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Harnessing the Crowd: Framing a Research Agenda

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Presentation delivered by @donenda, @mbrownz & @eam0 at "The Next Generation: Digital Learning Research Symposium 2016" at The Helix, Dublin.

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Harnessing the Crowd: Framing a Research Agenda

  1. 1. Harnessing the Crowd Framing a Research Agenda Image: https://pixabay.com/en/audience-crowd-event-cheer-945449/ (CC0) Dr. Enda Donlon Prof. Mark Brown Dr. Eamon Costello @donenda @mbrownz @eam0 #nextgendl 1st Nov 2016
  2. 2. Simply defined, crowdsourcing represents the act of a company or institution taking a function once performed by employees and outsourcing it to an undefined (and generally large) network of people in the form of an open call. This can take the form of peer-production (when the job is performed collaboratively), but is also often undertaken by sole individuals. The crucial prerequisite is the use of the open call format and the large network of potential laborers. Jeff Howe, 2006, http://crowdsourcing.typepad.com/cs/2006/06/cro wdsourcing_a.html Crowdsourcing “Simply defined, crowdsourcing represents the act of a company or institution taking a function once performed by employees and outsourcing it to an undefined (and generally large) network of people in the form of an open call [...] The crucial prerequisite is the use of the open call format and the large network of potential laborers.” - Jeff Howe, 2006 http://crowdsourcing.typepad.com/cs/2006/06/crowdsourcing_a.html Image: Joi Ito https://www.flickr.com/photos/joi/15785885631 (CC BY 2.0)
  3. 3. Crowdsourcing is not new Hossain & Kauranen (2015) 1884: Oxford English Dictionary uses 800 contributors to catalogue words 1936: Kiichiro Toyoda crowdsources logo for car company (27,000 submissions) Image: https://pixabay.com/en/audience-crowd-people-persons-828584 (CCO)
  4. 4. Image: https://pixabay.com/en/grandstand-toys-males-child-330930/ (CC0) why Crowdsourcing as a Research Topic ?
  5. 5. Evolving Definition “The term ‘crowdsourcing’ is a term in its infancy, which, as new applications appear, is undergoing constant evolution” (Estellés-Arolas & González-Ladrón-de-Guevara, 2012, p. 198). “As the crowdsourcing phenomenon is emerging, the related terminology is also evolving” (Hossain & Kauranen, 2015, p. 3) Image: https://pixabay.com/en/definition-word-dictionary-text-390785/ (CC0)
  6. 6. Overlapping Terms (Doan et al, 2011) … peer production … user-powered systems … user-generated content … collaborative systems … community systems … peer production … user-powered systems … user- generated content … collaborative systems … community systems … social systems … social search … social media … collective intelligence … wikinomics … crowd wisdom ...smart mobs … mass collaboration … human computation ... Image: https://pixabay.com/en/question-mark-pile-question-mark-1495858/ (CC0)
  7. 7. Hossain and Kauranen (2015): idea generation, microtasking, citizen science Abraham et al. (2016): open source software Armstrong et. al (2012): clinical research Orozco (2016): ‘lawsourcing’ Image: https://pixabay.com/en/army-blade-compact-cut-equipment-2186/ (CC0) Evolving Applications
  8. 8. Evolving Technologies “advanced internet technologies have made crowdsourcing practicable for an immeasurably wider audience, at a larger scale, for a greater number of products and services, and at greatly enhanced speed” (Saxton, Oh & Kishore, 2013, p4) Image: https://pixabay.com/en/board-circuit-control-center-binary-1607174/ (CC0)
  9. 9. Evolving Pedagogies Shift from Students as Consumers to Students as Creators [Key Trend] “A shift is taking place in the focus of pedagogical practice in universities and institutions of technology in Ireland as students across a wide variety of disciplines are learning by making and creating rather than from the simple consumption of content.” (p.6) Hills (2015): “crowdsourced content creation with the student as producer model” (p. 7)
  10. 10. “ … more open practices, such as pre- publishing book chapters, open reviews and open research methods. The latter can include the use of approaches such as crowdsourcing and social media analysis, which rely on openness to succeed…” (Weller, 2014, p.7) dissemination, negotiation and evaluation of scholarship (Veletsianos, 2013). Evolving Scholarship Image: https://pixabay.com/en/laptop-computer-open-technology-768694 (CC0)
  11. 11. Crowdsourcing: a Research Agenda “Crowdsourcing is one of the emerging phenomena that has seen its wide applications in practice and is yet to receive intense attention …” Zhao & Zhu, 2014, p. 417 “This technique of innovation has had huge success in business and industry, but has yet to show impact in education in great ways …” (Foulger, 2014, p. 110) Image https://pixabay.com/en/student-typing-keyboard-text-woman-849825/ (CC0)
  12. 12. Crowdsourcing in Education - why? access to a potentially global range and diversity of locations, opinions and problem-solving options; provides a means of voicing opinions that otherwise would not be shared; brings together communities of interest and concern (Paulin & Haythornthwaite, 2016) assimilate many small contributions into resources of high quality (Cornelli & Mikroyannidis, 2012) “demonstrable advantage of such open approaches to data gathering for specific projects is leading to this being an increasingly popular methodology” (Weller, 2011, p. 61) Image: https://pixabay.com/en/mass-people-supporters-1355493 (CC0)
  13. 13. http://project252.donenda.com @proj252 #proj252 Case Study 1
  14. 14. 26 X 2 = 52 26 Letters, 52 Weeks, 1 Year
  15. 15. Open Participation
  16. 16. @proj252 Regular updates (new letter, last day, milestones (100, 500, etc.) Automated tweets when new submission approved - automatically tagged with #proj252, #edchatie, #edchat, #ukedchat, #aussieed Open Attribution
  17. 17. 677 Contributions 96 Contributors (+ 29 anonymous) 26 Mean / Letter
  18. 18. 69627 contribution views (4th Jan 2016) 137012 contribution views (16th Oct 2016) 111+ countries Open to All
  19. 19. Open Across Education Levels
  20. 20. http://project252.donenda.com
  21. 21. Case Study 2 http://studentsuccess.ie @FLSuccess
  22. 22. The aim of the Student Success Toolbox is to support transitions from thinking about study to the first weeks to increase retention and completion rates particularly for flexible learners (undergraduate adult, part-time and online/distance students) as this is a significant problem in the Irish Higher Education sector. The project provides flexible learners with a suite of digital tools to help them assess their own readiness, provide feedback and lay the foundation for successful programme completion.
  23. 23. Tool 7 Study Tips for Me
  24. 24. Formally launched September 2016 33 Study Tips and growing
  25. 25. Thank You! Go raibh maith agaibh!

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