COMMUNICABLE DISEASES• Communicable diseases are caused by pathogens passed from one human to another. Pathogens are viral, bacterial, parasitic and fungal.• Methods of transmission include mucus, blood, breath, saliva and sexual contact. Contaminated surfaces, such as doorknobs, counter tops and playground equipment, provide a medium for passing disease from one human to another.
COMMON COLD• The common cold is the most common communicable diseases in the world.• This is a disease of the upper respiratory tract which is caused by a virus.• You can get a cold virus by direct contact with a person who has cold or by inhaling an airborne cold virus.• Most people catch cold by touching an object that has cold viruses on it.• They can transfer the viruses from their hands to their eyes, nose, our mouth.
COMMON COLDS• More than 200 different viruses are known to cause the common cold -- and the miserable symptoms that come with it.• The most common cold viruses include: • Rhinoviruses • Coronaviruses • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) – • Adenovirus • Human Para influenza virus
TRIVIA ABOUT COLDS• The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases states that as of 2007, Americans have an estimated 1 billion colds each year.• The age group most susceptible to repeated colds is children.• People older than 60 average less than one cold a year.• Because so many different viruses can cause a cold and because new cold viruses constantly develop, the body never builds up resistance against all of them. For this reason, colds are a frequent and recurring problem. In fact, children in preschool and elementary school can have six to 12 colds per year while adolescents and adults typically have two to four colds per year.• It is estimated that individuals in the United States suffer 1 billion colds per year, with approximately 22 million days of school absences recorded annually.
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS1. Congestion2. Watery Eyes3. Itching in Nose, Throat or Eyes4. Feeling Tired5. Fever6. Cough7. Headache
COMPLICATIONS OF THE COMMON COLD• Complications of the common cold can sometimes lead to bacterial infections of your middle ear (otitis media) or sinuses (sinusitis), requiring treatment with antibiotics.• High fever, significantly swollen glands, severe sinus pain, and a cough that produces mucus may indicate a complication or a more serious illness requiring a visit to your healthcare provider.
WHAT TO DO1. HAVE PLENTY OF REST.2. DRINK PLETY OF FLUIDS. THERE ARE OTHER STEPS THAT CAN BE TAKEN TO MAKE3. EAT NUTRICIOUS AN INFANT OR A SMALL CHILD WITH A COLD MORE FOODS. COMFORTABLE: • THE NOSE CAN BE CLEARED WITH A BULB SYRINGE (ASK YOUR PEDIATRICIAN). • SALTWATER NOSE DROPS (MADE FROM A TEASPOON OF SALT AND EIGHT OUNCES OF WARM WATER) MAY BE SOOTHING EVERY FEW HOURS. • WARM HUMIDIFIED AIR CAN ALLEVIATE CONGESTION.
PREVENTION OF COMMON COLD• NO MEDICINES CAN CURE THE COMMON COLD.• SOME MEDICINES CAN LESSEN YOUR SYMPTONS WHILE YOUR BODY FIGHTS THE COLD, BUT THEY WILL NOT HELP YOUGET WELL ANY FASTER.• IN FACT, OVERUSE OF SOME COLD MEDICATION CAN CAUSE THE COLD TO LAST LONGER OR THE VIRUS TO SPREAD.• GOOD HEALTH PRACTICES GIVE YOUR BODY THE BEST CHANCE TO FIGHT THE VIRUS.
INFLUENZA• INFLUENZA OR FLU IS A HIGHLY CONSTAGIOUS DISEASE.• IT SPREADS FROM PERSON TO PERSON THROUGH SPITTING, SNEEZING, COUGHING, KISSING, OR USING ARTICLES FRESHLY SOILED WITH DISCHARGES FROM THE NOSE AND THROAT OF AN INFECTED PERSON.
WHAT TO DO1. CONSULT ANY HEALTH PERSONNEL OR DOCTOR WHEN FEVER, HEADACHE, RUNNYNOSE, AND PAIN IN THE JOINTS DEVELOP.2. OBSERVE PROPER PERSONAL HYGIENE.3. STAY WARM IN BED AND HAVE PLENTY OF REST.4. DRINK PLEANTY OF LIQUIDS SUCH AS JUICES, MILK, WATER, AND SOUP.5. EAT LIGHT MEALS.
PREVENTION OF INFLUENZA1. AVOID CROWDS.2. USE YOUR OWN TOILET ARTICLES AND HANDKERCHIEF.3. BUILD UP YOUR RESISTANCE WITH NUTRICIOUS FOODS, GOOD REST, AND SLEEP AND REGULAR EXERCISE.4. AVOID SUDDEN CHANGES IN TEMPERATURE AND EXPOSURE TO RAIN.5. OBSERVE STRICT PERSONAL HYGIENE.
PNUEMONIA• PNUEMONIA IS A SERIOUS CONSTAGIOUS DISEASE OF LUNGS CAUSED BY PNUEMONOCCUS AND OTHER BACTERIA.• IT SPREAD THROUGH DROPLETS FROM A PATIENT’S COUGH OR SNEEZE, DIRECT CONTACT KISSING, OR THE USE OF ARTICLES FRESHLY SOILED WITH DISCHARGE FROM A PATIENT’S NOSE AND THROAT.• UNTREATED COLD OR INFLUENZA MAY DEVELOP INTO PNUEMONIA.
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS1. HEADACHE2. SUDDEN ONSET OF HIGH FEVER AND CHILLS3. CHEST AND BACK PAIN FOR A MONTH4. AFTERNOON FEVER FOR MORE THAN A MONTH5. LOSS OF WEIGHT AND APPETITE
WHAT TO DO1. CONSULT A DOCTOR WHEN SYMPTOMS PERSIST.2. BRING THE PATIENT TO THE HOSPITAL IS SERIOUS SYMPTOMS LIKE COUGHING OUT BLOOD IS PRESENT.