A kind of research begins with a question (questions)
about classroom experiences, issues, or challenges.
It helps teachers to explore and examine aspects of
teaching and learning and to take action to change and
For any teacher who wants to:
1. take action to improve student learning
2. understand more about teaching and
3. develop teaching skills and knowledge
Provides a framework for trying out different
approaches and ideas
Helps develop reflective practice
Enables teachers to make choices and decisions about
their teaching styles
Helps develop confidence
Helps teachers improve student learning
0 Preliminary Reflection
Consider your current classroom practice.
Address questions about your teaching, or topics you
are interested in, problem areas, or aspects of
teaching/learning you are unsure about. Make a list.
From the list, decide what to research, but think
-why you want to do it.
-what benefits you/learners can get
-write the research question.
Find resources of information making plan of your
Discuss your question with colleagues. (consult
published materials or the Internet for information
and ideas. Find out as much as you can about your
question topic to help you plan how to do the research
Draw up an action research plan which states your
question, how and why you are going to carry out the
Things to think about are:
-How long it will take?
-What tools will you use in your research?
-How will you record your research?
Can it be as simple as just writing down your own
reflections after each lesson or
can it include questionnaires, observations, audio
recordings and so on.
Plan how to carry out your research using your chosen
method. You may need some tools, such as:
Reflecting on learners' work
Observe the action (with the help of peer(s)).
Make notes of:
-the changes you see,
-the evidence relating to the actions
-the weakness, the deviations, and the improvisation.
The data of the changes can be collected through:
-questionairs, interviews, or test.
Analyze the data/evidence
This stage helps you to make sense of the data you have collected
in your research. It is a process of reflecting on, organizing and
reviewing your data to help you answer your research question.
What have you found out? What insights have you gained from
the research? What does your research show you?
Reflect on your results. Look at your teaching practice - what
changes will you make?
Take action based on what you found out from your research.
When you have implemented changes, it is important to review.
How successful were the changes? Do you need to take any
follow-up action? Has your research indicated other areas you
could explore? In other words, you begin a new reflective cycle.
make sense of the collected data
organize and review the data to get answer of
the research question
How to start?
Make a list of any questions of experiences in the
classroom or topics which interest you in teaching and
learning. Perhaps there have been lessons where an
activity or a task didn't succeed as well as you had
expected. Perhaps you are keen to find ways of
engaging your learners in more speaking practice.
Perhaps you would like to develop an out-of-class
reading programme for your learners.
Select one question or topic that you indeed:
are interested in, or
want to change, improve or develop, or
are eager to know or understand?
to fulfill your learners' needs?
If selected, write your research question
Don't make yes-no questions(s) this will not provide a
foundation for a research.
Don't waste time exploring things you already know
Be realistic in terms of time and resources
Make sure your question is ‘researchable' (that you
will and can find the answer)
The problem is in the area of your competence
You are sure with the kind(s) of data
The data can be practically collected, analyzed,
How can I encourage my learners to write (speak)
How can I measure learning without formal tests?
In what ways can I involve parents to help me improve
my students' English language skills?
How can I make my learners realize their own learning
styles and how to do learning activities that fit with
What can I do to help my students take more
responsibility for their learning?