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Abrasive technologies


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Abrasive technologies description.
Teknologia urratzaileen deskribapena.
Descripción de tecnologías abrasivas.

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Abrasive technologies

  2. 2. 2by Endika Gandarias Dr. ENDIKA GANDARIAS MINTEGI Mechanical and Manufacturing department Mondragon Unibertsitatea - (Basque Country) Further presentations:
  4. 4. 4 BIBLIOGRAPHY BIBLIOGRAPHY by Endika Gandarias
  5. 5. 5 The author would like to thank all the bibliographic references and videos that have contributed to the elaboration of these presentations. For bibliographic references, please refer to: • (PDF file) • (PPT file) For videos, please refer to: • BIBLIOGRAPHY by Endika Gandarias
  6. 6. 6 INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION by Endika Gandarias
  7. 7. 7 INTRODUCTION • Usually brought into play after machining, casting, forging, sheet metal forming, etc. • It can be used on all type of materials. • A variety of abrasive machining processes and machinery is available. • Abrasive machining is necessary and economical when: • Hard materials • Brittle materials • Excellent surface finish and dimensional tolerances are required. by Endika Gandarias Rz: Maximum height of the roughness profile Ra: Arithmetical mean deviation of the roughness profile Rq: Root mean square deviation of the roughness profile Roughness 2D Parameters
  8. 8. 8 INTRODUCTION by Endika Gandarias
  9. 9. 9 • All abrasive operations can be considered as material removal processes with geometrically undefined cutting edges. Each abrasive grain acts like a single cutting tool with undefined geometry but usually with high negative rake angle. INTRODUCTION by Endika Gandarias
  10. 10. 10 Sharping with stones Rotary stone Pedal with shank and connecting rod CHARLES MOSELEY Cylindrical grinding machine SWEN PULSON Extra-strong grinding wheel BROWN & SHARPE Universal grinding NORTON Horizontal grinding tool holder ACHESON Carborundum (Silicon carbide) CINCINNATI Centerless grinding machine GENERAL ELECTRIC Synthetic diamond INTRODUCTION by Endika Gandarias
  11. 11. 11 INTRODUCTION ABRASIVEMACHINING TECHNOLOGIES Grinding Flat or surface grinding Creep feed grinding Cylindrical grinding Centerless grinding Bench grinding Blasting Wire brushing Mass finishing Coated abrasive Honing Polishing and buffing Lapping Superfinishing Others Abrasive flow machining Electro-polishing Electrolytic grinding Chemical mechanical polishing Polishing using magnetic fields by Endika Gandarias COARSEMEDIUMFINE
  12. 12. 12 GRINDING by Endika Gandarias GRINDING
  13. 13. 13 GRINDING Introduction  It is an abrasive technology in which abrasive particles are contained in bonded grinding wheel.  The feed (F) and depth of cut (ap) in grinding are small, while the cutting speed (Vc) is high.  Dimensional accuracy: 0,3 – 0,5 µm  Surface finish (Ra) ~ 0,1 – 1,6 µm  Specific cutting energy: 50 J/mm3 by Endika Gandarias VIDEO
  14. 14. 14 Introduction GRINDING  A grinding wheel consists of:  Hard abrasive grains called grits  perform the cutting or material removal  Hardness  Bonding material  holds particles in place and gives the profile to the wheel  Toughness  Conventional abrasive wheel materials: • Aluminium oxide (Al2O3) • Silicon carbide wheels (SiC) Superabrasive wheels: • Diamond • CBN (Cubic Boron Nitride) Conventional abrasive wheels Superabrasive wheels by Endika Gandarias
  15. 15. 15 1 14192 250 X 25 X 25 51-A-36-L-5-V-23 40m/s GEOMETRY DIMENSIONS COMPOSITION Max SPEED PRODUCT NUMBER Grinding wheel specification It is needed to be specified: • Wheel diameter (D) • Width and depth of rim (T) • Bore diameter (H) GRINDING GEOMETRY DIMENSIONS by Endika Gandarias
  16. 16. 16 Standard Marking System for Aluminum-Oxide and Silicon-Carbide Bonded Abrasives GRINDING Grinding wheel specification COMPOSITION by Endika Gandarias
  17. 17. 17 ABRASIVE TYPE:  Al2O3 (2000-3000)  high tensile strength materials, ductile materials “corundum”  SiC (2100-3000)  low tensile strength, brittle and non metallic materials “carborundum”  CBN (4000-5000)  very hard materials “borazon”  Diamond (7000-8000)  carbide & very hard non ferrous materials ABRASIVE GRAIN SIZE:  Coarse Soft & ductile materials or poor Ra = roughing  Fine  Hard & brittle materials or excellent Ra = finishing GRADE (abrasive grain-bonding joining strength):  Soft wheel  hard materials machining (to have fresh abrasive) or poor Ra = roughing  Hard wheel  soft materials machining or excellent Ra = finishing STRUCTURE (porosity):  Open  Soft & ductile materials High removal rate or poor Ra = roughing  Dense  Long wheel life & precise wheel forms/profiles or excellent Ra = finishing BOND TYPE:  Vitrified: most common, brittle bond  Resinoid: more flexible bond  Rubber: very flexible bond GRINDING Grinding wheel specification COMPOSITION by Endika Gandarias VIDEO
  18. 18. 18 Grinding wheel specification GRINDING by Endika Gandarias MAX.SPEED The heavy point of the grinding wheel is marked with an arrow. Depending of the wheel manufacturer, it needs to be mounted with the arrow pointing downwards or upwards. VIDEO
  19. 19. 19 Truing is the process of making a grinding wheel round and concentric with the grinding wheel spindle axis. Truing is also the process of forming a specific shape on the face of the wheel. Dressing is the process of conditioning the surface of a trued wheel to expose the grain for efficient grinding action. GRINDING Truing and dressing a grinding wheel After truing After dressing  Truing and dressing can often be performed at the same time, even using the same tool. WHEEL OR GRINDING DRESSERS by Endika Gandarias VIDEO
  20. 20. 20 GRINDING • It is used to remove material from flat surfaces. • Spindle position can be horizontal or vertical. • Dimensional tolerance ~ IT5 – IT6 • Surface finish (Ra) ~ 0,15 – 0,6 µm Grinding technology classification Flat or surface grinding by Endika Gandarias VIDEO
  21. 21. 21 ALTERNATIVE WORKTABLE ALTERNATIVE WORKTABLE ROTATIVE WORKTABLE ROTATIVE WORKTABLE • Long and narrow surfaces. • Worse efficiency than the frontal grinding. • Better finishing than the frontal grinding. • High material start-up rate. • Worse finishing than the tangential grinding. • Tools: rings, cups, segments GRINDING Flat or surface grinding TANGENTIAL GRINDING WHEEL FRONTAL GRINDING WHEEL VIDEO VIDEO Grinding technology classification by Endika Gandarias VIDEO
  22. 22. 22 PropsGuide Engine Cutting blade GRINDING Flat or surface grinding APPLICATIONS Gear Other Grinding technology classification by Endika Gandarias TANGENTIAL FRONTAL FRONTAL TANGENTIAL TANGENTIAL VIDEO
  23. 23. 23 GRINDING Creep feed grinding  It uses large depth of cuts (typically ap on the order of 1 - 6 mm) and low feed rates (F).  The wheel is often continuously dressed.  It is essential to use a high pressure coolant system and soft wheels with open structure to keep temperature low.  Advantages: High material removal rates and productivity (the wheel is continuously cutting). Grinding technology classification Conventional grinding contrasted to creep feed grinding by Endika Gandarias
  24. 24. 24 GRINDING Creep feed grinding Grinding technology classification APPLICATIONS Gas turbine bladeGear Other parts by Endika Gandarias
  25. 25. 25 Cylindrical grinding GRINDING Grinding technology classification • It is used to remove external or internal cylindrical surfaces. • It is also known as Universal grinding. • The workpiece is usually held in a rotating chuck in the headstock or between centers. • The wheel rotates at very high rotational speed (N). • Dimensional tolerance ~ IT6 – IT8 • Surface finish (Ra) ~ 0,8 – 1,6 µm by Endika Gandarias VIDEO
  26. 26. 26 Cylindrical grinding GRINDING Grinding technology classification EXTERNAL GRINDING OPERATIONS (a) Traverse grinding (single axis feed movement) (b) Plunge grinding (penetration movement) (c) Profile grinding (multiple axes simultaneous feed movement) VIDEO by Endika Gandarias VIDEO
  27. 27. 27 Cylindrical grinding GRINDING Grinding technology classification INTERNAL GRINDING OPERATIONS VIDEO (a) Traverse grinding (b) Plunge grinding (c) Profile grinding by Endika Gandarias
  28. 28. 28 Cylindrical grinding GRINDING Grinding technology classification SPECIAL OPERATIONS STEPPED SHAPE GRINDING WHEEL THREAD GRINDING (a) traverse grinding (b) plunge grinding by Endika Gandarias VIDEO GEAR GRINDING VIDEO
  29. 29. 29 Crankshaftgrinding Cylindrical grinding GRINDING Grinding technology classification SPECIAL OPERATIONS The part rotation and the distance x between centers is varied and synchronized to grind the particular workpiece shape. Camshaftgrinding GRINDING A NON-CYLINDRICAL PART VIDEO by Endika Gandarias VIDEO
  30. 30. 30 Cylindrical grinding GRINDING Grinding technology classification APPLICATIONS Transmission shaft Internal axis gear Aerospace rotor Axle Spindle housing by Endika Gandarias VIDEO
  31. 31. 31 Cylindrical grinding GRINDING Grinding technology classification APPLICATIONS Internal thread grinding Worm grinding by Endika Gandarias
  32. 32. 32 Centerless grinding GRINDING Grinding technology classification • It is used for high length to diameter ratio parts. • Workpiece is NOT supported by centers or chucks, but by a blade or between rollers. • Easy to be automatizated. • Dimensional tolerance ~ IT4 – IT6 • Surface finish (Ra) ~ 0,4 – 0,8 µm (a) Through-feed grinding (b) Plunge grinding EXTERNAL GRINDING OPERATIONS VIDEOVIDEO by Endika Gandarias (a) Through-feed grinding VIDEO VIDEO
  33. 33. 33 Centerless grinding GRINDING Grinding technology classification (c) Internal centerless grinding INTERNAL GRINDING OPERATIONS by Endika Gandarias
  34. 34. 34 GRINDING Grinding technology classification APPLICATIONS Bars / tubes Gearbox shaft Camshaft tube Centerless grinding Piston by Endika Gandarias
  35. 35. 35 BENCH GRINDING by Endika Gandarias BENCH GRINDING
  36. 36. 36  The work is held (usually manually) against the flat surface of the wheel to accomplish the grinding operation.  It can be a bench grinder or pedestal grinder.  Surface finish (Ra) ~ 0,2 - 1,6 µm BENCH GRINDING by Endika Gandarias VIDEO
  37. 37. 37 BLASTING by Endika Gandarias BLASTING
  38. 38. 38  This is the finishing method by spraying blasting abrasives from a nozzle with the force of compressed air to workpieces.  It is used for:  Cleaning  Deburring  Descaling  Finishing  Peening (increases hardness and eliminates residual stresses)  Surface finish (Ra) ~ 1,5 µm BLASTING by Endika Gandarias VIDEOVIDEO
  39. 39. 39 WIRE BRUSHING by Endika Gandarias WIRE BRUSHING
  40. 40. 40 WIRE BRUSHING  It produces a fine and controlled surface texture.  Wire brushing is typically used for:  removal of rust or corrosion from metal objects.  rough-polishing castings, hot-rolled steel,…  Brushes can be made of nylon, steel or brass filaments, and may contain abrasives.  Surface finish (Ra) ~ 0,1 – 1,5 µm by Endika Gandarias VIDEOVIDEO
  41. 41. 41 MASS FINISHING by Endika Gandarias MASS FINISHING
  42. 42. 42 MASS FINISHING  Mass finishing is a surface improving mass-production system. A mixture of parts, abrasive media (vitrified, alumina, plastic, organic or metallic) and compounds (liquid or powder) are placed into a container or barrel, and rotated at a predetermined speed.  It is used for:  Deburring  Radiusing  Smoothing  Descaling  Luster and mirror finishing.  There are several types of barrel motion:  Centrifugal barrel  Centrifugal disc  Vibratory bowl  Rotary tumbling  Surface finish (Ra) ~ 0,05 – 1,6 µm MATERIAL REMOVAL RATE HIGH LOW Centrifugal barrel Centrifugal disc Vibratory bowl Barrel / Rotary tumbling by Endika Gandarias VIDEO VIDEO VIDEO VIDEO VIDEO VIDEO VIDEO
  43. 43. 43 COATED ABRASIVE by Endika Gandarias COATED ABRASIVE
  44. 44. 44 COATED ABRASIVE  Sandpaper and emery cloth are common examples of coated abrasives.  They are available in multiple geometries: sheets, belts, disks,…  The precision of the surface finish depends primarily on the grain size.  Abrasive grains (mostly Al2O3, ZrO2, SiC) are uniformly distributed on flexible backing material (paper, cotton, rayon polyester) with the tips upward. Matrix or make coat is made of resins. by Endika Gandarias VIDEO
  45. 45. 45 COATED ABRASIVE by Endika Gandarias FEPA P GRAIN DIAMETER (µm) VERY COARSE P12 1815 P16 1324 P20 1000 P24 764 COARSE P30 642 P36 538 P40 425 P50 336 MEDIUM P60 269 P80 201 P100 162 FINE P120 125 P150 100 P180 82 P220 68 FEPA P GRAIN DIAMETER (µm) VERY FINE P240 58.5 P280 52.2 P320 46.2 EXTRA FINE P360 40.5 P400 35.0 P500 30.2 P600 25.8 P800 21.8 SUPER FINE P1000 18.3 P1200 15.3 P1500 12.6 P2000 10.3 P2500 8.4 P3000 7 P5000 5 Obtained surface roughness (Ra) depends on the workpiece material.
  46. 46. 46  Coated abrasives are also used as belts for high material removal rate and good surface finish.  Typical applications: surgical implants, medical & dental instruments, golf clubs, firearms, turbine blades.  Dimensional tolerance ~ IT10 – IT11  Surface finish ~ 0,4 – 0,8 µm COATED ABRASIVE Belt grinding by Endika Gandarias VIDEOVIDEO
  47. 47. 47 HONING by Endika Gandarias HONING
  48. 48. 48 HONING  Honing is used to improve the surface finish and roundness of bored or ground holes.  It creates a characteristic cross-hatched surface that retains lubrication.  As it is a slow rotation operation, no heat affected zone (HAZ) appears.  Typical application: bores of internal combustion engines.  Dimensional tolerance ~ IT4 – IT5  Surface finish (Ra) ~ 0,05 – 0,2 µm BEFOREAFTER (Al2O3 or SiC) by Endika Gandarias OscillationVa Slow rotation Vu VIDEOVIDEO
  49. 49. 49 HONING by Endika Gandarias (Va) (Vu) VIDEO
  51. 51. 51 POLISHING AND BUFFING  Abrasive particles are glued to the outside periphery of the polishing wheel and it rotates at high speeds.  Polishing is used to remove scratches and burrs.  Polishing operations are often accomplished manually.  The polishing wheel is made of fabrics, leather or felt.  Surface finish (Ra) ~ 0.02 – 0.4 μm BEFOREAFTER Polishing by Endika Gandarias VIDEOVIDEO
  52. 52. 52  It is very similar to polishing, in which abrasive particles are not glued to the wheel but are loose. Buffing is a finer operation than polishing.  Ideal for enhancing and brightening existing finishes, taking out stains in metals and bringing out a new lustre in work surfaces.  Polishing operations are often accomplished manually.  The buffing wheel is made of linen, cotton, bleached muslin, flannel, or other soft cloth materials.  Surface finish (Ra) ~ 0.01 – 0.2 μm Buffing POLISHING AND BUFFING by Endika Gandarias
  53. 53. 53 LAPPING by Endika Gandarias LAPPING
  54. 54. 54 LAPPING (b) lapping on cylindrical surfaces(a) lapping on flat surfaces  It is a low speed, low ablading process.  Lapping uses fluid suspension of very small abrasive particles between workpiece and lap. Lap usually made of cast iron, copper, leather, or cloth.  Typical application: optical lenses, metallic bearing surfaces, gages.  Dimensional tolerance ~ IT4 – IT5  Surface finish (Ra) ~ 0.025 – 0.1 μm by Endika Gandarias VIDEO VIDEO
  55. 55. 55 SUPERFINISHING by Endika Gandarias SUPERFINISHING
  56. 56. 56 SUPERFINISHING  It is similar to honing (also called “microhoning”):  Shorter strokes (<5 mm)  Higher frequencies (>400 cycles/min)  Lower pressures (10-40 psi)  Smaller grit size  Copious amount of low viscosity lubricant-coolant is used and it establishes a continuous film between the stone and the workpiece and separates them.  Stroke paths controlled so that a single grit never traverses the same path twice.  Dimensional tolerance ~ IT3 – IT4  Surface finish (Ra) ~ 0.01 – 0.04 μm (a) cylindrical microhoning (b) centerless microhoning by Endika Gandarias VIDEOVIDEO VIDEO
  57. 57. 57 OTHERS by Endika Gandarias OTHERS
  58. 58. 58 OTHERS  A putty of abrasive grains (SiC or diamond) is forced back and forth through the workpiece.  It is particularly suitabe for workpieces with internal cavities.  It is used for:  Deburring  Radiusing  Polishing  Dimensional tolerance ~ ± 0,005mm  Surface finish (Ra) ~ 0,05 – 0,4 µm Abrasive Flow Machining by Endika Gandarias VIDEO
  59. 59. 59  This polishing method melts the surface of a workpiece by applying an electrolytic solution and an electric DC current to workpiece.  Mirrorlike finishes can be obtained on metal surfaces. It is very suitable for irregular geometries.  This process is also used for deburring operations.  Typical application: medical instrumentation, bone screws, stainless steel surfaces.  Surface finish (Ra) ~ 0.1 – 0.8 μm OTHERS Electropolishing by Endika Gandarias VIDEOVIDEO
  60. 60. 60  It is a variant of ElectroChemical Machining (ECM), and it is also known as electrochemical grinding.  It is a process that combines electrochemical energy with mechanical energy to remove material by grinding with a negatively charged abrasive grinding wheel, an electrolyte fluid, and a positively charged workpiece.  Typically 90% of the metal is removed by electrolysis and 10% from the abrasive grinding wheel (the wheel lasts a longer time). Thus, difficult materials independent of their hardness or strength can be machined.  The wheel and workpiece must be electrically conductive. OTHERS Electrolytic grinding (ECG) by Endika Gandarias VIDEO
  61. 61. 61 OTHERS  Chemical Mechanical Polishing/Planarization is a process of smoothing surfaces.  It is a combination of mechanical free abrasive polishing and chemical etching (increases material removal rate).  It may contain 1 or more workpiece carriers.  Typical applications: silicon wafers and integrated circuits.  Surface finish (Ra) ~ 0.035 – 0.0005 μm Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP) by Endika Gandarias VIDEOVIDEO
  62. 62. 62 OTHERS  A magnetic field is used to force a homogeneous mixture of magnetic particles and abrasive particles against the target surface.  The particles can be introduced into areas which are hard to reach by conventional techniques.  Typical applications: medical components, fluid systems, optics, dies and molds, electronic components, microelectromechanical systems, and mechanical components.  Surface finish (Ra) ~ 200 – 0.001 μm (a) magnetic float polishing of ceramice balls (b) magnetic field assisted polishing of rollers Polishing Using Magnetic Fields by Endika Gandarias VIDEOVIDEO
  63. 63. 63 GLOSSARY GLOSSARY by Endika Gandarias
  64. 64. 64 GLOSSARY by Endika Gandarias ENGLISH SPANISH BASQUE Ablading Abrasión Urratze Abrasive Abrasivo Urratzaile Accuracy Precisión Doitasun Attrition Erosión Erosio Axial cutting depth Profundidad de pasada axial Sakontze sakonera Axle Eje Ardatz Backing Sustrato / Apoyo Substratu Barrel Barril / Tonel Upel / Barrika Barrel finishing Tambor de pulido Leunketa danbor Batch Lote Sorta Bearing Rodamiento Errodamendu Bed Base Oinarri Belt Cinta / Banda Banda Belt grinding Lijado con cinta/banda Banda bidezko lixatze Bench grinding Esmerilado Esmerilaketa Between centers Entre centros Zentru artean Binder Aglutinante Aglutinatzaile Blade Cuchilla Hortz Blasting Chorreado Jariaketa Bleached muslin Muselina blanqueada Muselina zuritua Bond Enlace Lotura Bone Hueso Hezur Brittle Frágil Hauskor Buffing Abrillantado Distiraketa Burr Rebaba Bizar Camshaft Arbol de levas Espeka ardatza Carborundum Carborundo Karborundum Carriage Carro Orga
  65. 65. 65 GLOSSARY by Endika Gandarias ENGLISH SPANISH BASQUE Carrier Transportador / Portador Garraiatzaile Casting Fundición Galdaketa Centerless grinding Rectificado sin centros Zentrugabeko artezketa Chip Viruta Txirbil Chuck Amarre / Porta Amarratze / Porta Coarse Basto Baldar Coated abrasive Papel / telas abrasivas Paper / Oihal urratzaileak Compound Mezcla / Compuesto Nahaste Corundum Corindón Korindoi Cotton Algodón Kotoi Crankshaft Cigüeñal Birabarki Creep feed grinding Rectificado de profundidad Sakonerako artezketa Cross-hatched Estrías cruzadas Ildaska gurutzatuak Cup Copa Kopa Cutting speed Velocidad de corte Ebaketa abiadura Cutting speed Velocidad de corte Ebaketa abiadura Descaling Descascarillar / Desescamar / Desincrustar / Decapar Azala kendu / Ezkata kendu / Inkrustazioak kendu / Ugerra kendu Dressing Reavivado Berpizketa Drive spindle Cabezal motriz Buru eragilea Emery Esmeril Esmeril Emery cloth Paño de lija Lixa oihal Engine Motor Motore Fabric Tela Ohial Face plate Plato plano Plater laua Feed rate Avance por minuto Aitzinamendua minutuko Felt Fieltro Feltro Field Campo Eremu Firearms Armas de fuego Su arma
  66. 66. 66 GLOSSARY by Endika Gandarias ENGLISH SPANISH BASQUE Flannel Franela Flanela Flat grinding Rectificado plano Artezketa laua Float Flotador Flotatzaile Forming Conformado Konformaketa Gage Calas patrón / Calzo Kala patroi / Altxagarri Gear Engranaje Engranai Gearbox Caja de cambios Engranai kaxa Glue Pegar Itsatsi Golf clubs Palos de golf Golf makilak Grain Grano Granu Grinding Rectificado Artezketa Grinding wheel Muela abrasiva Harri urratzaile Grit Grano abrasivo Ale urratzaile Groove Ranura Arteka Ground Rectificado Arteztutako Guard Protector Babes Hardness Dureza Gogortasuna Headstock Cabezal Buru Heater Calentador Berogailu Honing Bruñido Txartaketa Housing Carcasa Karkasa Idler pulley Rodillo tensor Tentsio arrabola Infeed Avance Aitzinamendu Lapping Lapeado Lapeaketa Lay pattern Marca dejada Utzitako marka Leather Cuero Larru Linen Lino Liho Loose Suelto Aske
  67. 67. 67 GLOSSARY by Endika Gandarias ENGLISH SPANISH BASQUE Luster Lustre Distira Magnet Imán Iman Mandrel Mandril Mandril Narrow Estrecho Estu Nonabrading No desgastable Higatu ezin Nozzle Boquilla Aho / Pita Pad Almohadilla Kuxin Path Trayectoria Ibilbide Peening Granallado Granailaketa Platen Platina / Pieza soporte Platina / Euskarri Plunge grinding Rectificado por penetración Sakontze artezketa Polishing Pulido Leunketa Profile grinding Rectificado de perfiles Profilen artezketa Prop Utillaje Tresneri Pump Bomba Bonba Putty Masilla Masilla Rack Estante / Colgador Kako Radiusing Redondeo Biribiltze Rake Desprendimiento Jaulkitze Rayon Rayón / Seda sintética Rayon / Zeta sintetiko Regulating wheel Muela reguladora Harri erregulatzailea Removal rate Tasa de eliminación Ezabapen tasa Ridge Cresta Tontor / Gandor Rim Borde Ertz Ring Aro Uztai Rod Barra calibrada Baraila kalibratua Roll Rodillo Arrabol Rubber Goma / Caucho Goma / Kautxu
  68. 68. 68 GLOSSARY by Endika Gandarias ENGLISH SPANISH BASQUE Rust Óxido Oxido Saddle Asiento Oinarri Sandpaper Papel de lija Lixa paper Scale Cascarilla Scratch Raya / Rasguño Arraia Shaft Barra Baraila Sheet metal processes Transformación de chapa Txapa bidezko eraldaketa Slurry Lodo Lokatz Smoothing Suavizado Leunketa Spindle Cabezal Buru Spindle speed Velocidad de giro Biraketa abiadura Stain Mancha Orban Step Escalón Mailakatu Stone Piedra Harri Stroke Trazado / Desplazamiento Marratze / Desplazamendu Superfinishing Superacabado Superakabera Tailstock Contrapunto Kontrapuntu Thread Roscado Hariztaketa Through-feed grinding Rectificado pasante Alderik aldeko artezketa Tip Punta Punta Toolholder Portaherramientas Erraminta etxea Toughness Tenacidad Zailtasun Traverse grinding Rectificado transversal Zeharkako artezketa Truing Perfilado Perfilaketa Void Vacío Hutsune Wire brushing Desbarbado / Cepillado con alambre Bizar kentze Workpiece Pieza Pieza Worktable Mesa de trabajo Lan mahai
  69. 69. 69 GLOSSARY by Endika Gandarias ENGLISH SPANISH BASQUE Worm Sin fín Sin fin