By
Manuel A. Gallegos RN, BSN
Personal Care Assistant Class
Spring 2014
The Digestive System
Objectives
1. Understand the role of insulin and how healthy people convert
glucose into energy in the cells
2. Define Dia...
How Our Bodies Turn Food Into Energy
 All parts of the body (muscles, brain, heart, and liver) need energy
to work: This ...
Play video
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jHRfDTqPzj4&feature
=related
How does insulin work?
 Insulin helps your body turn blood sugar (glucose) into
energy
 It also helps your body store it...
How does insulin work cont..?
 Insulin tells the cells to open up and let the glucose in
 Once inside, the cells convert...
How the Body Makes Insulin?
 Insulin is a hormone made by beta cells in the pancreas
 Beta cells are very sensitive to t...
The pancreas produces insulin
Definition of Diabetes
 Diabetes mellitus (sometimes called "sugar diabetes") is a
condition that occurs when the body ca...
What is the difference between Type I and
Type II Diabetes?
 Type 1 diabetes, once known as juvenile diabetes or
insulin-...
Insulin Resistance
Definition continued…. In diabetes, the pancreas does not make enough insulin
(type 1 diabetes)
 Or the body can't respo...
Difference Between Type I and Type II
Diabetes
Hyperglycemia Symptoms
Causes and Treatment of Hyperglycemic
Clients
 CAUSES: Too much food, too little insulin, illness or stress
 ONSET: Grad...
Cycle of Diabetic Patient
Symptoms of Hypoglycemia
Causes and Treatment of Hypoglycemia
Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Sugar)
CAUSES: Too little food, too much insulin or diabetes
...
#1 area Caregivers can help Diabetic clients
 PERSONAL HYGIENE :
 Bathe client regularly and thoroughly, at least once a...
2nd Area Caregivers can assist diabetic
clients
AVOID INJURY :
 Small cuts, even abrasions should be dressed immediately
...
3rd area Caregivers can help protect diabetic
clients
 FOOT CARE :
 Never allow client to walk barefoot and avoid tight ...
Diabetic Foot Care Tips
Examples of Diabetic Ulcers
Important thoughts for Diabetics
 Control diet and regular exercise are critical for diabetics
 Daily self monitoring in...
Summary
1. Insulin responds to increases in glucose in the blood stream
and helps the body’s cells use glucose for energy
...
References
 http://kulsummehmood.hubpages.com/hub/controldiabetes
 http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/type-1-diabetes/DS00...
Understanding Diabetes and Caring for the Diabetic Client
Understanding Diabetes and Caring for the Diabetic Client
Understanding Diabetes and Caring for the Diabetic Client
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Understanding Diabetes and Caring for the Diabetic Client

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How to Care for the Diabetic Client

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Understanding Diabetes and Caring for the Diabetic Client

  1. 1. By Manuel A. Gallegos RN, BSN Personal Care Assistant Class Spring 2014
  2. 2. The Digestive System
  3. 3. Objectives 1. Understand the role of insulin and how healthy people convert glucose into energy in the cells 2. Define Diabetes 3. Understand the difference between Type I and Type II Diabetes 4. Know signs, symptoms, and treatment of hyperglycemia versus hypoglycemic patients 5. Know 3 areas Caregivers can significantly help protect Diabetic clients
  4. 4. How Our Bodies Turn Food Into Energy  All parts of the body (muscles, brain, heart, and liver) need energy to work: This energy comes from the food we eat  Our bodies digest the food we eat by mixing it with fluids (acids and enzymes) in the stomach. When the stomach digests food, the carbohydrate (sugars and starches) in the food breaks down into another type of sugar, called glucose  The stomach and small intestines absorb the glucose and then release it into the bloodstream  Once in the bloodstream, glucose can be used immediately for energy or stored in our bodies, to be used later  However, our bodies need insulin in order to use or store glucose for energy. Without insulin, glucose stays in the bloodstream, keeping blood sugar levels high
  5. 5. Play video  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jHRfDTqPzj4&feature =related
  6. 6. How does insulin work?  Insulin helps your body turn blood sugar (glucose) into energy  It also helps your body store it in your muscles, fat cells, and liver to use later, when your body needs it  After you eat, your blood sugar (glucose) rises  This rise in glucose triggers your pancreas to release insulin into the bloodstream  Insulin travels through the blood to your body's cells
  7. 7. How does insulin work cont..?  Insulin tells the cells to open up and let the glucose in  Once inside, the cells convert glucose into energy or store it to use later  Without insulin, your body can't use or store glucose for energy  Instead, the glucose stays in your blood
  8. 8. How the Body Makes Insulin?  Insulin is a hormone made by beta cells in the pancreas  Beta cells are very sensitive to the amount of glucose in the bloodstream  Normally beta cells check the blood's glucose level every few seconds and sense when they need to speed up or slow down the amount of insulin they're making and releasing  When someone eats something high in carbohydrates, like a piece of bread, the glucose level in the blood rises and the beta cells trigger the pancreas to release more insulin into the bloodstream
  9. 9. The pancreas produces insulin
  10. 10. Definition of Diabetes  Diabetes mellitus (sometimes called "sugar diabetes") is a condition that occurs when the body can't use glucose (a type of sugar) normally  Glucose is the main source of energy for the body's cells  The levels of glucose in the blood are controlled by a hormone called insulin, which is made by the pancreas  Insulin helps glucose enter the cells
  11. 11. What is the difference between Type I and Type II Diabetes?  Type 1 diabetes, once known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin, a hormone needed to allow sugar (glucose) to enter cells to produce energy  Type 2 diabetes, which is far more common, occurs when the body becomes resistant to the effects of insulin or doesn't make enough insulin
  12. 12. Insulin Resistance
  13. 13. Definition continued…. In diabetes, the pancreas does not make enough insulin (type 1 diabetes)  Or the body can't respond normally to the insulin that is made (type 2 diabetes)  This causes glucose levels in the blood to rise, leading to symptoms such as increased urination, extreme thirst, and unexplained weight loss
  14. 14. Difference Between Type I and Type II Diabetes
  15. 15. Hyperglycemia Symptoms
  16. 16. Causes and Treatment of Hyperglycemic Clients  CAUSES: Too much food, too little insulin, illness or stress  ONSET: Gradual, may progress to diabetic coma.  BLOOD SUGAR: Above 200 mg/dL. Normal range: 70-115 mg/dL  WHAT CAN YOU DO? Test blood sugar If over 250mg/dL for several tests, CALL YOUR DOCTOR OR 911 ASAP
  17. 17. Cycle of Diabetic Patient
  18. 18. Symptoms of Hypoglycemia
  19. 19. Causes and Treatment of Hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Sugar) CAUSES: Too little food, too much insulin or diabetes medicine, or extra exercise  ONSET: Sudden, may progress to insulin shock. BLOOD SUGAR: Below 70 mg/dL. Normal range: 70-115 mg/dl  WHAT CAN YOU DO? Drink a cup of orange juice or milk or eat several hard candies Test Blood sugar
  20. 20. #1 area Caregivers can help Diabetic clients  PERSONAL HYGIENE :  Bathe client regularly and thoroughly, at least once a day  Apply talcum powder frequently to areas of the skin prone to excessive sweating  Bathe feet daily, dry them thoroughly and dust them with talcum powder, or swab with alcohol  Any infection of the skin must be treated immediately  Make sure client sees his or her doctor regularly  Dental hygiene must be thorough, visit your dentist regularly, and follow the advice
  21. 21. 2nd Area Caregivers can assist diabetic clients AVOID INJURY :  Small cuts, even abrasions should be dressed immediately  Shave with utmost care  In dressing wounds, avoid antiseptics which may burn or irritate the skin, such as iodine, carbolic acid, phenol or salicylic acid  Be very careful when cutting your finger and toe nails Cut them after a bath when soft, using a nail cutter  Do not try to cut them very short  The nails should be cut in line with the toes
  22. 22. 3rd area Caregivers can help protect diabetic clients  FOOT CARE :  Never allow client to walk barefoot and avoid tight shoes which may cause corns  Shoes should be broad at the tip so as not to jam the toes and new shoes should be worn only for about half an hour at a time, preferably with cotton socks  Do not cut corns or apply corn removers  If the circulation of blood in your legs and feet is disturbed or impeded, the results can be very serious, and you may even lose your feet Things to do:  Inspect and massage clients feet regularly and encourage regular walks to improve circulation  Spend a few minutes a day lying down with feet raised above the level of your body  Wear warm stockings in cold weather  Do not wear socks with tight elastic bands
  23. 23. Diabetic Foot Care Tips
  24. 24. Examples of Diabetic Ulcers
  25. 25. Important thoughts for Diabetics  Control diet and regular exercise are critical for diabetics  Daily self monitoring in the home and at work, routine check-ups by your doctor, will help verify your condition  Self monitoring includes blood glucose testing and should be performed on a regular basis  Good diabetic control is requires accurate records of all tests performed  Results should be discussed with your doctor at each visit  A well controlled diabetic feels better and lives a long, healthy, and productive life
  26. 26. Summary 1. Insulin responds to increases in glucose in the blood stream and helps the body’s cells use glucose for energy 2. Diabetes is defined as a condition that occurs when the body can't use glucose (a type of sugar) normally 3. Type I Diabetes is a condition where the body does not produce any insulin and in Type II Diabetes the cells become resistant to insulin or the pancreas does not produce insulin 4. Hyperglycemia may cause extreme thirst, frequent urination, blurred vision, and nausea 5. Hypoglycemia may cause shaking, sweating, anxiousness, and weakness 6. Diabetic foot ulcers are very dangerous 7. Caregivers should help clients with personal hygiene, avoiding injuries, and thorough foot care
  27. 27. References  http://kulsummehmood.hubpages.com/hub/controldiabetes  http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/type-1-diabetes/DS00329  http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/27/suppl_1/s5.full  http://kidshealth.org/parent/diabetes_center/words_know/diabetes_mellitus.html  http://www.ghc.org/healthAndWellness/index.jhtml?item=/common/healthAndWellness/condit ions/diabetes/foodProcess.html  http://www.ghc.org/popup.jhtml?item=/common/healthAndWellness/conditions/diabetes/insuli nProcess.html

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