Final paper textual analysis elizabeth narváez cardona

455 views

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
455
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
3
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Final paper textual analysis elizabeth narváez cardona

  1. 1. 1Mapping the academic discourse community of the field on academic writing in Colombian higher education: research spaces and agendas envisioned by scientific articles Elizabeth Narváez CardonaAbstractAn emerging academic community might be strengthened if its research programs and scholars educationin the field are envisioned based on a historical account of its academic discourse community. Highereducation writing in Spanish as a mother tongue is a field of teaching practice and research that emergedin the late 90’s, mostly led by Argentine, Chilean, Colombian, and Mexican initiatives. An academicdiscourse community is not located specifically in physical settings. Rather, this type of discourse createsand is created by a research community mostly by its publications; especially, the scientific articles thatare used to communicate and define central issues in the fields. Under this theoretical assumption, thispilot project aims at mapping the academic discourse community of the field on academic writing inSpanish in Colombian higher education. Accordingly, textual analysis have been conducted throughscientific articles to make inferences about the research spaces configured, the agendas envisioned, andthe stakeholders involved in such agendas. This pilot project might confirm that after 2006, in theColombian case, it can be identified a scholarly rupture in the community discourse that turned from theadvocacy of the freshman courses towards the advocacy of teaching writing across the higher educationexperiences. Ultimately, this pilot project confirms the incipient development of the field on academicwriting in Colombian higher education in theoretical terms. One of the prominent features of the agendasenvisioned for further research in the field is to conduct studies whose findings should be applied in theprogrammatic endeavors addressing mostly institutional practices (i.e., curricula, classroom practices, andinstitutional programs). Consequently, research projects aiming at exploring larger internationaldisciplinary debates (i.e., transfer issues across time and events, developmental studies, academic writingand other semiotic systems of inscription, cognitive processes in academic and scientific writing, andethnographies in work places), might be conducted to boost the development of the Colombian field.Introduction An academic discourse community is not located specifically in physical settings. Rather, thistype of discourse creates and is created by a research community mostly by its publications; especially,the scientific articles that are used to communicate and define central issues in the fields. Under thistheoretical assumption, the textual analyses conducted through scientific articles have confirmed that theintroductions and conclusion/discussion sections are strategic sites in creating research spaces andagendas respectively, to configure academic communities (Berkenkotter, Huckin, & Ackerman, 1991). Higher education writing in Spanish as a mother tongue is a field of teaching practice andresearch that emerged in the late 90’s, mostly led by Argentine, Chilean, Colombian, and Mexicaninitiatives. This field has been boosted by scholars from applied linguistics, literature, didactics,education, and socio-cultural psychology. A scholar movement called in Spanish “academic literacy” andinfluenced by Anglo-Saxon theories has incorporated up to a decade ago the advocacy of teaching writingin the disciplines (WID). Consequently, the Colombian field on higher education writing in Spanish canbe deemed as an emerging academic community.
  2. 2. 2 An emerging academic community might be strengthened if its research programs and scholarseducation in the field are envisioned based on a historical account of its academic discourse community.Consequently, this pilot project aims at mapping the academic discourse community of the field onacademic writing in Spanish in Colombian higher education. Textual analysis have been conductedthrough scientific articles to make inferences about the research spaces configured, the agendasenvisioned, and the stakeholders involved in such agendas.Methodological approach The scientific articles analyzed are part of list of publications self-reported by their authors. Thislist was collected through a question included in an online survey conducted in Argentina, Chile,Colombia, and Mexico by a snowball technique in summer 20121. The list of publications includes different academic genres as chapters of books or handbooks,articles systematizing experiences, and research articles. The methodological decision related to analyzingexclusively scientific articles relies on the importance of selecting documents that had been undergonepeer review. Given that the peer review is a practice for regulating the academic discourse community,contents that have been published through research articles can count as part of the official discourse ofsuch community. The scientific articles selected were written by different authors. The purposeful sample(Merriam, 2009), comprised the articles from the most ancient (2007) until the most recent (2013) andtitled overtly with topics related to higher education writing. The table 1 displays the sample.Table 1The purposeful sample # Year Title 1 2007 Concepciones de profesores y estudiantes sobre la escritura académica en la Universidad Icesi. 2 2009 ¿Cómo argumentan por escrito los fonoaudiólogos en formación? 3 2010 Prácticas de lectura y escritura en la Universidad Sergio Arboleda. Un estudio de casos. 4 2011 Enseñar a escribir en la universidad: saberes y prácticas de docentes y estudiantes universitarios. 5 2011 Cambios en la lectura y la escritura de universitarios con el curso "Comunicación Oral y Escrita”1 This information has been collected in the project “Initiatives on Reading and Writing in Higher Education, ILEESLatin America” led by Dr. Charles Bazerman of the Department of Education and funded by University ofCalifornia, Santa Bárbara (2011-2012), and The Conference on College Composition and Communication(CCCC) (2012-2013). In this project Natalia Ávila and Mónica Tapia from Chile, and Vera Lúcia Cristovão fromBrazil have also participated.
  3. 3. 3 6 2012 “Cómo mejorar la capacidad inferencial en estudiantes universitarios” 7 2013 Tensiones entre discursos de estudiantes y profesores universitarios sobre la lectura y la escritura Given that the analytical goal has been to infer the research spaces configured, the agendasenvisioned, and the stakeholders involved in such agendas, textual analysis has been conducted to identifywho might be persuaded by the introduction and conclusion/discussion sections, and what for (Selzer,2004). Accordingly, the abstracts, introduction, and conclusion/discussion sections of the papers selectedhave been read several times in order to:1) Underline the linguistic features (adverbs, adjectives, linking words, and modalization’s devices) tomake inferences about two types of interactive potential meaning (Stillar, 1998): a) positional: Theconstructed speaking/writing subject and the expression of attitudes, intentions, and evaluations(underlined in yellow), and, b) relational: Linguistic resources that construct relations betweenspeakers/writers and listeners/readers (underlined in blue). Example2: Párrafo 1 Claramente se evidencian divergencias en las concepciones de estudiantes y profesores alrededor de la lectura y la escritura. Mientras que los estudiantes analizan el problema tocando aspectos que involucran crítica a sus docentes y reflexión sobre sus propias prácticas, en los profesores la crítica a las prácticas de los estudiantes está mucho más presente, y la reflexión sobre sus propias responsabilidades es mucho menor. Sin embargo, ambos concuerdan en la preocupación por una problemática multidimensional.2) Identify types of intertextual relationships created by the documents to infer its function in posingarguments to persuade and shaping audiences. Two types of intertextual phenomena have been taken inconsideration, namely, explicit and implicit intertextuality (Table 2) (Bazerman, 2004; 2010): a) Explicit intertextuality involves the extratextual voices depicted by direct quotations or indirectquotations citing authors or names of books or authors, or using italic fonts to make reference totheoretical models. Additionally, explicit intertextuality also is developed as intratextual resource makingreference to information already stated in the text or to add information in footnotes; especially in theconclusion section in which the findings already presented are cited as part of the claims.2 Given that the raw data has been collected in Spanish, the examples of the analytical procedures and some of theillustrations presented as evidence in the findings section have been kept in Spanish. Moreover, these findings havenot been translated, because this procedure had not revealed necessarily what has been analyzed from the Spanishversion.
  4. 4. 4 b) The second type, implicit intertextuality, involves extratextual voices embedded in the text under the following sentences: "studies have shown"…"it is asserted that"…or "it has been accepted that”, but without names of authors, books or other formats of overt citation. Table 2 Types of intertextuality Explicit intertextuality Implicit intertextuality The extratextual voices intratextual resources Extratextual voices embedded in direct indirect indirect indirect making reference to the text under the following quotations quotation quotations citing quotations information already stated sentences: "studies have s citing names of books using italic in the text or to add shown"…"it is asserted that"…or authors or authors fonts to make information in footnotes "it has been accepted that..." reference to theoretical models “en los Cazden … basándose en Las prácticas Esto se hizo visible en la Con frecuencia, se afirma que los grupos e (1991) la propuesta de de escritura pregunta 7 de la encuesta de estudiantes llegan… instituciones establece Jesús Ibáñez… más comunes los estudiantes (uso que dan dominantes y que el en Icesi los estudiantes, en la forma discurso1 responden al posteriormente, a los en la que en clase modelo de comentarios que el profesor estos crean y tiene las socializacion les consigna cuando evalúa mantienen la siguientes academica, sus trabajos escritos), cuyo desigualdad caracterís cuyas objetivo era… social por ticas (…) exigencias se medio de la centran en el comunicació desarrollo del n y el uso de contenido, la lengua” esto es del (Van Dijk, texto 2004, p. 8). académico. 3) Additionally, an analytic rubric created in Excel has been used to organize the analysis and describe the inferences. This rubric included two sections. The first section in which general information about the article and the journal was identified, as follows:Article Tensiones entre discursos de Journal’s name: Signo y Topics of the journal: La revista maneja Year:title estudiantes y profesores Pensamiento temáticas que incluyen: Las tendencias 2013 universitarios sobre la lectura y teóricas y metodológicas referidas al campo la escritura de la comunicación y sus relaciones multidisciplinarias.Section Conclusion section Discipline or academic unit in Es producida semestralmente por la Facultad charge of the journal de Comunicación y Lenguaje The second section, illustrated below, attempted to organize the introduction sections by paragraphs in order to identify types of intertextuality and make inferences about who is attempted to be persuaded and what for (Selzer, 2004). As minimal units of segmentation, the paragraphs have been used
  5. 5. 5 due to the assumption that such units of sense were originally shaped by the authors to create a flow of meanings in the text. An additional column was added to include comments emerging during the analysis. # Paragraph Intertextuality Rhetorical analysis Comment paragrap s/Questio Who is What for? h ns of the Explicit Implicit attempted to be analyst persuaded? Make Reconsider actions beliefs 1 Claramente se evidencian Internal in the Researchers in The divergencias en las concepciones same text/ the data the field students are de estudiantes y profesores that has been able to alrededor de la lectura y la presented as reflect on escritura. Mientras que los evidence in the their own estudiantes analizan el problema finding section practices tocando aspectos que involucran while the crítica a sus docentes y reflexión professors sobre sus propias prácticas, en are not los profesores la crítica a las prácticas de los estudiantes está mucho más presente, y la reflexión sobre sus propias responsabilidades es mucho menor. Sin embargo, ambos concuerdan en la preocupación por una problemática multidimensional. 4) Finally, in order to make inferences about the agendas and stakeholders based on grounding analysis (Corbin & Strauss, 1990), the conclusion/discussion sections have been read by paragraphs using the rubric displayed below. The same color code described in the step 1 to underline the linguistic features has been used. This grounding analysis was significant, because the linguistic features defined a priori (e.g., modalization devices as could, must, should, or, ought) were not enough for making inferences. In reading the paragraphs, other rhetoric strategies to configure agendas emerged; for instance, the indirect questions (an illustration of this strategy is double underlined in the following table): P#4 Stakeholders Agenda Problem Claim Features of the initiativeAnte estas contradicciones Researchers in the Studies regardingsurgen varias preguntas en field - What the facultytorno a ¿Qué escriben los members write anddocentes? ¿Escriben para sus publish?disciplinas académicas? ¿Cuál - the status of thees el valor de la escritura en la writing in theirconstrucción del conocimiento disciplinesen cada una de las áreas? Paula - What hinders facultyCarlino (2005) afirma que es writing andnecesario reestructurar las publication?clases y lograr que en estas seofrezcan “propuestas de trabajo
  6. 6. 6que guíen a los alumnos en lasactividades de obtención yelaboración de conocimientoque nos han formado a nosotros[los maestros] mismos” (p. 13).Entonces, ¿cómo pedir a losestudiantes que escriban si losmaestros no son sus referentesen este ejercicio académico? y¿qué limita a los maestros paraconvertirse en los referentesque sus estudiantes necesitan? Faculty members They should teach The faculty Intertextuality students how they members are not learned writing in their disciplinary disciplines writers necessarily Findings This section is organized in three sections. The first part describes a brief state of art to locate historically the scientific articles analyzed. The next section deploys the tendencies identified upon the research spaces inferred from the articles analyzed. Finally, the agendas envisioned and the stakeholders are described. Brief state of art to locate historically the scientific articles analyzed First language writing in higher education is an emerging field of social sciences in Spanish- speaking countries. The scholarship led by the chairs of UNESCO for reading and writing in Latin- America (Argentina, Chile, Colombia, and Mexico), has advocated since 90´s educating writers for citizenship (Ortiz-Casallas, 2011). Different tendencies have emerged from the research and teaching initiatives. One movement has argued, until 2006 approximately, that incoming university students bring shortcomings as writers; thus, writing has been taught in freshman courses (Murillo, 2010). Furthermore, a recent movement, mostly influenced by the leadership of an argentine scholar, has advocated in the last 6 years that writing is a disciplinary practice learned exclusively in higher education (Carlino, 2001; 2006; 2008). Consequently, it is expected that universities provide diverse, intensive, and sustained specialized settings to encourage writing developments of undergraduate and graduate students (Murillo, 2010). Regarding public policies, the government has mandated since 2010 a compulsorily undergraduate assessment in the last year of the programs. The assessment on writing abilities in Spanish is one of the components of this public policy. This context could explain, in part, the features of the purposeful sample analyzed; particularly, the topics deployed by the titles. Titles of the texts # 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7 indicate that such articles are
  7. 7. 7focused on analyzing assumptions and/or practices of professors and students across disciplinary coursesand professional education; whereas texts # 5 and 6 are related to freshman courses and programs toimprove the shortcomings of the students as readers and writers. This behavior of the data might confirmthat after 2006, in the Colombian case, it can be identified a scholarly rupture in the community discoursethat turned from the advocacy of the freshman courses towards the advocacy of teaching writing acrossthe higher education experiences.Figure 1The benchmarks in the Colombian field on higher education writing in mother tongue The government mandated the large scale assessment (writing abilities in Spanish) Pruebas del Saber PRO 2010 1999 2006 2006 2013  UNESCO for reading and writing  Argentine influence (Paula movements in Latin-America for Carlino/Phycology ) educating writers for citizenship and  Scholar movements advocating self-learning “academic literacy” to educating  Scholar movements advocating faculty members and graduate students freshman courses to remediate student as disciplinary writers shortcomings  Theoretical frameworks: sociocultural  Theoretical frameworks: textual psychology, new literacy studies linguistics, discourse analysis, genre (literature in Spanish), and WAC and studies, psycholinguistic, and didactic WID movements (literature in English) of mother tongue (Spanish). # Year Title 1 2007 Concepciones de profesores y estudiantes sobre la escritura académica en la Universidad Icesi. 2 2009 ¿Cómo argumentan por escrito los fonoaudiólogos en formación? 3 2010 Prácticas de lectura y escritura en la Universidad Sergio Arboleda. Un estudio de casos. 4 2011 Enseñar a escribir en la universidad: saberes y prácticas de docentes y estudiantes universitarios. 5 2011 Cambios en la lectura y la escritura de universitarios con el curso "Comunicación Oral y Escrita” 6 2012 “Cómo mejorar la capacidad inferencial en estudiantes universitarios” 7 2013 Tensiones entre discursos de estudiantes y profesores universitarios sobre la lectura y la escritura
  8. 8. 8 The table 3 displays the disciplinary affiliation of the authors, the city in which their universitiesare located, the name of the journals and the academic units in charge of the journals that published thearticles analyzed. The tendencies emerging might suggest that most of the articles were written byscholars whose institutional affiliations are in the capital of the country. However, this claim should beconfirmed with additional collection data given that the list of the articles analyzed were originallycomprised by a purposeful sample. Furthermore, regarding their disciplinary affiliations, the overalltendency is that the authors have achieved graduate studies on Linguistics. According to the information upon the disciplines or academic units in charge of the journals inwhich these research articles have been published, it might suggest that the dissemination of the researchinitiatives and their agendas seems to be highly dispersed. These disciplines or academic units haveranged from health science to humanities, social sciences, communication, and education.Table 3Disciplinary and institutional affiliations of the authors and journals Disciplinary Disciplines or affiliation of the City of the Journals’ name academic unit in# Year Title institutional authors deployed in charge of the the articles affiliation of the journal authors1 2007 Concepciones de Studies in teaching Santiago de Cali Lenguaje Philology and profesores y estudiantes foreign languages Linguistics sobre la escritura and graduate studies académica en la in Linguistics Universidad Icesi.2 2009 ¿Cómo argumentan por Speech therapist Popayán Areté Health sciences escrito los with graduate fonoaudiólogos en studies in formación? Linguistics3 2010 Prácticas de lectura y Philologist Bogotá, D.C. Civilizar Human and escritura en la social sciences Universidad Sergio Arboleda. Un estudio de casos.4 2011 Enseñar a escribir en la Researcher on Bogotá, D.C. Magis Education universidad: saberes y cognition and prácticas de docentes y language and estudiantes practitioner on universitarios. teacher development Speech therapist with graduate studies in Linguistics5 2011 Cambios en la lectura y Speech therapists Bogotá, D.C. Revista Facultad Health sciences la escritura de and physiologists de Medicina universitarios con el with graduate
  9. 9. 9 curso "Comunicación studies in Oral y Escrita” Linguistics, Education and Public health6 2012 “Cómo mejorar la Studies in teaching Bogotá, D.C Revista Education capacidad inferencial Spanish and educación y en estudiantes literature and educadores universitarios” graduate studies in Linguistics and Education7 2013 Tensiones entre Chair of the writing Santiago de Cali Signo y Communication discursos de estudiantes center in her pensamiento and language y profesores university and universitarios sobre la researcher on lectura y la escritura language and communicationResearch spaces The research spaces have been understood in this paper as what has been investigated by theauthors of the articles analyzed and the reasons justifying this research goal. Therefore, these types ofresearch spaces have been inferred mostly in the abstracts and introduction sections. The table 4 displaysthe summary of the distribution of the four research spaces identified across the articles analyzed, namely: 1) The actual changes in student writing in the freshman composition courses should be assessed. 2) The growth of students as writers and readers across their higher education experiences should be investigated. 3) The assumptions of university teachers and students about writing affect teaching and learning, especially writing assignments. 4) The actual teaching practices in disciplinary courses must be investigated in order to improve them.
  10. 10. 10Table 4Summary of the distribution of the four research spaces across the articles analyzed Research spaces 3) The 2) The 4) The assumptions 1) The growth of actual of university actual students as teaching teachers’ and Disciplinary changes in writers and practices in Disciplines or students affiliation of student readers disciplinary academic unit about writing# Year Title the authors writing in across their courses in charge of affects deployed in freshman higher must be the journal teaching and the articles composition education investigated learning courses experiences in order to practices, should be should be improve especially assessed investigated them writing assignments1 2007 Concepciones Studies in Philology and de profesores y teaching Linguistics estudiantes foreign sobre la languages and escritura graduate académica en studies in la Universidad Linguistics Icesi.2 2009 ¿Cómo Speech Health sciences argumentan therapist with por escrito los graduate fonoaudiólogos studies in en formación? Linguistics3 2010 Prácticas de Philologist Human and lectura y social sciences escritura en la Universidad Sergio Arboleda. Un estudio de casos.4 2011 Enseñar a Researcher on Education escribir en la cognition and universidad: language and saberes y practitioner on prácticas de teacher docentes y development estudiantes universitarios. Speech therapist with graduate studies in Linguistics5 2011 Cambios en la Speech Health sciences lectura y la therapists and escritura de physiologists universitarios with graduate con el curso studies in "Comunicación Linguistics, Oral y Escrita” Education and Public health
  11. 11. 11 6 2012 “Cómo mejorar Studies in Education la capacidad teaching inferencial en Spanish and estudiantes literature and universitarios” graduate studies in Linguistics and Education 7 2013 Tensiones Chair of the Communication entre discursos writing center and language de estudiantes in her y profesores university and universitarios researcher on sobre la lectura language and y la escritura communication with graduate studies on Linguistics The prior analysis might reveal that research spaces regarding the growth of students as writers have been proposed by researchers in health sciences and education whereas research spaces on the assumptions of university teachers’ about writing assignments have been mostly configured by scholars in education and linguistics. To identify the research spaces, the inferences arranged in the rubric deployed below have been re-read across the seven texts to find similarities and differences (Eisenhardt, 1989) regarding who is attempted to be persuaded and what for (Selzer, 2004).# Paragraph Intertextuality Rhetorical analysis Commentparagrap s/Questio Who is What for?h ns of the Explicit Implicit attempted to be analyst persuaded? Make Reconsider actions beliefs1 Claramente se evidencian Internal in the Researchers in The divergencias en las concepciones same text/ the data the field students are de estudiantes y profesores that has been able to alrededor de la lectura y la presented as reflect on escritura. Mientras que los evidence in the their own estudiantes analizan el problema finding section practices tocando aspectos que involucran while the crítica a sus docentes y reflexión professors sobre sus propias prácticas, en are not los profesores la crítica a las prácticas de los estudiantes está mucho más presente, y la reflexión sobre sus propias responsabilidades es mucho menor. Sin embargo, ambos concuerdan en la preocupación por una problemática multidimensional.
  12. 12. 12 These several analytical comparisons (Eisenhardt, 1989) enabled me to arrange an argumentativestructure for each research space comprised by the main claim and its arguments. The table 5 deploys agraphic summarizing this argumentative arrangement and some of the excerpts of the texts analyzed. Atthe end of such fragments, a code will be displayed between parenthesis as follows: (T6, IS, P3); whichmeans that the fragment can be found in the text #6, in the introduction section and in the paragraph 3.For the remaining sections, namely, discussion and conclusion sections, the following codes will be usedDS and CS.Table 5Argumentative arrangement of the research spaces Main claim Excerpts First level of argument Excerpts 1.1. Freshman (…)3 Un número composition courses are considerable de estudiantes necessary in higher que acceden a la educación education because superior no dominan students bring competencias como las que shortcomings as writers se enuncian en los according to the public Estándares de large scale assessment Competencias en Lenguaje Las preguntas de este for secondary levels. (T5, IS, P1) 1. The actual changes estudio fueron: ¿Existen in student writing in cambios en la lectura y la 1.2. The impacts of the Desarrollados a partir de la freshman escritura de los estudiantes freshman courses are not perspectiva de la escritura composition courses que tomaron el curso clear due to they are como proceso, se should be assessed "Comunicación oral y associated to different encontraron que en el éxito escrita"? (T5, IS, P10). factors such as personal académico de los academic histories as estudiantes de pregrado well as the effects of the depende de un trabajo systematic instruction of sistemático en lectura y metacognitive strategies escritura, y de dos conjuntos de factores en él: factores individuales y factores del entorno (…) (T5, IS, P5)3 These symbols: (…), indicates that the analyst has eliminated fragments of the original paragraphs.
  13. 13. 13Main claim Excerpts First level of argument Second level of Excerpts arguments En una indagación 2.1. This growth should 2.1.1. Otherwise Dada la relación posterior de tipo ensue in higher students’ academic señalada entre comparativo se aplicó education regardless the achievements could aprendizaje y por segunda vez la disciplines be hindered as well as escritura, puede prueba de the access to further inferirse que las comprensión de graduate studies and dificultades que tenga lectura a professional un estudiante en la aproximadamente el development producción textual, 40% de los podría incidir estudiantes de últimos negativamente en su semestres de las rendimiento2. The growth of carreras universitarias académico. Aún si students as (…) aunque se logra culminar con writers and esperaba que el éxito sus estudios de readers across porcentaje de pregrado, las their higher inferencias fuera limitaciones en la education mayor que la primera escritura podrían experiences vez, (…) los afectar su acceso a should be resultados estudios de postgrado investigated demostraron que los y su mismo estudiantes no desempeño mejoraron su profesional. (T2, IS, capacidad inferencial, P3). sino que continuaron utilizando la paráfrasis y la copia literal en la mayoría de respuestas (Cisneros, Olave y Rojas, 2010). (T6, IS, P3). Main claim Excerpts First level of argument Excerpts Es imperativo que en la 3.1. Reading scientific Los textos de divulgación investigación sobre las documents and argumentative científica, expositivos y concepciones que and expository texts are the argumentativos, no deben profesores y estudiantes core of education across the ser considerados sólo de universitarios tienen sobre levels manera ocasional sino que la escritura y de cómo éstas se deben convertir en el se reflejan en la práctica énfasis de la práctica docente y en las pedagógica en los distintos3. The assumptions of composiciones escritas de niveles educativos university teachers’ los educandos, se detecten y (Cisneros, 2005). (T6, IS, and students about se analicen las diferentes P2) writing affects actividades que se 3.2. Higher education learning La construcción de teaching and learning desarrollan alrededor de la mostly evolves through conocimiento en la practices, especially enseñanza y de su reading and writing practices educación superior está writing assignments aprendizaje. (T1, IS, P1). mediada por procesos de lectura y escritura que son intrínsecos a todas las disciplinas. Dichos procesos no solo transcurren en el aula de clases, sino que se dan, más o menos regulados, en otros escenarios y con distintas
  14. 14. 14 motivaciones. Generalmente, corresponden a tareas asignadas por los profesores, mediadas por algún proceso evaluativo, que, a su vez, se constituye en la principal motivación para el cumplimiento de los estudiantes (T7, IS, P2). 3.3. Learning about Se sostiene la necesidad de assumptions about writing tener en cuenta estas is important to make concepciones en cualquier programmatic decisions tipo de intervención sobre either for institutional or lectura y escritura que se national latitudes plantee en las universidades, ya sea en el aula o en el ámbito de políticas institucionales o estatales (T7, AS). Main claim Excerpts First level of argument Excerpts En razón de lo anterior, la 4.1. Disciplinary professors Con frecuencia, se afirma investigación que se are responsible of the que los estudiantes llegan al presenta en este artículo shortcomings in students’ nivel universitario sin las tuvo como propósito writing competencias de escritura caracterizar las prácticas de necesarias para desarrollar lectura y escritura en sus procesos de formación algunos cursos de la en este ámbito (T4, IS, P1) Universidad Sergio (…) David Russell (1990) 4. The actual teaching Arboleda y proponer afirma que la mayoría de practices in algunas bases para su los docentes universitarios disciplinary courses cualificación (T3, IS, P2). asumen estas dificultades must be investigated como ajenas a su in order to improve responsabilidad de them formación (…) Esta perspectiva implica, para las instituciones de educación superior, asumir la responsabilidad de ocuparse de los problemas de escritura de sus estudiantes (…) (T4, IS, P2) The overall finding related to identifying the prior research spaces might be that most of thearticles analyzed have disseminated research projects in which the aim has been beyond to exploreshortcomings in the students writing. These research spaces have focused on a) the growth of the studentsas writers across their university experiences, including in freshman courses, b) the assumptions onwriting of the university teachers and students, and c) the actual teaching practices in disciplines. Thelatter might confirm the influence since 2006 of the scholar movements and theoretical frameworksrelated to sociocultural psychology, new literacy studies, and WAC and WID movements. Such academic
  15. 15. 15community discourse might be mostly advocated by scholars whose their institutional affiliations arefrom the capital of the country. Nevertheless, since this pilot project has collected a purposeful sample,additional data must be collected to confirm this hypothesis.Agendas envisioned and the stakeholders Given the provisional scope of this project, the tendencies regarding agendas and stakeholdershave been explored in the conclusion sections of the texts # 1-5. The table 6 summarizes such tendencies.The articles seem to configure faculty members, researchers in the field, university directives, andstudents as stakeholders of the agendas. Relying on the Table 6, the university teachers and theresearchers in the field seem to be the most frequent stakeholders configured by the articles analyzed incontrast to faculty members and students. Given that research articles are the key genres to createacademic discourse communities, it is not surprising that researchers in the field had been configured asstakeholders. However, it is striking the tendency identified regarding the agendas aiming at makinginstitutional policies. For that reason, this specific agenda has been analyzed in depth.
  16. 16. 16Table 6Stakeholders and agendas envisioned by the articles analyzed Stakeholders Faculty members Researchers in the field University directives Students Agendas Agendas Agendas Agendas Program 1 Program 2 Program 1 Program 2 Program Program 4 Program 1 Program 2 Program 3 Program 4 Program 1 3 Team Teaching Projects on Projects on Projects Rethinking Rethinking Curriculum Institutiona Faculty Developing teaching students actual the status on who is in the reforms l policies developmen argumentativ # Year communities on writing teaching of writing stability charge of institutional including advocating t based on e abilities advocating as they practices of in their of the projects WAC and WAC and WAC and WAC and learned it disciplinar disciplines learning academic WID WID WID WID in their y teachers and on achieved literacies paradigms paradigms paradigms paradigms disciplines what in hinders freshman publicatio courses n practices of faculty members1 20072 20093 20104 20115 2011Frequencies by 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 agendasFrequencies by 3 5 7 1 stakeholders
  17. 17. 17 The most frequent program identified under the agendas involving university directives seems to be faculty development based on WAC/WID paradigms (program # 4 in Table 6). The claims deployed by the articles related to this program have advocated for teaching practices in disciplinary courses in order to enlarge the pedagogical use of writing beyond of being an assessment tool. Two main arguments are used to justify this program: a) the limited scope of the freshman composition courses in educating professional and disciplinary writers across curriculum, and b) the use of writing in disciplinary courses mostly as an assessment tool. In doing so, the articles analyzed have argued that the composition scholars might be consultants in faculty development. The summary of the arguments across the articles analyzed of the program for faculty development is deployed in table 7. Table 7 Arguments for the program # 4: Faculty development based on WAC/WID paradigms Claims Tex Fragments from the articles analyzed ts #Given that writing 1, Ni en las expectativas de los profesores y de los estudiantes para realizar un trabajoassignments are used mostly 3,4 escrito, ni en los comentarios que los profesores consignan en los trabajos de losas assessment means, writing estudiantes se percibe que se esté trabajando con miras a formar comunidad científica,is not used in disciplinary entendida como una colectividad en la que se utilizan normas de comunicacióncourses to educate especializadas para transmitir y evaluar ideas (T1, CS, P3)professional and disciplinary El estudio demuestra que el uso que se hace de la escritura se dirige a la expresión delwriters. conocimiento y a la verificación del aprendizaje de contenidos. Se fomenta la escritura al exigir y evaluar textos escritos mas no enseñando a escribirlos. Se cae entonces en lo que Paula Carlino (2005, p. 108) presenta como los “supuestos sobre la lectura y la escritura”, que hacen pensar al docente que escribir es “una técnica básica, la cual, una vez adquirida, sirve para poner sobre el papel cualquier conocimiento” (T4, DS, P10).Freshman composition 1 El esfuerzo que la Universidad Icesi ha hecho al brindar a sus estudiantes los cursos decourses have achieved their Comunicación Oral y Escrita en los dos primeros semestres, parece que se estuvieragoals, but there is no perdiendo, puesto que los conocimientos allí impartidos no se refuerzan ni se exigen,sustainable endeavors in the como sería deseable, en las materias diferentes a éstas (T1, CS, P14).disciplinary curriculumFreshman composition 3 (…) Y, en este sentido, uno de los factores decisivos para el afianzamiento de lascourses cannot be the single capacidades comunicativas es la intervención pedagógica continuada y consistente. Lapedagogical intervention in caracterización de los casos estudiados permite vislumbrar que la formación de loshigher education docentes disciplinares podría resultar mucho más efectiva para el alcance de las metas generales que se propone la Alfabetización Académica, que la sola programación de cursos iniciales de lectura y escritura (…) (T3, DS, P1)Given that what is learned in 3,4 Los resultados del estudio han puesto en evidencia que tenemos una concepciónfreshman composition courses equívoca sobre la existencia de estrategias de lectura y escritura únicas y válidas,is not necessarily transferred aplicables o transferibles a cualquier disciplina o campo del conocimiento. Lato other academic domains transferencia de los conocimientos en torno a leer y escribir que se logran en unaand because of the lack of materia dedicada a este propósito no está garantizada. Es posible que las formas en queawareness of how to use lo realizan los abogados o los matemáticos no entren en total correspondencia con lowriting in disciplinary que los especialistas en lenguaje saben sobre estos procesos; así como es posible quecourses, the composition los conocimientos de los docentes de esos campos sobre cómo potenciar la lectura yscholars should be consultants escritura requieran la asesoría de especialistas en el tema de la alfabetización (T3, DS,in disciplinary departments. P2) El alto porcentaje de docentes que manifiesta gusto por la escritura y que, efectivamente escribe (94%), parecía ser un punto de partida importante en el momento de enseñar a escribir a los estudiantes universitarios en cada uno de los espacios académicos. Se pensó que un docente a quien le gusta escribir se constituiría en promotor de ese proceso. No obstante lo anterior, el estudio pone en evidencia que este gusto está ligado a formas de escribir poco relacionadas con el discurso de las
  18. 18. 18 disciplinas y la producción de conocimiento en estas. Los hallazgos revelan que los docentes no escriben para sus disciplinas y no ponen a disposición del estudiante textos de referencia que le permitan acercarse a este ejercicio académico como parte integral no desligable de toda su formación como profesional. Solo en tres casos es posible constatar que la escritura es usada por los docentes en los procesos de construcción de conocimiento en sus disciplinas (T4, DS, P3) Finally, given that research articles are genres defining central issues in the fields, it has beenimportant highlighting the research agendas and the arguments envisioned by the articles analyzed.Ultimately, these articles advocate conducting further studies on actual teaching practices in disciplinarycourses and on the status of academic writing and publishing practices of faculty members in differentdisciplines. In one case, further longitudinal studies are suggested to explore the impact of freshmancourses over time (Table 8).Table 8Arguments for the research agendas Claims Texts Fragments from the articles analyzed #Further studies might 1,3 Subsisten, de cualquier forma, muchos interrogantes que vale la pena tomar encontrast data emerging consideración y que contribuirían de manera significativa a caracterizar nuestrasfrom the assumptions of formas de asumir la lectura y la escritura: ¿qué hacen tanto profesores comofaculty members and estudiantes con lo que se lee y se escribe?, ¿son la lectura y la escritura solostudents against data from dispositivos activos para la evaluación?, ¿cómo se planea lo que se asigna como tareaactual teaching and en lectura y escritura?, ¿cuáles son los intereses formativos del docente?, ¿se le aclaralearning practices actually al estudiante cuál es la mejor forma de comprender, asociar e incorporar los códigosundergone in classrooms. del discurso de sus disciplinas y profesiones? (T3, DS, P4)Further studies might 4 Ante estas contradicciones surgen varias preguntas en torno a ¿Qué escriben losexplore the status of docentes? ¿Escriben para sus disciplinas académicas? ¿Cuál es el valor de la escrituraacademic writing and en la construcción del conocimiento en cada una de las áreas? Paula Carlino (2005)publishing in the afirma que es necesario reestructurar las clases y lograr que en estas se ofrezcandisciplines under the “propuestas de trabajo que guíen a los alumnos en las actividades de obtención yassumption that if faculty elaboración de conocimiento que nos han formado a nosotros [los maestros] mismos”members are academic (p. 13). Entonces, ¿cómo pedir a los estudiantes que escriban si los maestros no sonwriters, they should teach sus referentes en este ejercicio académico? y ¿qué limita a los maestros parahow to write to their convertirse en los referentes que sus estudiantes necesitan? (T4, DS, P4)studentsFurther longitudinal 5 Cabe anotar que los hallazgos presentados en este estudio no son generalizables dadostudies might provide su pequeño grupo de participantes (3,6, 14,15). Este estudio también adolece falta deinsight on the stability of alusiones a la estabilidad de los aprendizajes más allá del momento actual.the writing knowledge Investigaciones que han realizado estos seguimientos muestran que varias habilidadesacquired in freshman matemáticas y verbales permanecen estables a lo largo de varios períodos (24), perocomposition courses por no ser la lectura y la escritura académicas un requerimiento de toda la escolaridad básica, se hace necesario ver la estabilidad de su aprendizaje con el paso del tiempo (11).(T5, DS, P5)
  19. 19. 19 The overall finding related to the agendas envisioned and the stakeholders involved in suchprograms might suggest that, at least from the articles analyzed, the field on academic writing inColombian higher education has configured programmatic efforts involving mostly university directivesand faculty members relying on WAC/WID paradigms. Except from one case identified in the text # 5,the article stated the importance of conducting longitudinal studies in understanding the stability ofwriting knowledge across university learning experiences. Consequently, agendas entailing researchprograms are mostly configured to gain further insights for being applied in the programmatic endeavorsaddressing university directives and faculty members. Ultimately, the research programs could be highlyshaped by such educational applied agendas. These tendencies might confirm the childhood of the Colombian field in which most of theresearch efforts are concentrated in impacting institutional practices (i.e., curricula, classroom practices,and institutional programs), rather than the core of the larger disciplinary debates (i.e., transfer issuesacross time and events, developmental studies on genre knowledge, agency/authorship/ownership, oridentities, relationships between academic writing and other semiotic systems of inscription, myriadcognitive processes involved in academic and scientific writing, and ethnographies conducted in workplaces or learning setting other than university classrooms).Conclusions This pilot project might confirm that after 2006, in the Colombian case, it can be identified ascholarly rupture in the community discourse that turned from the advocacy of the freshman coursestowards the advocacy of teaching writing across the higher education experiences. The latter might alsoconfirm the influence since 2006 of the scholar movements and theoretical frameworks related tosociocultural psychology, new literacy studies, and WAC and WID movements. The academic community discourse inferred by this project seems to be mostly comprised byscholars whose their institutional affiliations are from the capital of the country. However, since this pilotproject has used a purposeful sample, additional data must be collected to confirm this hypothesis. If suchhypothesis is further confirmed, future projects should be conducted to explore scholarly discourses inless leading cities in the country. Furthermore, regarding the disciplinary affiliations of the authors, the overall tendency is thatthese scholars have achieved graduate studies on Linguistics. This might suggests that masters anddoctorate programs in Linguistics could be fruitful sites in Colombian higher education to encourageincoming students to researching on higher education writing. The prior analysis might reveal that research spaces regarding the growth of students as writershave been proposed by scholars with backgrounds in health sciences and education. Theoretically
  20. 20. 20speaking, given that developmental studies is one of the central issues for the international discoursecommunity in the field, interdisciplinary research projects conducted by scholars in Linguistics, educationand health sciences for incorporating complementary frameworks could boost the progress of theColombian field. Ultimately, this pilot project confirms the incipient development of the field on academic writingin Colombian higher education in theoretical terms. One of the prominent features of the agendas forfurther research in the field is to conduct studies whose findings should be applied in the programmaticendeavors addressing mostly institutional practices (i.e., curricula, classroom practices, and institutionalprograms). Consequently, research projects aiming at exploring larger international disciplinary debates(i.e., transfer issues across time and events, developmental studies, academic writing and other semioticsystems of inscription, cognitive processes in academic and scientific writing, and ethnographies in workplaces), might be conducted to boost the development of the Colombian field.References Bazerman, Ch. (2004). Intertextuality: How texts rely on other texts. In C. Bazerman & P. Prior,What Writing does and how it does ii (pp. 83-96). Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrance Erlbaum Associates. Bazerman, Ch. (2010). Recognizing the Many Voices in a Text. In The Informed Writer. 5thedition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1995, 162-188. The WAC Clearinghouse. Fort Collins, CO.Available at http://wac.colostate.edu/books/informedwriter/. Berkenkotter, C., Huckin, T., & Ackerman, J. (1991). Social context and socially constructedtexts. In C. Bazerman and J. Paradis (Eds.), Textual Dynamics of the Professions. (pp. 191-215).Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. Carlino, P. (2001). Hacerse cargo de la lectura y la escritura en la enseñanza universitaria de lasciencias sociales y humanas. Trabajo presentado como ponencia en las Jornadas de Intercambio deExperiencias sobre la Lectura y la Escritura como prácticas Académicas Universitarias, Luján, Argentina.Recuperado de http://www.unlu.edu.ar/~redecom/libro. htm#confi10 Carlino, P. (2006). Procesos y prácticas de escritura en la educación superior. Revista Signo ySeña, 16, 9-15. Recuperado de http://www.escrituraylectura.com.ar/posgrado/revistas/SyS16.pdf Carlino, P. (2008). Leer y escribir en la universidad, una nueva cultura: ¿Por qué es necesaria laalfabetización académica? En E. Narváez & S. Cadena (comps.), Los desafios de la lectura y la escrituraen la educacion superior: caminos posibles. (pp. 159-194). Cali: Universidad Autónoma de Occidente. Corbin, J., & Strauss, A. (1990). Grounded theory research: Procedures, canons, and evaluativecriteria. Qualitative Sociology, 13(1), 3-21.
  21. 21. 21 Eisenhardt, K. (1989). Building theories from case study research, Academic of managementreview, 14 (4), 532-550. Merriam, S.B. (2009). Qualitative Research: A guide to Design and Implementation. SanFrancisco: Jossey-Bass. Murillo, M. (2010). La actividad discursiva en la construcción del conocimiento en una situaciónde escritura en las disciplinas: los géneros académicos en la universidad. El estado de la investigación enla enseñanza de la lectura y la escritura en el ámbito universitario en Colombia y Latinoamérica. 11-46.Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona. España. Retrieved from:http://www.tesisenred.net/bitstream/handle/10803/32100/memf1de1.pdf?sequence=1 Ortiz-Casallas, E.M. (2011). La escritura académica universitaria: estado del arte. [AcademicWriting in Higher Education: A literatura review] Íkala, Revista de lenguaje y cultura, 16, 17-41.Retrieved from http://redalyc.uaemex.mx/src/inicio/ArtPdfRed.jsp?iCve=255019720002 Selzer, J. (2004). Rhetorical Analysis: Understanding How Texts Persuade Readers. In C.Bazerman & P. Prior, What Writing does and how it does ii (pp. 279-308). Mahwah, New Jersey:Lawrance Erlbaum Associates. Stillar, G. F. (1998). The resources of discourse analysis. In Rhetoric & Society: Analyzingeveryday texts: Discourse, rhetoric, and social perspectives. (pp. 14-58). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGEPublications, Inc. doi: 10.4135/9781452233383.n2

×