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Nuclear Power in Italy

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Nuclear Power in Italy

  1. 1. Nuclear Power in Italy<br />FabrizioIaccarino<br />Bethesda, 16 February 2011<br />
  2. 2. 2<br />Agenda<br />Importance of nuclear power for Italy<br />Italian nuclear program <br />Enel/EDF agreements<br />Italian industrial involvement <br />The new legal framework<br />5.1. Some history<br /> 5.2. The Framework Law (Law 99/2009)<br /> 5.3. Decree n.31/2010: licensing process<br />6. Conclusion<br />
  3. 3. 3<br />Importance of nuclear power for Italy<br />Italian nuclear program <br />Enel/EDF agreements<br />Italian industrial involvement <br />The new legal framework<br />5.1. Some history<br /> 5.2. The Framework Law (Law 99/2009)<br /> 5.3. Decree n.31/2010: licensing process<br />6. Conclusion<br />
  4. 4. 4<br />Economic benefits, security of supplies, climate change<br />Topics<br />Nuclear benefits<br />Economic benefits<br /><ul><li>The Italian generation mix is skewed towards most expensive source of energy, such as natural gas and oil</li></ul>Security of supplies<br /><ul><li>Italy relies for 78% on imports of electricity
  5. 5. 66% of imported fuels is represented by natural gas</li></ul>Fight against climate change<br /><ul><li>Italy could reduce CO2 emissions of about 35 million tones per year assuminga production of 100 TWh per year with NPPs instead of combined gas cycles plants</li></ul>Resurgence of Nuclear power will lead to significant socio-economics benefits for the whole Italian economic system<br />
  6. 6. 5<br />Energy production in ItalyReliance on import<br />Energy production 1)and import<br />[2008; TWh]<br />Allocation of imported fuels [2008; %]<br />350,5<br />77,1<br />(22%)<br />National Production<br />43,4<br />(12%)<br />Import<br />78% of Energy production is covered by import <br />18%<br />Coal<br />66%<br />GAS<br />Production from imported fuels<br />230,0<br />(66%)<br />16%<br />Oil/other<br />Energy production depends strongly on imports – Gas has the highest share among imported fuels<br />1) Net production – Consumptions (pumps included)<br />Reference:Enel analysis on data provided by Terna<br />
  7. 7. 6<br />5%<br />5%<br />1%<br />COAL *<br />GAS<br />75%<br />OIL<br />NUCLEAR<br />RENEWABLE **<br />14%<br />Energy generation mix<br />Italy vs Europe, 2009<br />Generation mix in Italy is skewed towards most expensive source of energy<br />16%<br />13%<br />28%<br />46%<br />35%<br />23%<br />52%<br />3%<br />6%<br />13%<br />1%<br />18%<br />28%<br />11%<br />23%<br />25%<br />24%<br />18%<br />17%<br />Italy <br />Germany<br />Spain<br />France<br />EU27<br />Italy is the only industrialized country (G8) to have banned nuclear power– about 28% of electric energy produced in Europe is from nuclear source<br />* Coal, wood coal<br />** Includes hydroelectric production (and pumps) and biomas<br />source: Enel analysis on data provided by Enerdata; Italian data: preliminary 2009 data by Terna; EU 27 data - year 2008 <br />
  8. 8. 7<br /> EU 27 average<br />Taxes<br />Price/tariff without taxes <br />Electricity bill of neighboring European countriesIndustrial clients<br />€/MWh<br />20.000 -70.000 MWh/year<br /> 500 – 2.000 MWh/year<br />158<br />141<br />133<br />115<br />111<br />122<br />120<br />100<br />82<br />77<br />95<br />74<br />Prices referred to January – June 2008<br />Source: Annual Report AEEG 2009<br />
  9. 9. 8<br />Importance of nuclear power renaissance for Italy<br />Italian nuclear program <br />Enel/EDF agreements<br />Italian industrial involvement <br />The new legal framework<br />5.1. Some history<br /> 5.2. The Framework Law (Law 99/2009)<br /> 5.3. Decree n.31/2010: licensing process<br />6. Conclusion<br />
  10. 10. 9<br />Italian Nuclear ProgramGovernment’s objectives<br />Nuclear<br />Other<br />National Consumptions1) [TWh/y]<br />Target for nuclear power [TWh/y; (%)]<br />Power required4) [MWe]<br />CAGR2): +1,6%<br /><br />400<br />100<br />(25%)<br />300<br />(75%)<br />13.000 MWe<br />350<br />3)<br />8 units by 1.600 MWe<br />Covered by generation and imports with reduction of import rate for 2020 compared to 2008<br />CAGR: Compound Annual Growth Rate – Average annual growth rate <br />Situation at full speed by 2025<br />Assuming a load factor approximatelyequal to 90%<br />
  11. 11. 10<br />Italian Nuclear Program: agreement with EDF for the joint development of at least 4 EPR units<br />ENEL nuclear fleetNuclear assets, new projects and development opportunities<br />Development of new capacity:<br /><ul><li>Russia:
  12. 12. Kaliningrad, 2 X 1117MWe VVER
  13. 13. Agreement with Rosatom
  14. 14. Romania: participation in the consortium led by Nuclearelectrica for the construction of Cernavoda 3&4 (Candu, 1.500 MW)</li></ul>5.5 GW of installed capacity and additional 1 GW under construction Further developments expected in Italy and other countries<br />
  15. 15. 11<br />The 1987 referendum and the italian phasing out<br />Voters: 65,1% Void/blanck: 13%;<br />
  16. 16. 12<br />Consensus and nuclear culture<br />“ I am in favor of nuclear power plant ”<br />2010*<br />Uncertain<br />61%<br />Δ 2010-2009: +2%<br />2009**<br />quiteagree<br />slightly agree<br />agree<br />disagree<br />** November 2009<br />* May 2010<br />There is a strong dissent and a limited pool of convinced. A large not fully convinced area (61%)could be switched in in favor.This is the main target of Enel’s information and communication campaign<br />
  17. 17. 13<br />Nuclear and public opinion in briefA few highlights<br /><ul><li>Three Italians out of four think that information on nuclear is either insufficient or inadequate
  18. 18. Public opinion underestimates the benefits that the re-launch of nuclear energy could give to the development of the Country
  19. 19. NIMBY is the real problem</li></ul>Information must be spread at national level<br />but it is local consensus that is pivotal<br />
  20. 20. 14<br />“Make your <br />own opinion, <br />Get informed on facts”<br />From risk to safety:<br />To defeat collective ghosts<br />Rebuild a nuclear culture and <br />trust on technical competencies<br />Give a new meaning to nuclear through <br />captivating and clear information<br />Set up a shared and diversified energy program<br />Nuclear communication iter<br /><ul><li>An information and communication campaign is needed to rebuild nuclear culture
  21. 21. Enel is launching a comprehensive plan to reassure, make nuclear advantages clear, change perception and create consensus</li></li></ul><li>15<br />ISTITUZIONS<br />Strategic alliance to support development of energy sector by reducing imports<br />and improving security of supply<br />INDUSTRY<br />Re-appropriation of<br />know-how,<br />engineering, ICT,<br />safety<br />ENVIRONMENTALISTS<br />Renewables,<br />balanced energy mix,<br />CO2 reduction<br />RESEARCH/SCIENTIFC<br />COMMUNITY<br />Recovering competences<br />for the nuclear industry;<br />University: Strengthen<br />nuclear skills<br />Enel approach: an alliance for Country’s development<br />An alliance constituting a force to foster economic and industrial re-launch of the country and to reduce the impact of climate change, following recommendations made at European level.<br />
  22. 22. 16<br />Importance of nuclear power for Italy<br />Italian nuclear program <br />Enel/EDF agreements<br />Italian industrial involvement <br />The new legal framework<br /> 5.1. Some history<br /> 5.2. The Framework Law (Law 99/2009)<br /> 5.3. Decree n.31/2010: licensing process<br />6. Conclusion<br />
  23. 23. 17<br />France-Italy agreement on nuclear co-operationStrategic objectives<br />On 24 February 2009, Prime Minister Berlusconi and President Sarkozy signed an agreement for nuclear co-operation. The agreement covers the following objectives:<br />Political collaboration at European level on security of supplies, fight against climate change and at global level full engagement against nuclear proliferation<br />Co-operation between Nuclear Safety Authorities to harmonize the rules and to promote a common position in Europe<br />Co-operation between Italian and French energy companies <br />Industrial Partnership to realize components for nuclear power plants<br /> Partnership in the fields of research & development<br />Industrial co-operation in the field of nuclear fuel cycle<br />Industrial co-operation in the field of decommissioning<br />Co-operation on crime prevention, promotion of information, education and training<br />
  24. 24. 18<br />Co-operation Enel–EdFRelationship and partnership developments<br />Relationship before Italian partnership<br /><ul><li>On 30 November 2007 Enel and EDF signed agreements on:
  25. 25. Participation of Enel in the construction’s project of one EPR unit (1600 MWe) at Flamanville where Enel holds 12,5%
  26. 26. Job training of Enel resources by EDF for engineering, construction and operation in Flamanville 3 project
  27. 27. Options for Enel to co-invest in the construction of the next 5 EPR units that EDF will develop in France
  28. 28. Optional participation of EDF in new projects developed by Enel and based on EPR technology</li></ul>Area<br />Description<br />Partnership’s developments<br /><ul><li>On 24 February 2009 Enel and EDF signed two MoU:
  29. 29. The first one provides the participation of Enel in the construction of the 2° EPR reactor in France in Penly
  30. 30. The second one provides for the joint development of the Italian nuclear program</li></ul>The partnership Enel/EdF is well-established in the field of nuclear power energy<br />
  31. 31. 19<br /><ul><li>Development of 4 nuclear generating units in Italy. The objective is to bring the first unit into operation not later than 2020.  6.400 MWe
  32. 32. Identification of at least 3 sites suitable for nuclear power plan installation
  33. 33. Maximize the industrial impact in Italy</li></ul>Scope<br />Technology<br /><ul><li>EPR technology, Flamanville 3 model, is the baseline of program
  34. 34. Enel andEDF will act as Architect-engineers (Project Engineer) for the entire project
  35. 35. There will be a multi-contract approach without general contractor</li></ul>Project management<br /><ul><li>Exclusive right for Enel and EDF to develop projects based on EPR technology in Italy
  36. 36. Faculty for Enel to develop projects with different partners and technologies in Italy</li></ul>Exclusive right<br />Topics<br />Description<br />Enel – EdF agreement for ItalyDescription<br />Realization of at least 4 nuclear generating units on 3 sites Maximization of industrial impact in Italy<br />
  37. 37. 20<br />Sviluppo Nucleare Italia<br />Joint Venture on equalbasis (50/50)<br />Sviluppo Nucleare Italia S.r.l. (SNI)<br />was established on July31st 2009 <br /><ul><li>To perform site screening
  38. 38. To provide feasibility studies for each site
  39. 39. To constitute the Joint SubCo(s)
  40. 40. To manage the licensing processes</li></ul>Strategic objectives of SNI<br />Activities<br /><ul><li>To provide the Board of Parent Companies with a detailed feasibility study for the Final Investment Decision</li></ul>Scope of work<br />
  41. 41. 21<br />The Italian Nuclear ProgramTiming<br /><ul><li>Site selection process should end up in April 2011
  42. 42. Final investment decision should be taken by mid 2013, after the assignment of the Construction and Operating License (Autorizzazione Unica)
  43. 43. Qualification activities for engineering, supplies and erection already started, in the next year first Requests for Offer will be issued, in three years first contracts with suppliers will be signed
  44. 44. 60 years of commercial operation</li></ul>Timing<br />The objective is to have the first new NPP in operation by 2020<br />
  45. 45. 22<br />Importance of nuclear power for Italy<br />Italian nuclear program <br />Enel/EDF agreements<br />Italian industrial involvement <br />The new legal framework<br />5.1. Some history<br /> 5.2. The Framework Law (Law 99/2009)<br /> 5.3. Decree n.31/2010: licensing process<br />6. Conclusion<br />
  46. 46. 23<br />The Italian Nuclear Program Enel/EDFCosts associated<br />Comments<br />Details for unit’s costs [Mln EUR]<br />4.000<br /> 4.500<br />16.000<br /> 18.000<br /><ul><li>The construction of a EPR unit requires an investment included between 4 and 4,5 Bln EUR according to site’s characteristics
  47. 47. The entire Enel/EdF‘s program will require an overall investment included between 16 and 18 Bln EUR
  48. 48. The EPR units are projected to operate for 60 years</li></ul>4.000<br /> 4.500<br />4.000<br /> 4.500<br />4.000<br /> 4.500<br />This infrastructural program represents one of the largest investment ever made in Italy<br />
  49. 49. 24<br />The realization of an EPR plantCosts’ composition for merchant categories [%]<br />The mechanics supplies represent the largest cost– almost 30% – out of the entire cost for the construction of an EPR unit<br />Data related to supply include the related engineering and quality control<br />Source: Enel<br />
  50. 50. 25<br />Italian industry at Flamanville 3Regional details<br />45 supplying firms involved <br /><ul><li>45 supplying firms already involved into the Flamanville 3 project (EPR technology – Enel’s participates for the 12,5% of the project)
  51. 51. Supplying firms especially involved: those which produce nuclear forgings, mechanic equipments and bulk materials
  52. 52. In most of the cases those supplying firms are sub-supplying firms of enterprises already working with EDF (es. Areva – nuclear island, Alstom – TG turbine generator)
  53. 53. Moreover, almost 20 Italian enterprises are already involved in building-up the EPR nuclear plant in Olkiluoto, Finland
  54. 54. Friuli Venezia Giulia 4 supplying firms
  55. 55. Piemonte 2 supplying firms
  56. 56. Veneto</li></ul> 5 supplying firms<br /><ul><li>Emilia Romagna</li></ul>4 supplying firms<br /><ul><li>Lombardia</li></ul> 26 supplying firms<br /><ul><li>Umbria</li></ul> 1 supplying firm<br /><ul><li>Liguria</li></ul>1 supplying firm<br />The EPR projects ongoing in Finland and France have already seen the participation of Italian enterprises<br />
  57. 57. 26<br />The Italian Nuclear ProgramInvolvement of Italian industry<br />Supply Chain meetings<br />Market Survey<br />Qualification<br /><ul><li>In October 2009 a joint technical group Enel – Confindustria (Italian Industry Organization) has been started up
  58. 58. Supply Chain meeting with 400 Italian companies has been held in January 2010, other are planned
  59. 59. Other meetings with territorial industry organizations are under way
  60. 60. In January 2010 a market survey activity started
  61. 61. Information about more than 380 Italian companies has been collected through a RFI1) website
  62. 62. More than 120 meetings with Italian companies and visits to their facilities has been programmed
  63. 63. Qualification of suppliers has been started before the end of the year, well in advance with respect to the beginning of procurement
  64. 64. Qualification will highlight gaps and recovery actions</li></ul>Enel has involved Italian industry till the very early stage of the program, in order to allow to close the gap created in 20 years of substantial absence from nuclear supplies<br />1) Request for Information<br />
  65. 65. 27<br />The construction of a EPR plantResources required – Construction and Operation<br />Comments<br />Phase<br />Construction of units – building phase<br /><ul><li>At the peak level, the realization of an EPR unit requires almost 2.500 persons per day for the realization of the civil works, for assembling activities, etc.</li></ul>Operation and units’ maintenance<br /><ul><li>The plant’s operation requires until 300 persons highly specialized
  66. 66. In addition, those persons have to be integrated by the human resources, belonging to external enterprises, who have to carry out the extraordinary maintenance</li></ul>The carrying out of a EPR unit requires until 2.500 persons perday to which has to be added the human resources necessary for the extraordinary maintenance<br />Source: Enel<br />
  67. 67. 28<br />The Italian Nuclear ProgramHow Enel is structuring to cope with the program<br />Nuclear skilled resources[n.]<br />Actions<br /><ul><li>Strong increase of skilled personnel dedicated to the Nuclear Program
  68. 68. Participation in Flamanville3 and Mochovce3&4 projects as training experiences (60 resources in France and 400 involvedin Slovakia)
  69. 69. Technical training program dedicated to operations and engineering profiles
  70. 70. Reinforcement of the network with “nuclear” universities: masters and scholarships </li></ul>Beginning of the program<br />Today<br />Early works at site<br />Start of operations<br />
  71. 71. 29<br />Importance of nuclear power renaissance for Italy<br />Italian Nuclear Program <br />Enel/EDF agreements<br />Italian industrial involvement <br />The new legal framework<br /> 5.1. Some history<br /> 5.2. The Framework Law (Law 99/2009)<br /> 5.3. Decree n.31/2010: licensing process<br />6. Conclusion<br />
  72. 72. 30<br />The legislative frameworkSome history…<br />1987<br />Post Chernobyl:<br />Public referendum banned Nuclear Energy<br />2008<br />Back to nuclear: <br />Nuclear new build as one of the priority targets of the energy strategy (Law Decree 112/2008) <br />2009<br />Law No. 99/2009:<br />New Italian nuclear legal framework<br />
  73. 73. 31<br />Importance of nuclear power renaissance for Italy<br />Italian Nuclear Program <br />Enel/EDF agreements<br />Italian industrial involvement <br />The new legal framework<br />5.1. Some history<br />5.2. The Framework Law (Law 99/2009)<br /> 5.3. Decree n.31/2010: licensing process<br />6. Conclusion<br />
  74. 74. 32<br />The Framework Law: Law n. 99/2009<br /><ul><li> Article 25: empowers the Government to issue implementing Decree on, inter alia:
  75. 75. Siting
  76. 76. Licensing process
  77. 77. Compensation measures
  78. 78. Article 26 : provides forCIPE resolutions regarding
  79. 79. Type of power plant technologies
  80. 80. Criteria and measures for the creation of consortia
  81. 81. Article 29: establishes a new regulatory body, the Nuclear Safety Agency.</li></li></ul><li>33<br />Importance of nuclear power renaissance for Italy<br />Italian Nuclear Program <br />Enel/EDF agreements<br />Italian industrial involvement <br />The new legal framework<br />5.1. Some history<br /> 5.2. The Framework Law (Law 99/2009)<br />5.3. Decree n. 31/2010: licensing process<br />6. Conclusion<br />
  82. 82. 34<br />Decree n. 31/2010<br />The implementing Decree entered into force on March 23 2010 and foresees rules for siting and licensing of new NPPs.<br />Main contents<br /><ul><li> Nuclear energy strategy
  83. 83. Licensing procedures for siting of NPPs, nuclear fuel fabrication plants, spent fuel and radioactive waste storages, final disposal for radioactive waste
  84. 84. Compensation measures
  85. 85. Decommissioning fund
  86. 86. Information campaign</li></li></ul><li>35<br />Decree n. 31/2010: a five step process.<br />Nuclear Energy Strategy<br />DRIVERS:<br /><ul><li>TRANSPARENCY
  87. 87. PUBLIC PARTICIPATION
  88. 88. ACHIEVMENT OF PUBLIC CONSENSUS
  89. 89. STRONG ROLE OF THE NUCLEAR SAFETY AGENCY</li></ul>Technical & environmental criteria for siting <br />SEA on Nuclear Strategy and criteria<br />Site certification on operators proposal<br />Construction & Operation License<br />
  90. 90. 36<br />Licensing process: preliminary steps<br />The Government will issue a decree with specific requirements for nuclear operators.<br />In general operators should be:<br /><ul><li> equipped with all necessary technical and professional capabilities in the safety field;
  91. 91. able to ensure human and financial resources</li></ul>Operators that meet all requirements shall submit its nuclear program to the Government and NPPs requirements to the NSA to draft preliminary safety report.<br />
  92. 92. 37<br />1° step: Government nuclear program<br />Government Nuclear Strategy is a programmatic policy document which will address strategic goals in the nuclear field.<br />Priority will be given to nuclear safety and protection from ionizing radiation.<br /> Subject to SEA and to a wide public consultation.<br />
  93. 93. 38<br />2° step: Criteria definition<br /> Draft criteria for site selection are proposed by NSA. It takes under consideration the following aspects: <br /><ul><li>population and socio-economic factors;
  94. 94. hydrology and water resources;
  95. 95. meteorological factors;
  96. 96. biodiversity;
  97. 97. geophysics and geology;
  98. 98. natural beauty;
  99. 99. architectural and historical merit;
  100. 100. accessibility;
  101. 101. seismic and tectonic characteristics;
  102. 102. distance from inhabited areas and from transport infrastructure.</li></ul>Subject to public consultation and to SEA<br />
  103. 103. 39<br />3° step: SEA on Nuclear Strategy and criteria<br />Definition of parameters for technical - environmental criteria for sites localization<br />Government Nuclear Program<br />SEA and public consultation<br />Review of Nuclear Programme and criteria on the basis of SEA results<br />Approval of the Nuclear Programme and criteria by the Council of Ministers and publication on the OJ<br />
  104. 104. 40<br />The Agency runs technical preliminary assessment and issues certification for each of the proposed site<br />The operator submits to the Government and the NSA the request for site certification.<br />AGENCY’S ASSESSMENT<br />OPERATOR’S REQUEST<br />4° step: Site certification<br />Following technical assessment NSA transmits certification of site to the Government in order to gain approval by the interested Region<br />
  105. 105. 41<br /> 4° step: Site certification & Regional agreement<br />MSE submits each of the certified sites to the agreement of interested Region <br />POSITIVE OUTCOME<br />NEGATIVE OUTCOME<br />Institution of Inter-institutional Unified Committee<br />If no agreement, adoption of the Presidential Decree<br />MSE transmits the list of the agreed sites to the Unified Conference.<br />
  106. 106. 42<br />POSITIVE OUTCOME<br />NEGATIVE OUTCOME<br />4° step: Site certification & Unified Conference Agreement<br />MSE transmits the list of certified sites with the approval of the Region to the Unified Conference Committee <br />Deliberation of the Council of Ministers<br />MSE, MATTM e MIT issue the decree approving the list of certified sites<br />Regional Environmental Energy Plan reviewed by the Region on which the nuclear site is located.<br />
  107. 107. 43<br />5° step: Construction and Operation License & EIA<br />Operator submits the application for construction and operation license<br />NSA:<br /><ul><li>runs the technical preliminary assessment taking into account outcomes of EIA & IEA procedures
  108. 108. issues a binding opinion</li></ul>Lack of agreement with local authority<br />POSITIVE OUTCOME<br />Adoption of the relevant decree by the Prime Minister <br />MSE, together with MATTM and MIT, releases the license by decree and publishes it on the OJ<br />
  109. 109. 44<br />Operator’s liability<br /> Licensee is responsible for: <br /><ul><li> plant’s safety
  110. 110. plant’s workers training, with regard to the prevention of risks related to construction and operating activities
  111. 111. compliance with the Agency’s prescriptions
  112. 112. implementation of appropriate information to the population involved
  113. 113. assessment, monitoring and improvement of plant’s safety </li></ul>Decree provides for administrative and criminal sanctions in case the<br />licensee fails to comply with the provisions of the decree.<br />
  114. 114. 45<br />Socio-economics benefits<br />CONSTRUCTION PHASE<br />≈<br />X<br />3.000 €/MW (*)<br />5 M€ / year<br />1630 MW<br />(EPR electric power)<br />(*) increased by 20 % for nominal power exceeding 1600 MW<br />OPERATION PHASE<br />≈<br />5 M€ / year<br />X<br />0,40 €/MWh<br />12.800.000 MWh<br />(EPR annual production)<br />300 M€<br />X<br />=<br />60 years EPR life<br />Local taxes (TBD) 10 M€ / year <br />
  115. 115. 46<br />10 %<br />55 %<br />+ <br />local taxes<br />35 %<br />5 M€<br />Up to 10 M€<br />Socio-economics benefitsRepartition<br />CONSTRUCTION PHASE BENEFITS (M€ / year) and TERRITORIAL REPARTITION<br />40 %<br />60 %<br />OPERATION PHASE BENEFITS<br />Benefits to be distributed through electrical bill discount to: <br /><ul><li> Municipality hosting the plant
  116. 116. Municipalities within 20 km
  117. 117. District</li></ul>(percentages to be defined by Ministry)<br />5 M€<br />~10 M€<br />
  118. 118. 47<br />Waste management and decommissioning<br />Sogin is the company responsible for:<br /><ul><li> decommissioning of NPPs at the end of their life- cycle and for the safe storage of waste and spent fuel;
  119. 119. construction and operation of the national repository and the technology park.</li></ul>The licensing procedure for siting, construction and operation of the national waste repository is similar to the one established for new nuclear power plants.<br />
  120. 120. 48<br />Decommissioning fund(1/3)<br />Decommissioning fund is established as an external fund, owned by a public body (CCSE), and it is fed byUnique Authorization holder’sannual contribution for each operating year of the facility.<br />The amount of the contribution is determined by the Independent Authority for Energy and Gas (AEEG), following a proposal by Sogin and the Nuclear Safety Agency’s advice (NSA).<br />The relevant amount is updated every year according to indexes fixed by AEEG and subject to new evaluation every five years.<br />
  121. 121. 49<br />Decommissioning fund(2/3)<br />If, at the end of the plant life-cycle, decommissioning fund is not adequate, operator has to integrate it.<br />Decommissioning of the facilities is carried out by Sogin that, at the end of the plant’s life-cycle:<br /><ul><li> is in charge of the safety management of the plant
  122. 122. proceeds with the evaluation of costs for decommissioning activities following a cross examination with the operator and if necessary requiring an adequacy opinion to a qualified third party. </li></li></ul><li>50<br />Decommissioning fund(3/3)<br />The CCSE (a public entity in charge of financial activities related to the energy sector) manages the decommissioning fund and may carry out profitable investments provided that risk exposure is not above the government bonds. <br />Distribution of the relevant amounts is made by CCSE on the basis of AEEG guidelines and according to the working progress previous control and validation of projects. <br />Decommissioning fund covers the following activities:<br /><ul><li>Costs for decommissioning of nuclear power plants
  123. 123. Conditioning
  124. 124. Transport and disposal of radioactive waste </li></li></ul><li>51<br />Opportunities for public and institutional involvement<br /><ul><li> Environmental - technical criteria: comments and suggestions by Region, local authorities, and stakeholders.
  125. 125. Strategic Environmental Assessment: comments and suggestions plus initiatives to enable a public involvement into the process
  126. 126. Site Certification: agreement between Region and Unified Conference
  127. 127. Environmental Impact Assessment: Involvement of interested administrations
  128. 128. License: Services Conference with the Agency, Ministries, Regions, involved local authorities, and all others involved subjects and administrations</li></li></ul><li>52<br />Information campaign & trasparency <br />More transparency and information measures are provided in the Decree: <br /><ul><li>National information campaign on energy production from nuclear sources;
  129. 129. Transparency Committee in every region where there is a certified site suitable for NPP.</li></li></ul><li>53<br />Importance of nuclear power renaissance for Italy<br />Italian Nuclear Program <br />Enel/EDF agreements<br />Italian industrial involvement <br />The new legal framework<br />5.1. Some history<br /> 5.2. The Framework Law (Law 99/2009)<br /> 5.3. Decree n.31/2010: licensing process<br />6. Conclusion<br />
  130. 130. 54<br />Conclusion<br />The return of nuclear power in Italy is crucial for country’s development because:<br /><ul><li> Italy has to fill the gap of competitiveness with other European Countries, becoming more energy-independent
  131. 131. It is thechance for the Italian industry to return to the “nuclear” quality level and to contribute to boost the national economy
  132. 132. Nuclear represents an essential option for Italy to cope with the environmental targets for the reduction of CO2 emissions</li></ul>To reach this target, essential conditions are:<br /><ul><li>Rebuild nuclear culture
  133. 133. Build consensus and public acceptance
  134. 134. Have all the key players playing their role in a timely and effective manner (Nuclear Safety Agency, waste & management public company, operators, Government)</li>

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