Introduction to Design SynthesisJon KolkoDirector & Founder, Austin Center for Design
Theory2 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
Well-                    Ill-       Structured              Structured    Wicked       Problems                Problems   ...
Well-                           Ill-       Structured                     Structured                    Wicked       Probl...
Well-                          Ill-       Structured                    Structured                 Wicked       Problems  ...
Well-                          Ill-       Structured                    Structured                         Wicked       Pr...
Well-                    Ill-       Structured              Structured         Wicked       Problems                Proble...
Ethnography           Synthesis   Prototyping8 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
Ethnography                   Synthesis        Prototyping Immersion – gathering data and                    Hypothesis va...
Ethnography                   Synthesis        Prototyping Immersion – gathering data and                    Hypothesis va...
deductive        inductive   abductive11 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
Jon is a Designer.    All Designers are Arrogant Bastards.   Therefore, Jon is an Arrogant Bastard.               deductiv...
All of the designers I’ve ever seen wear                   Jon is a Designer.                                             ...
When a designer works on a project,                                                                                       ...
Ethnography                   Synthesis        Prototyping Immersion – gathering data and                    Hypothesis va...
Ethnography                   Synthesis        Prototyping Immersion – gathering data and                    Hypothesis va...
David Snowden                                Karl Weick                                Robert Hoffman17 | 3/16/2012 | CONF...
David Snowden                                “We have found that [our sensemaking framework]            The use of narrati...
David Snowden                                “We have found that [our sensemaking framework]              The use of narra...
David Snowden                                “We have found that [our sensemaking framework]              The use of narra...
Ethnography                   Synthesis        Prototyping Immersion – gathering data and                    Hypothesis va...
Ethnography                    Synthesis             Prototyping                                It’s a process of learning...
Ethnography                Synthesis                     Prototyping     Data                                 Information ...
“It would be great if this thing was a lot bigger”                                                              :(        ...
Data                               Information          Knowledge        Wisdom                                Making Mean...
Data                               Information          Knowledge        Wisdom                                Making Mean...
Data                                Information          Knowledge        Wisdom                                 Making Me...
Data                               Information          Knowledge        Wisdom                                Making Mean...
Data                               Information          Knowledge        Wisdom                                Making Mean...
Data                                   Information          Knowledge        Wisdom                                  Makin...
Data                              Information          Knowledge        Wisdom                                Making Meani...
Data                               Information          Knowledge        Wisdom                                Making Mean...
Data                                                     Information          Knowledge        Wisdom                     ...
Data                                                                Information                                     Knowle...
Data                               Information            Knowledge        Wisdom                                Making Me...
Data                               Information          Knowledge        Wisdom                                Making Mean...
Data                                 Information          Knowledge        Wisdom                                   Making...
Data                                  Information          Knowledge        Wisdom                                   Makin...
Data                                  Information          Knowledge        Wisdom                                   Makin...
Data                               Information          Knowledge          Wisdom                                Making Me...
Methods41 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
Insight Combination42 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
Design patterns describe…                                   “possible good solutions to a common design problem           ...
Insight Combination is a method of building on         established design patterns in order to create initial             ...
I saw this + I know this = Insight45 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
I saw this + I know this = InsightData gathered throughethnography, contextualinquiry, questionnaires,and interviews46 | 3...
I saw this + I know this = InsightData gathered through           Guided by ethics & morals,ethnography, contextual       ...
I saw this + I know this = InsightData gathered through           Guided by ethics & morals,      Clear, deep,ethnography,...
I saw this + I know this = Insight + Design Pattern = Design IdeaData gathered through           Guided by ethics & morals...
I saw this + I know this = Insight + Design Pattern = Design IdeaData gathered through           Guided by ethics & morals...
I saw this + I know this = Insight + Design Pattern = Design IdeaData gathered through           Guided by ethics & morals...
Insight Combination…                                … with boring old enterprise configuration software …52 | 3/16/2012 | ...
I saw this + I know this = Insight + Design Pattern = Design IdeaData gathered through           Guided by ethics & morals...
This method takes time, and more importantly, takes                  emotional energy and focus.          1. Begin to iden...
Reframing57 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
A frame is a perspective or viewpoint:                                          “Even though frames define what count as d...
Reframing is a method of shifting semantic perspective                  in order to see things in a                       ...
Consider a toothbrush …60 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
environment              perspective   embodiment                  in the bathroom      consumer      object61 | 3/16/2012...
environment                               perspective                                         embodiment              in t...
environment                                perspective                                            embodiment              ...
environment                            perspective                                            embodiment             in th...
Reframing is easy, and easier in teams –                          but requires that you perform an abduction          1. I...
Summary66 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
Ethnography            Synthesis    Prototyping        Synthesis is the process of making meaning through              abd...
Ethnography                         Synthesis        Prototyping                                How can you use methods of...
Ethnography            Synthesis   Prototyping69 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
Intro to Design Synthesis
Intro to Design Synthesis
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Intro to Design Synthesis

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The Process of Design Synthesis, taught by Jon Kolko at Endeavor's Austin Innovation Tour 2012

Published in: Design, Technology, Education

Intro to Design Synthesis

  1. 1. Introduction to Design SynthesisJon KolkoDirector & Founder, Austin Center for Design
  2. 2. Theory2 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  3. 3. Well- Ill- Structured Structured Wicked Problems Problems Problems3 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  4. 4. Well- Ill- Structured Structured Wicked Problems Problems Problems In a well structured problem, all of these are true: We can test our solution. We can identify problem, goal, and interim states. We can identify solution steps. We can identify domain knowledge. We can solve the problem while obeying the laws of nature. We can solve the problem using only practical levels of effort. Herb Simon, 19734 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  5. 5. Well- Ill- Structured Structured Wicked Problems Problems Problems In an ill-structured problem, some of these are true: We cannot test our solution, or cannot test it easily. We cannot easily identify problem, goal, or interim states. We cannot identify all of the solution steps. We cannot identify domain knowledge (it may be tacit). We may be constrained by the laws of nature. Solutioning may outweigh practical efforts. Herb Simon, 19735 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  6. 6. Well- Ill- Structured Structured Wicked Problems Problems Problems In a wicked problem, the following are true: Wicked problems have no definitive formulation. Wicked problems have no criteria upon which to determine “solving”. Solutions to wicked problems can only be good or bad. There are no complete list of applicable "moves" for a solution. There are always more than one explanation for a wicked problem. Every wicked problem is a symptom of another problem. No solution of a wicked problem has a definitive, scientific test. Every wicked problem is unique. Horst Rittel, 19736 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  7. 7. Well- Ill- Structured Structured Wicked Problems Problems Problems Designers solve problems. Design Synthesis is the formal approach we use.7 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  8. 8. Ethnography Synthesis Prototyping8 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  9. 9. Ethnography Synthesis Prototyping Immersion – gathering data and Hypothesis validation through understanding of a unique situation generative form giving Synthesis is the process of making meaning through abductive sensemaking and reframing.9 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  10. 10. Ethnography Synthesis Prototyping Immersion – gathering data and Hypothesis validation through understanding of a unique situation generative form giving Synthesis is the process of making meaning through abductive sensemaking and reframing.10 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  11. 11. deductive inductive abductive11 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  12. 12. Jon is a Designer. All Designers are Arrogant Bastards. Therefore, Jon is an Arrogant Bastard. deductive inductive abductive The output is guaranteed to be true, if the premise is true.12 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  13. 13. All of the designers I’ve ever seen wear Jon is a Designer. black t-shirts. All Designers are Arrogant Bastards. Therefore, the next designer I will see Therefore, Jon is an Arrogant Bastard. will be wearing a black t-shirt. deductive inductive abductive The output is guaranteed to be true, Gives good evidence if the premise is true. that a conclusion is true.13 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  14. 14. When a designer works on a project, they often draw diagrams of things. It seems to help them learn about a new topic. I’ve seen grade school students struggle to learn complex topics of All of the designers I’ve ever seen wear math or science. Jon is a Designer. black t-shirts. I can abduct that students might be All Designers are Arrogant Bastards. Therefore, the next designer I will see able to learn better by drawing Therefore, Jon is an Arrogant Bastard. will be wearing a black t-shirt. diagrams in a classroom setting. deductive inductive abductive The output is guaranteed to be true, Gives good evidence The argument from best explanation, if the premise is true. that a conclusion is true. depending on circumstances and experience14 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  15. 15. Ethnography Synthesis Prototyping Immersion – gathering data and Hypothesis validation through understanding of a unique situation generative form giving Synthesis is the process of making meaning through abductive sensemaking and reframing.15 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  16. 16. Ethnography Synthesis Prototyping Immersion – gathering data and Hypothesis validation through understanding of a unique situation generative form giving Synthesis is the process of making meaning through abductive sensemaking and reframing.16 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  17. 17. David Snowden Karl Weick Robert Hoffman17 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  18. 18. David Snowden “We have found that [our sensemaking framework] The use of narrative to describe what might helps people to break out of old ways of thinking and to be, by embracing a “what if” style thinking consider intractable problems in new ways… it is designed to allow shared understandings to emerge A collaborative process, valuable for early through the multiple discourses of the decision-making stages of problem solving group.” Karl Weick Robert Hoffman18 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  19. 19. David Snowden “We have found that [our sensemaking framework] The use of narrative to describe what might helps people to break out of old ways of thinking and to be, by embracing a “what if” style thinking consider intractable problems in new ways… it is designed to allow shared understandings to emerge A collaborative process, valuable for early through the multiple discourses of the decision-making stages of problem solving group.” Karl Weick “Sensemaking is, importantly, an issue of language, The use of spoken language to describe talk, and communication. Situations, organizations, and what might be environments are talked into existence… Sensemaking is about the interplay of action and interpretation rather A collaborative process that is effective for than the influence of evaluation on choice.” growth and planning Robert Hoffman19 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  20. 20. David Snowden “We have found that [our sensemaking framework] The use of narrative to describe what might helps people to break out of old ways of thinking and to be, by embracing a “what if” style thinking consider intractable problems in new ways… it is designed to allow shared understandings to emerge A collaborative process, valuable for early through the multiple discourses of the decision-making stages of problem solving group.” Karl Weick “Sensemaking is, importantly, an issue of language, The use of spoken language to describe talk, and communication. Situations, organizations, and what might be environments are talked into existence… Sensemaking is about the interplay of action and interpretation rather A collaborative process that is effective for than the influence of evaluation on choice.” growth and planning Robert Hoffman “By sensemaking, modern researchers seem to mean A process of connection making and something different from creativity, comprehension, socialization that occurs over an extended curiosity, mental modeling, explanation, or situational period of time. awareness... Sensemaking is a motivated, continuous effort to understand connections (which can be among Both a personal process and a shared people, places, and events) in order to anticipate their process. trajectories and act effectively.”20 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  21. 21. Ethnography Synthesis Prototyping Immersion – gathering data and Hypothesis validation through understanding of a unique situation generative form giving Synthesis is the process of making meaning through abductive sensemaking and reframing.21 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  22. 22. Ethnography Synthesis Prototyping It’s a process of learning.22 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  23. 23. Ethnography Synthesis Prototyping Data Information Knowledge Wisdom ? ? ? Making Meaning Experience Gaining out of Data Frameworking Empathy23 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  24. 24. “It would be great if this thing was a lot bigger” :( “It’s too big, why can’t they just make it smaller?”Data Information Knowledge Wisdom 24 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL 24
  25. 25. Data Information Knowledge Wisdom Making Meaning Experience Gaining out of Data Frameworking Empathy25 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  26. 26. Data Information Knowledge Wisdom Making Meaning Experience Gaining out of Data Frameworking Empathy26 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  27. 27. Data Information Knowledge Wisdom Making Meaning Experience Gaining out of Data Frameworking Empathy 1. Externalize the Process – Get out of your laptop.27 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  28. 28. Data Information Knowledge Wisdom Making Meaning Experience Gaining out of Data Frameworking Empathy 2. Make diagrams.28 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  29. 29. Data Information Knowledge Wisdom Making Meaning Experience Gaining out of Data Frameworking Empathy 3. Interpret. Heavily.29 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  30. 30. Data Information Knowledge Wisdom Making Meaning Experience Gaining out of Data Frameworking Empathy Methods: affinity diagramming hierarchy creation flow diagramming scenario development30 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  31. 31. Data Information Knowledge Wisdom Making Meaning Experience Gaining out of Data Frameworking Empathy31 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  32. 32. Data Information Knowledge Wisdom Making Meaning Experience Gaining out of Data Frameworking Empathy 1. Tell a story32 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  33. 33. Data Information Knowledge Wisdom Making Meaning Experience Gaining out of Data Frameworking Empathy Warmth Multisensory 2. Atmosphere and Culture Change your perspective Sitting on a Comfy Couch Comfortable Living Room A Cup of Coffee Freshly Ground Coffee Grinder Roasted Coffee Beans Green Coffee Beans Coffee Tree33 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  34. 34. Data Information Knowledge Wisdom Making Meaning Experience Gaining out of Data Frameworking Empathy 3. Shift the context A product, becoming another product A product, A product, A product, not working as intended being passed down to a new being upgraded generation A product, A product, A product, A product, A product, A product, A product, being assembled being purchased being unpacked being used becoming worn becoming being discarded and set up and loved obsolete A product A product, accessory that was misplaced34 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  35. 35. Data Information Knowledge Wisdom Making Meaning Experience Gaining out of Data Frameworking Empathy Methods: concept mapping temporal zoom semantic zoom storyboarding35 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  36. 36. Data Information Knowledge Wisdom Making Meaning Experience Gaining out of Data Frameworking Empathy36 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  37. 37. Data Information Knowledge Wisdom Making Meaning Experience Gaining out of Data Frameworking Empathy 1. Consider a provocation37 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  38. 38. Data Information Knowledge Wisdom Making Meaning Experience Gaining out of Data Frameworking Empathy 2. Force a constraint-shift38 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  39. 39. Data Information Knowledge Wisdom Making Meaning Experience Gaining out of Data Frameworking Empathy 3. Make fun of everything39 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  40. 40. Data Information Knowledge Wisdom Making Meaning Experience Gaining out of Data Frameworking Empathy Methods: reframing insight combination participatory design40 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  41. 41. Methods41 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  42. 42. Insight Combination42 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  43. 43. Design patterns describe… “possible good solutions to a common design problem within a certain context, by describing the invariant qualities of all those solutions” Tidwell43 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  44. 44. Insight Combination is a method of building on established design patterns in order to create initial design ideas. 1. Forces a detailed examination, and organization, 4. Allows for the combination of existing paradigms of each individual insight with new and novel ideas (it’s a generative design 2. Is divergent, in that it actively produces new ideas activity) and expands the entire set of insights 5. Takes advantage of the personal experiences 3. Pushes ideas forward in a nonlinear fashion, of the designers and investigators jumping over the expected to arrive at the 6. Takes advantage of established design patterns unexpected44 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  45. 45. I saw this + I know this = Insight45 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  46. 46. I saw this + I know this = InsightData gathered throughethnography, contextualinquiry, questionnaires,and interviews46 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  47. 47. I saw this + I know this = InsightData gathered through Guided by ethics & morals,ethnography, contextual intellectual prowess, and theinquiry, questionnaires, accumulation of world viewand interviews and breadth of experience47 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  48. 48. I saw this + I know this = InsightData gathered through Guided by ethics & morals, Clear, deep,ethnography, contextual intellectual prowess, and the meaningful perceptioninquiry, questionnaires, accumulation of world view into a particularand interviews and breadth of experience design context48 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  49. 49. I saw this + I know this = Insight + Design Pattern = Design IdeaData gathered through Guided by ethics & morals, Clear, deep,ethnography, contextual intellectual prowess, and the meaningful perceptioninquiry, questionnaires, accumulation of world view into a particularand interviews and breadth of experience design context49 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  50. 50. I saw this + I know this = Insight + Design Pattern = Design IdeaData gathered through Guided by ethics & morals, Clear, deep, A trending paradigm that describesethnography, contextual intellectual prowess, and the meaningful perception invariant qualities, referencinginquiry, questionnaires, accumulation of world view into a particular history and similar solutionsand interviews and breadth of experience design context50 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  51. 51. I saw this + I know this = Insight + Design Pattern = Design IdeaData gathered through Guided by ethics & morals, Clear, deep, A trending paradigm that describes A new, creative concept,ethnography, contextual intellectual prowess, and the meaningful perception invariant qualities, referencing somewhat facilitated byinquiry, questionnaires, accumulation of world view into a particular history and similar solutions existing design paradigmsand interviews and breadth of experience design context51 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  52. 52. Insight Combination… … with boring old enterprise configuration software …52 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  53. 53. I saw this + I know this = Insight + Design Pattern = Design IdeaData gathered through Guided by ethics & morals, Clear, deep, A trending paradigm that describes A new, creative concept,ethnography, contextual intellectual prowess, and the meaningful perception invariant qualities, referencing somewhat facilitated byinquiry, questionnaires, accumulation of world view into a particular history and similar solutions existing design paradigmsand interviews and breadth of experience design context55 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  54. 54. This method takes time, and more importantly, takes emotional energy and focus. 1. Begin to identify insights in the data you’ve 3. Start to combine insights and design patterns to gathered by combining an observation (I saw this) create design ideas by mingling the blue and yellow with your knowledge (I know this); write the post-its, moving them around physically, and insights on yellow post-it notes. Reference the line actively reflecting on potential combinations. When numbers from any applicable transcripts, and give a combination makes sense and generates a design each yellow post-it note a unique numeric ID. idea, write it in a green post-it note. Give each (10+ hours) green post-it note a unique design idea ID (referencing both the yellow and blue notes above). 2. Identify design patterns that are relevant to the (40+ hours) discipline you are designing for. Ideally, you begin to keep a design pattern library. Write the patterns 4. Once you are almost “done” (usually when you’ve on blue post-it notes. Give each blue post-it note a nearly run out of time and money), log the entire unique letter ID. (2+ hours) set into a spreadsheet. (3 hours) 5. Finally, pick the top ideas and start to sketch them. (3 hours) Now, you can always trace any design idea back to an insight, and ultimately, back to a nugget of user data.56 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  55. 55. Reframing57 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  56. 56. A frame is a perspective or viewpoint: “Even though frames define what count as data, they themselves actually shape the data (for example, a house fire will be perceived differently by the homeowner, the fire fighters, and the arson investigator).” Klein, Moon & Hoffman58 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  57. 57. Reframing is a method of shifting semantic perspective in order to see things in a new way. 1. “Re-embeds” a product, system or service in a 4. Is primarily semantic (a tool for cognition) new (and not necessarily logical) context 5. Encourages empathy 2. Explores associations and hidden links to and from the center of focus 6. Forces understanding of the various touchpoints 3. Posits a “what if” scenario implicitly 7. Identifies implications and insights59 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  58. 58. Consider a toothbrush …60 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  59. 59. environment perspective embodiment in the bathroom consumer object61 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  60. 60. environment perspective embodiment in the bathroom consumer objectreframed in a new environment: primary user goal: implications and insights: Teeth cleaning should allow for a way to quickly get pieces In the kitchen Remove food out of hard to reach places, and shouldn’t require a mirror Provide a way to quickly and nonchalantly freshen breath in In an airplane Remove smells close quarters and without being offensive to other passengers Remove lettuce before Teeth cleaning should include some form of sharp picking At a conference giving a talk object, and should clearly indicate when you missed a chunk
  61. 61. environment perspective embodiment in the bathroom consumer objectreframed from a new perspective: primary user goal: implications and insights: Effectively clean teeth and Teeth cleaning should be as rigorous as possible, and should Dentist prevent future problems be “future proof” for some period of time Teeth cleaning should have as small a disposal footprint as Hotel Housekeeper Clean the hotel room possible, and shouldn’t generate any extra work, trash, or waste Avoid looking at There should be a way to casually alert the date that they have Blind Date spinach-in-teeth all night something nasty in their teeth.
  62. 62. environment perspective embodiment in the bathroom consumer objectreframed as a new embodiment: primary user goal: implications and insights: Clean teeth while feeling There should be a plant with teeth cleaning properties, that can A Plant closer to nature live peacefully in one of the aforementioned environments Clean teeth quickly A portable spray should freshen breath but should also clean A Spray without friction teeth; instant or quick acting timeframe, through a fine mist. Gain “dentist visit” Provide a quick-stop for interim dentist appointments – at the A Service cleanliness in between visits mall. Should be trustworthy and clean; legal implications…
  63. 63. Reframing is easy, and easier in teams – but requires that you perform an abduction 1. Identify the product, service or system that is being 5. Begin to fill in the Implications and Insights column reframed. It’s not always what your client asked in all charts. There are no bad ideas; criticism is for. (1+ hour) completely suspended. An item can generate more than one implication or insight; if it does, create a 2. Create blank reframing charts on paper, one each new row to capture it. Try to generate thirty-fifty for environments, users, and embodiments. items for each list. (4 hours) (5 minutes) 6. Extract implications and insights that are relevant 3. Free associate new items for the left column of each based on the specific constraints of your project, chart; work on all three charts at once. There are no and list them: these can then be integrated with bad ideas: criticism is completely suspended. the rest of your design criteria. (1 hour) (1+ hour) 7. Select the best ideas, and sketch them. (3 hours) 4. Begin to fill in Primary Goal for all items in all charts. Try to paint a picture of a credible story; judge responses and add criticism as appropriate, but only in relationship to the primary goal column. (2 hours)65 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  64. 64. Summary66 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  65. 65. Ethnography Synthesis Prototyping Synthesis is the process of making meaning through abductive sensemaking and reframing.67 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  66. 66. Ethnography Synthesis Prototyping How can you use methods of synthesis in your existing initiatives, to drive innovation?68 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL
  67. 67. Ethnography Synthesis Prototyping69 | 3/16/2012 | CONFIDENTIAL

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