Why Open Source GIS is A Viable Option for Korean National GIS?


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This presentation will talk about the recent positive change of Korean government's policy toward open source GIS and its background rationale by reviewing past investment on Korean GIS from 1995 to 2011 and related research reports on open source GIS adoptions in Korea.

January 2013, Ministry of Land and Transportation, Korea, announced new mid-long term Korean National GIS R&D plan composed of 16 major action items. Surprisingly Korean government included ‘Development of Open Source GIS’ within 16 major action items. According to this tentative R&D plan Korean government will invest around US$ 15 Million in ‘Development of Open Source GIS’ for next 7 years, this open source GIS development plan should go through feasibility study and get final budget approval though. This announcement was widely accepted as a positive sign of policy change toward open source GIS in Korean government, since Korean government has usually given much preferences to Korean local GIS technology against so-called foreign GIS technology(e.g. ESRI, Intergraph, ERDAS..) and open source GIS.

This presentation will mainly talk about the rationale why Korean government changed its policy toward open source GIS by reviewing the results of past Korean NGIS(National GIS) R&D program. And a research report, ‘Strategies on Building the Platform for GeoSpatial Information Technology Development: Based on Open Source Thinking’ by KRIHS(Korean Research Institute of Human Settlements), will be introduced largely, since this report had great impact on policy change of Korean government toward open source GIS.

3 main parts will be delivered through presentation. Those are as follows:
First, current market situation and R&D model change will be discussed including closed innovation and open innovation. Rapid market change and paradigm shift of innovation model raised fundamental questions on Korean NGIS R&D structure.
Second, past Koran NGIS R&D program, goals and strategies will be introduced. Korean government invested around US$ 200 Million from 1995 through to 2011. And the results, merits & demerits of this investment will be discussed.
Third, proposed strategies to Korean government will be introduced, those are ‘Inside-Out strategy’, ‘Outside-In Strategy’ and ‘Select & Focus Strategy.’

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Why Open Source GIS is A Viable Option for Korean National GIS?

  1. 1. 20th, Sep 2013 FOSS4G 2013 Nottingham Choe, Byungnam(bnchoe@krihs.re.kr) Shin, Sanghee(shshin@gaia3d.com) Why Open Source GIS is a Viable Option for the Korean National GIS?
  2. 2. January 2013, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transportation, Korea, announced a new mid-long term National GIS R&D plan.
  3. 3. US$ 15 million was assigned to ‘Open Source GIS Development’ for next 7 years in total.
  4. 4. It was real shock!!! Oh My!!!
  5. 5. Because, Korean government really love Korean own technologies. GIS
  6. 6. Let’s look back on past Korean government’s investment.
  7. 7. When Korean government started NGIS program in 1995, they found that very little Korean GIS technologies were available.
  8. 8. So, they applied some strategies to develop geospatial technologies. GeoSpatial Technology Development 1. Develop Own Technology 2. Mid Entry Strategy 3. Utilizing Foreign Technology : Mapping, DBMS, Etc : Purchasing GOTHIC SW : ESRI, Intergraph, MapInfo..
  9. 9. To promote & foster Korean own technology, Korean government planned NGIS R&D. Phase I (1995~2000) - Mapping Technology - DBMS Technology - General GIS SW Phase II (2001~2005) - 3D GIS - High Resolution Remote Sensing SW Phase III(2006~2010) - Intelligent Land Information SW - Ubiquitous GIS
  10. 10. Phase I Title Period Institution in Charge 1. DBMS Independent GIS Basic S/W - GIS API Development - GIS Analysis S/W Development - GIS Operation S/W Development - GIS User Interface Technology Development 1995 ~ 1999 Ministry of Science and Technology 2. Mapping Technology Development - Data acquisition and modification S/W development - Data processing and three-dimensional topographic S/W development - Map printing and map design automation S/W development 3. DB Tool - Spatial object management system development - Spatial object storage system development - RDBMS Interface development - OODBMS Interface development 4. GIS System Integration - System integration development - GIS advanced technology monitoring and spread - Public facility management GIS application software development - GIS data editing and integrated management technology development - Internet environment three-dimensional spatial analysis S/W development
  11. 11. Phase II Title Period Institutio n in Charg e 1. Open GIS component technology development 1999~ 2001 Ministry of Information and Telecommu nication 2. 3-dimensional GIS S/W technology development 2000~ 2002 3. High-precision satellite image processing technology development 2001~ 2003 4. Spatial information(4S)-connected technology support business 2001~ 2003 5. Multi-sensor spatial image information integration technology development 2004~ 2006
  12. 12. Phase III Title Period Institution in Charge 1. Spatial information infrastructure innovation 2006 ~ 2010 Ministry of Land, Transp ortation and Maritime Affa irs 2. Real-time territory monitoring 3. Establishment of intelligent urban space information infrastructure 4. Realization of safe and convenient construction space 5. Induction of u-GIS standard and technology
  13. 13. National GIS R&D Investment by NGIS Plan 0   5,000   10,000   15,000   20,000   25,000   30,000   35,000   40,000   45,000   1995   1996   1997   1998   1999   2000   2001   2002   2003   2004   2005   2006   2007   2008   2009   2010   In Million KRW 1st NGIS : 18.5M US$ 2nd NGIS : 20.0M US$ 3rd NGIS : 144.7M US$ Total 183.2M US$ è Vision : Development of world class geospatial technology and new growth engine
  14. 14. Results?
  15. 15. GeoSpatial Technology Development 1. Develop Own Technology 2. Mid Entry Strategy 3. Utilizing Foreign Technology : Little world class products : Not useful GOTHIC SW : Proliferation of ESRI.. è Not so satisfactory… Still around 80% of Korean GIS market is dominated by foreign technologies and little world class Korean products.
  16. 16. What went wrong?
  17. 17. To investigate reasons of poor performance in NGIS R&D, KRIHS carried out a research.
  18. 18. Possible reason 1 : Linear R&D process neglecting importance of knowledge flow
  19. 19. Korean government believed investment would yield significant outputs. R&D Process Inputs -  R&D Funds -  Human Resources Outputs -  Technology -  Patents -  Publications è ‘Linear Model of Innovation’ that more focus on Inputs & Out puts. §  Traditional Approach
  20. 20. What a ideal & impressive NGIS R&D Model!! Government Company Research Inst. University Research FundRoyalties Market & Customers Products & Tech SellingRevenue & Profits
  21. 21. However this R&D model didn’t work as expected. Government Research Institute University Company X XLack of flow Lack of flow Hard to find outcomes of R&D No update & further development after R&D GeoSpatial Market – What market should we target? Short-term based
  22. 22. And, money isn’t everything!!
  23. 23. Real R&D process is not so linear!! ProductsR&D SuccessNGIS R&D ProductsR&D Market SuccessNGIS R&D R&DR&D R&D R&D Lack of interactions Source & documents only Repeated development, test •  Source : Prof. Kwangwoo Nam, 2012 Market
  24. 24. And still much money is needed for commercial success. •  Source : Osawa and Miyazaki, 2006 R&D Valley of Death Sea of Darwin
  25. 25. Interactions among actors involved in R&D are as important as investments itself. Universities R&D Institutes Companies R&D Process
  26. 26. Possible reason 2 : Closed innovation focusing on IPR(Intellectual Property Rights)
  27. 27. Closed Innovation: We believed we could develop all the things. Technology Innovation New Technology New Product Revenue & Profit Increase Increased R&D Investment Inside R&D Ecosystem •  Source : Henry Chesbrough, 2003
  28. 28. Closed Innovation: It looks good. Closed Leverage own knowledge § Designed and developed by nation inside or firm inside § Leverage inside knowledge, intellectual property, experiences § Idling knowledge, limitations of leveraging outside knowledge In-House Development è What if outcomes of long R&D could not meet fast changin g market needs?
  29. 29. Current Market Situations Technology Oversupply Market Uncertainty Global Competition Everybody Innovates Technology Paradox Doing More with Less Economic Recession
  30. 30. Decreasing R&D Success Rate Total R&D Investment 100% Failed R&D 60% Commercialized R&D 40% Profitable 60% Non-Profitable 40% §  Only 40% of R&D Projects is commercialized in spite of high R&D investment §  In total only 24% of R&D Projects make a penny §  R&D success rate has continuously been lowered down due to shortened life cycle of products & technology
  31. 31. So, we saw the appearance of Open Innovation Our current market Our new market Other firm´s market External technology inso urcing Internal technology base External technology base Henry Chesbrough, 2004 Internal/external venture handling License, spin out, divest
  32. 32. Open Innovation: Let’s connect together!! Internal Resources External Resources Quick & Efficient Development è Leverage smart people inside & outside of the nation!
  33. 33. Open Innovation Open Leverage others knowledge too § Designed and developed with other outside partners § Inside knowledge + outside knowledge § Cost reduction, increase innovation capabilities, shortened response time to market change Collaborative Development è So, how to apply open innovation to National R&D while ke eping a National interest?
  34. 34. Open Innovation changes R&D Process Research Development Research Development Business From traditional R&D model To D&B Model Connect Business
  35. 35. Also we raised some fundamental questions to ourselves.
  36. 36. Questions 1: Q01 Haven’t we tried to develop all the technologies by ourselves so far? è  What if we applied Google’s Android model to NGIS R&D?
  37. 37. Questions 2: Q02 How to rejuvenate the stopped development for the people in need? è  Let’s pull out the source codes from the shelf!!
  38. 38. Questions 3: è  Need to consider ‘Select & Focus’ strategy. Q03 Can we hit multiple targets at the same time?
  39. 39. Implications from KRIHS research Closed R&D System - Try to develop almost all the technologies by itself. 1 University & Research Inst. Centric - Heavily rely on traditional linear downstream R&D model. Ambiguous R&D Goal -  Not clear whether it is R&D or D&B. Need to set clear goal. 2 3 Need to leverage outside technology and reso urces to respond to fast changing market situ ations. Need to engage more enterprises’ request an d enterprise itself in development system. Need to address R&D and D&B separately. R& D for basic research and D&B for commerciali zation. Implications Need to set up platform to increase the flow o f knowledge and dissemination of technology during & after R&D. Hard to Reuse R&D Outcomes -  After R&D project period, finding & reusing R &D outcomes is difficult. 4
  40. 40. As a result of KRIHS’s research, KRIHS proposed several strategies to Korean government.
  41. 41. Suggested Strategies Inside-Out Strategy Outside-In Strategy Select & Focus Strategy
  42. 42. Inside-Out Strategy Inside-Out Strategy Change previous R&D outcomes to open source Need to Start Open Source Based R&D 1 2 § Encourage to change previous R&D outcomes to ‘Dual License’ based open source § Let the technology flow to the people in need § ‘Technology in the Shelf’ doesn’t create any value § Approach open source as a disruptive innovation § Participate in international open source GIS activities and lead the communities § This will increase the quality and interactions among actors!
  43. 43. Outside-In Strategy Korean Situations • Limited human resources • Limited R&D funds • Small & medium size GIS companies • Unable to target all the fields • High dependency on proprietary GIS Open Source GIS Strategies • Internalize the outside resources • Active adoption of Open Source GIS • Reduce GIS SW cost using Open Source GIS • Targeting professional fields • Reduce the dependency on proprietary GIS Outside-In Strategy
  44. 44. Select & Focus Strategy Targeting Cutting-Edge Technology - From Catch-up to Leap-frogging 1 Select & Focus Strategy Niche Market Strategy - Not only technology create values 2 Clear Discrimination between R&D, D&B - Need to increase the commercialization capabilities 3 More Business Centric Policy Needed - Growth of business will create the virtuous circle of NGIS R&D 4 Consider not only R&D itself but D&B as well!!
  45. 45. Proposed NGIS R&D System World R&D Inst. Firms NGIS R&D Infrastructure Open Source Thinking(Open/Share/Participation) Select & Focus Govnt Outside-In Inside-Out NGIS R&D Activities
  46. 46. Wrapping-up • Need to consider fast changing market & customers needs • Not future prediction, but increasing adaptabilities Open Innovation Strategy • Rejuvenate sleeping technology by changing it to open source • Let the technology flow to the people in need Inside-Out Strategy • Need to actively embrace the open source GIS technology • Internalize the outside high-performance resources Outside-In Strategy • Changing strategy from catch-up to leap-frogging • Need to target cutting-edge technology that could leverage hidden assets • Need to discriminate R&D and D&B • Every country has its own unique invisible assets Select & Focus Strategy
  47. 47. Current Status • Feasibility study is underway for budget approving. • Around US$ 500,000 was approved for next year’s seed money. • Still Korean government’s top priority is promoting Korean local technology. • However open source GIS is regarded as one of viable options.
  48. 48. Thank you!!