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# Thermodynamics Presentation

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### Thermodynamics Presentation

1. 1. By: Eric Nauman Pat Johnson John Mauk Yimu Yang
2. 2.  History of the Otto engine Assumptions Energy Balance and Calculations New Technologies/Alternative Fuels
3. 3. Nicolaus Otto was born in Germany in 1832The Otto engine was first made in 1876He obtained total of 25 patentsContrary to belief Alphonse Eugène Beau de Rochas made the first “Otto” cycle
4. 4. -Otto cycle-Closed System-Assumed as an ideal Otto Cycle-Kinetic Energy and Potential Energyeffects negligible-Reversible
5. 5. Energy BalanceQ+W = mdot[ΔU + ΔKE + ΔPE]ΔKE=ΔPE=0Step 1: Intake Stroke Air/Fuel mixture is drawn intothe chamber to be ignited
6. 6. Step 1-2: Adiabatic CompressionQ=0 (adiabatic) W = ΔU = U 2 - U1
7. 7. Step 2-3: Isochoric HeatingW=0 (Const Vol) Q = ΔU = U 3 – U2Heat is added from combustion
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10. 10.  Calculating Efficiencyη = Wnet/Q23~35%-40% efficientη = 1 – r (1/r)^γ - 1P4/P1 = P3/P2 = r = compression ratioγ = Cp/Cv
11. 11.
12. 12.  “ECO-” Portion9:How does it work?1. Uses EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation)2. EG cooled after combustion3. These inerts take up dead space in cylinder, allowing for less of an intake of “fresh” air (oxygen).4. Less intake of “fresh” causes less fuel to be injected by ECU5. Kept at stoichiometric ratio of 14.1-1 (A/F), with less fuel used.6. Causes 19-20% less fuel to be burned.
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14. 14. Ethanol: CH3CH2OH + 3 O2  2CO2 + 3 H2OButanol: C4H9OH + 6 O2  4CO2 + 5 H2OEthanol ΔHc (LHV) = 19.6 MJ/LButanol ΔHc (LHV) = 29.2 MJ/LGasoline ΔHc (LHV) = 32 MJ/LButanol Energy Density = 29% higher than EtOH and 8.8% lower than Gasoline
15. 15.  References 1 Chemical Economics Handbook Report Plasticizer Alcohols, SRI International, May 2002, pages 8- 9 and 27. 2 Thaddeus Chukwuemeka Ezeji, Nasib Qureshi and Hans Peter Blaschek, 2007. Bioproduction of Butanol from Biomass: From Genes to Bioreactors, Current Opinion on Biotechnology 18:220– 227, http://ddr.nal.usda.gov/bitstream/10113/14428/1/IND44052939.pdf, retrieved 12 Apr. 2012. 3 1-Butanol as a Gasoline Blending Bio-Component, BP Mobile Sources Technical Review Subcommittee, March 28, 2007, www.epa.gov/air/caaac/mstrs/March2007/Wolf.pdf, retrieved 12 Apr. 2012. 4 The Biobutanol Advantage, Butamax Advanced Fuels LLC, http://www.butamax.com/the- biobutanol-advantage.ashx, retrieved 12 Apr. 2012. 5Smith, J.M., Van Ness, H.C., Abbott, M.M., Introduction to Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics, New York: McGraw-Hill 2005. 6 Wikipedia contributors. "Butanol fuel." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 27 Mar. 2012. Web. Retrieved 12 Apr. 2012 7Wikipedia contributors. "Otto cycle." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 28 Mar. 2012. Web. 12 Apr. 2012. Good diversity of references. 8 www.mazda.com/mazdaspirit/skyactiv/Cached 9hpc4energy.org/hpc-road-map/success.../ford-ecoboost-technology/