source: Finnish Energy Industries Actual Emissions Nuclear Power Hydro Power Bioenergy Wind Power
Climate treaties and –policy
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Source: UNFCCC *Tähän diaan on liitettynä muistiinpanoja
Kyoto Protocol 1/2 ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Lähde: UNFCCC
Kyoto Protocol  2/2 ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Source: UNFCCC
Burden sharing in EU-15 ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Burden sharing in Finnish NAP2 Governmental use of Kyoto mechanisms 2,4 MtCO2/a ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Finland´s need to reduce emissions from  WM 2008-2012 - 12,2 MtCO2/a  + - 2 MtCO2/a* ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],New entrants reserve 1,4 MtCO2/a * EU Comission required Finland to reduce the amount of emission allowances by 2 MtCO2/a
The EU Emission Trading System  1/2 ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
The EU Emission Trading System  2/2 ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Emission trade sectors ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Scope of emission trading  ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Emission trading affects fuel prices and competitiveness
Purpose of the emission trading system is to affect demand and supply through CO 2  price ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],The goal is to reduce green house gas emissions in a cost-effective way
Emission trading and Kyoton mechanisms ” Additional” emission allowances through Kyoto mechanisms by the state  (JI, CDM, Global ETS) Installations in EU ETS ca. 55 % of emissions CO2 emissions from other sectors and other GHG ca. 45 % of emissions Additional emission allowances through EU ETS Additional emission allowances through Kyoto mechanisms Finland’s emission ceiling 2008-2012 (ca. 71 MtCO2-ekv/a without Kyoto mechanisms and EU ETS)
Climate Policy - Responsibilities 2008-2012
Link directive brings to the carbon market emission reductions though so called Kyoto- mechanisms ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Flexibility mechanisms (Kyoto mechanisms) 1/2
Flexibility mechanisms  (Kyoto mechanisms)  2/2 ,[object Object],[object Object]
Climate credits (Carbon credits) ,[object Object],[object Object]
Future Prospects
Growth scenario of global energy use
Electricity supply by energy sources scenario in Finland
Development of power consumption
Target of United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is stabilize greenhouse gas emissions to safety level 5 10 15 20 25 Source: UK DEFRA CO 2  -emissions (GtC) Basic Scenario Developed countries Undeveloped countries 550 ppm stabilization 0 30 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 2060 2070 2080 2090 2100 450 ppm stabilization
Scenarios compared to actual emissions
EU in international climate negotiations ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Finland’s energy and climate strategy and current political climate –Kyoto period ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],How will Finland reach its’ Kyoto target and what is the role of other policy instruments in EU’s Emission Trading Scheme Environment?
Main techniques to increase renewable energy 1/2 ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Main techniques to increase renewable energy  2/2 ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Carbon Capture and Storage - CCS ,[object Object],[object Object]
CO 2  capture  ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Source: Wikipedia
CO 2  Storage (sequestration)   ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Source: Wikipedia
CCS – Carbon Capture and Storage

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Climate Change and Energy

Editor's Notes

  1. Source: IPCC Fourth Assessment Report
  2. Kenoviiva puuttuu (myös alkuperäisestä)
  3. The reconstructions used, in order from oldest to most recent publication are: ( dark blue 1000-1991): P.D. Jones, K.R. Briffa, T.P. Barnett, and S.F.B. Tett (1998). High-resolution Palaeoclimatic Records for the last Millennium: Interpretation, Integration and Comparison with General Circulation Model Control-run Temperatures, The Holocene , 8: 455-471. ( blue 1000-1980): M.E. Mann, R.S. Bradley, and M.K. Hughes (1999). Northern Hemisphere Temperatures During the Past Millennium: Inferences, Uncertainties, and Limitations, Geophysical Research Letters , 26(6): 759-762. ( light blue 1000-1965): Crowley and Lowery (2000). Northern Hemisphere Temperature Reconstruction, Ambio , 29: 51-54. Modified as published in Crowley (2000). Causes of Climate Change Over the Past 1000 Years, Science , 289: 270-277. ( lightest blue 1402-1960): K.R. Briffa, T.J. Osborn, F.H. Schweingruber, I.C. Harris, P.D. Jones, S.G. Shiyatov, S.G. and E.A. Vaganov (2001). Low-frequency temperature variations from a northern tree-ring density network, J. Geophys. Res. , 106: 2929-2941. ( light green 831-1992): J. Esper, E.R. Cook, and F.H. Schweingruber (2002). Low-Frequency Signals in Long Tree-Ring Chronologies for Reconstructing Past Temperature Variability, Science , 295(5563): 2250-2253. ( yellow 200-1980): M.E. Mann and P.D. Jones (2003). Global Surface Temperatures over the Past Two Millennia, Geophysical Research Letters , 30(15): 1820. DOI : 10.1029/2003GL017814 . ( orange 200-1995): P.D. Jones and M.E. Mann (2004). Climate Over Past Millennia, Reviews of Geophysics , 42: RG2002. DOI : 10.1029/2003RG000143 ( red-orange 1500-1980): S. Huang (2004). Merging Information from Different Resources for New Insights into Climate Change in the Past and Future, Geophys. Res Lett. , 31: L13205. DOI : 10.1029/2004GL019781 ( red 1-1979): A. Moberg, D.M. Sonechkin, K. Holmgren, N.M. Datsenko and W. Karlén (2005). Highly variable Northern Hemisphere temperatures reconstructed from low- and high-resolution proxy data, Nature , 443: 613-617. DOI : 10.1038/nature03265 ( dark red 1600-1990): J.H. Oerlemans (2005). Extracting a Climate Signal from 169 Glacier Records, Science , 308: 675-677. DOI : 10.1126/science.1107046 (black 1856-2004): Instrumental data was jointly compiled by the w:Climatic Research Unit and the UK Meteorological Office Hadley Centre . Global Annual Average data set TaveGL2v [2] was used. Documentation for the most recent update of the CRU/Hadley instrumental data set appears in: P.D. Jones and A. Moberg (2003). Hemispheric and large-scale surface air temperature variations: An extensive revision and an update to 2001, Journal of Climate , 16: 206-223.
  4. Annual averages of the global mean sea level (mm). The red curve shows reconstructed sea level fi elds since 1870 (updated from Church and White, 2006); the blue curve shows coastal tide gauge measurements since 1950 (from Holgate and Woodworth, 2004) and the black curve is based on satellite altimetry (Leuliette et al., 2004). The red and blue curves are deviations from their averages for 1961 to 1990, and the black curve is the deviation from the average of the red curve for the period 1993 to 2001. Error bars show 90% confi dence intervals.
  5. For the Arctic as a whole, there was a substantial loss in glacial volume from 1961 to 1998. Glaciers in the North American Arctic lost the most mass (about 450 km3), with increased loss since the late 1980s. Glaciers in the Russian Arctic have also had large losses (about 100 km3). Glaciers in the European Arctic show an increase in volume because increased precipitation in Scandinavia and Iceland added more to glacial mass than melting removed over that period.
  6. Solid lines are multi-model global averages of surface warming (relative to 1980-99) for the scenarios A2, A1B and B1, shown as continuations of the 20th century simulations. Shading denotes the plus/minus one standard deviation range of individual model annual averages. The orange line is for the experiment where concentrations were held constant at year 2000 values. The gray bars at right indicate the best estimate (solid line within each bar) and the likely range assessed for the six SRES marker scenarios. The assessment of the best estimate and likely ranges in the gray bars includes the AOGCMs in the left part of the figure, as well as results from a hierarchy of independent models and observational constraints.
  7. Energian kulutus on kasvanut tasaisesti vuosi vuodelta. Keskeisimmät syyt kulutuksen voimakkaaseen laskuun vuonna 2005 olivat erittäin leuto talvi, metsäteollisuuden tuotannon lasku työselkkauksen vuoksi sekä tavanomaista huonompi suhdannetilanne terästeollisuudessa. Vuonna 2006 energiankulutus oli noin 35 Mtoe eli noin 1500 PJ.
  8. Source: District Heating in Finland 2007
  9. Source: District Heating in Finland 2007
  10. Source: District Heating in Finland 2007
  11. Source: Eurostat
  12. Households, trades, services, etc. Transport Industry Source: Eurostat
  13. Evolution from 1971 to 2005 of World Total Primary Energy Supply* by Region (Mtoe)
  14. by Region (Mtoe) Regional Shares of Total Primary Energy Supply
  15. Fuel Shares of Electricity Generation*
  16. Evolution from 1971 to 2005 of World Electricity Generation* by Region (TWh)
  17. **Asia excludes China. 2005 Regional Shares of Electricity Generation*
  18. Pylväiden leveydet vastaavat ilmoitettuja vuosikulutuksia vuonna 2002, pinta-alat varojen suuruuksia ja korkeudet riittävyyksiä vuosissa nykykulutuksella. Vaikeasti ja erittäin vaikeasti hyödynnettävät öljyvarat ovat epäkonventionaalisia varoja. Uraanivarat koskevat käyttöä nykyisen tyyppisissä reaktoreissa. Hyötöreaktoreissa riittävyys on kymmeniätuhansia vuosia.
  19. Source: Finnish Energy Industries, Energy Year 2007
  20. Source: Statistics Finland
  21. Source: EEA, Eurostat.
  22. Source: Finnish Energy Industries
  23. Source: Wikipedia
  24. Source: Wikipedia
  25. Source: IPCC Special Report on Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage