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VitaminsVitamins
Dr Ifat Ara Begum
Associate Professor
Dept of Biochemistry
Dhaka Medical College
Dhaka
04/24/18 1Footer Text
What is vitamins?What is vitamins?
 Organic nutrients, required in small amount
for different biochemical reactions to support
normal growth, maintenance & reproduction
 Essential nutrient
 Are not structural component of tissue
 Have no energy value
04/24/18Footer Text 2
Sources of vitaminsSources of vitamins
04/24/18Footer Text 3
Exogenous
source:
Diet Endogenous source:
i. Intestinal flora : Vitamin
K, B12, Biotin
ii. Steroid precursor in skin:
Vitamin D
iii. Tryptophan (AA): Niacin
Classification of vitaminsClassification of vitamins
04/24/18Footer Text 4
5
Fat soluble vitamins
 Hydrophobic
 Intestinal absorption
depends on fat
absorption
 LP / specific protein
for transport in blood
& not readily
excreted in urine
 Storage : Liver &
adipose tissues
 Toxicity: Common
 Only vitamin K has
Water soluble vitamins
Hydrophilic
 Intestinal absorption
doesn’t depend on fat
absorption
 Readily excreted in
urine
 Storage : Limited
except for vitamin B12
& folic acid (in liver)
 Toxicity: Rare
 Coenzyme activity:
Common
04/24/18Footer Text 6
04/24/18Footer Text 7
Vitamin Active / Functional form
Vitamin A Retinol, Retinal, Retinoic acid
Vitamin D 1, 25- Dihydroxy
Cholecalciferol (D3 - calcitriol)
Vitamin E Tocopherol
Vitamin K  Phylloquinone (K1): Plant
origin
 Menaquinone (K2): produced
by gut flora
 Menadione (K3): Synthetic
analogue of vitamin K
04/24/18Footer Text 8
Vitami
n
Endog-
enous
source
Exogenous source
(Diet)
Animal Plant
Vitami
n A
Nil Oily fishes ,
Fish liver oil,
milk & milk
products, Liver,
Egg yolk
Carrot,
mango,
papaya,
tomato, green
leafy veg.
Vitami
n D
Steroid
precurs
or in
skin
Same -
Vitami
n E
Nil Same Veg. oil,
Unmilled
cereals
Vitami Gut Milk & milk Green leafy
04/24/18Footer Text 9
Functions & deficiency of vitamin AFunctions & deficiency of vitamin A
04/24/18Footer Text 10
A) Ocular
manifestation:
 Night blindness
 Xeropthalmia
 Keratomelacia
B) Extra-ocular
manifestation:
 Vulnerability of
infection
 Growth retardation
 Impotency
 Toad skin
1. Helps in vision
2. Promotion of growth
& differentiation of
tissues
3. Maintenance of
reproduction
4. Maintenance &
differentiation of
immune system
cells, epi cells &
mucus secreting
cells
04/24/18Footer Text 11
04/24/18Footer Text 12
04/24/18Footer Text 13
04/24/18Footer Text 14
04/24/18Footer Text 15
04/24/18Footer Text 16
04/24/18Footer Text 17
04/24/18Footer Text 18
04/24/18Footer Text 19
Vitamin E deficiency:
 Hemolytic disease of newborn
 Neuropathy
 Increased risk of
cardiovascular disease, etc
04/24/18Footer Text 20
04/24/18Footer Text 21
Function:
1. Posttranslational maturation of clotting
factors (II, VII, IX, X)
2. Helps in coagulation
04/24/18Footer Text 22
Deficiency:
1. Impaired blood clotting
2. Hemorrhagic disease
Therapeutic use
1. i/m inj. in newborn
2. i/m inj. in pt with obstructive
jaundice prior to surgery
04/24/18Footer Text 23
04/24/18Footer Text 24
Vitamin B
complex
Chemical
name
Active / Functional /
Coenzyme form
Vitamin B1 Thiamine Thiamine
pyrophosphate (TPP)
Vitamin B2 Riboflavin FAD, FMN
Vitamin B3 Niacin/
Nicotinic
acid
NAD, NADP
Vitamin B5 Pantothenic
acid
Coenzyme A
Vitamin B6 Pyridoxine Pyridoxal phosphate
Vitamin B7 Biotin Biotin
Vitamin B9 Folic acid Tetrahydrofolate
Vitamin B12 Cobalamin Methyl cobalamin,
04/24/18Footer Text 25
These vitamins are chemically
not related to one another. They
are grouped together,
because,
all of them function in the cells as
coenzymes.
ClassificationClassification
 Energy releasing vitamins:
Vitamin B1, B2, B3, B5 , B7 (Biotin)
 Hematopoietic vitamins:
Vitamin B9 (Folic acid), B12
 Others:
Vitamin B6
04/24/18Footer Text 26
SourcesSources
04/24/18Footer Text 27
Endogenous
source:
Niacin, Biotin,
vitamin B12,
Exogenous source:
 Animal sources:
Egg, meat, fish, liver,
milk & milk products
 Plant sources:
Whole grain cereals,
green leafy vegetables,
legumes, peas, nuts,
beans
Vit.
B12 has
no plant
source
FunctionsFunctions
04/24/18Footer Text 28
Vitamin Acts as coenzyme for/in Other function
B1 /
Thiamin
e
1. Oxidative
decarboxylation of
pyruvate & α-KG
2. Transketolase
enzyme of HMP shunt
Helps to maintain
nerve conduction
& functioning of
nervous system
B2 /
Riboflavin
1. Concerned with energy metabolism
2. Coenzyme in Oxidation – reduction
process:
e.g.
Oxidation of succinate to fumarate
04/24/18Footer Text 29
Vitamin Acts as coenzyme
for/in
Other function
B3 / Niacin 1. Concerned with energy metabolism
2. Coenzyme in Oxidation – reduction
process:
e.g.
Oxidation of malate to oxaloacetate
B5 /
Pantotheni
c acid
1. Formation of :
 Active acetate (acetyl CoA):
Synthesis of FA, Ketone bodies,
cholesterol etc & Oxidation in TCA
cycle
Active succinate (succinyl CoA):
Synthesis of heme, ketolysis
04/24/18Footer Text 30
Vitamin Acts as coenzyme for/in
B6 /
Pyridoxine
1. Transamination & deamination of AA
2. Glycogenolysis
3. Decarboxylation of :
 Histidine : to produce histamine
 Glutamate: to produce GABA
4. Synthesis of :
 Porphyrin & heme
 Catecholamine
 Serotonin
04/24/18Footer Text 31
Vitamin Acts as coenzyme for/in
B7 / Biotin  Acts as coenzyme of carboxylase to
catalyze carboxylation reaction:
e.g.
Carboxylation of pyruvate to oxaloacetate
B9 / Folic
acid
1. Acts as a carrier of 1-C units (CH3, CH2
etc) from different amino acids to use
them for synthesis of :
Purines, pyrimidines
DNA, RNA
Methionine
Choline etc
2. Helps in neural tube development in early
fetal life
32
04/24/18Footer Text 33
Vitamin Acts as coenzyme for/in
B12 /
Cobalami
n
1. Interconversion of homocysteine &
methionine reaction.
This reaction helps to
 maintain methionine store
&
 ensure availability of FH4 & FH4
subsequently participates in purine, dTMP &
NA synthesis
2. Conversion of propionyl CoA to succinyl
CoA : Succinyl Co A enters TCA cycle
3. Maintains Myelin sheath & Epithelial cells
4. Hemopoiesis by ensuring availability of FH4
DeficiencyDeficiency
04/24/18Footer Text 34
Vitamin Deficiency
B1 /
Thiamine
 Wet beriberi
 Dry Beriberi:
i.Peripheral neuropathy
ii.Wernicke's encephalopathy
iii.Korsakoff’s psychosis
B2 / Riboflavin  Chapped & fissured lips
(Cheilosis)
 Inflammation of corner of mouth
(angular stomatitis)
 Glossitis
 Seborrheic dermatitis
04/24/18Footer Text 35
Vitamin Deficiency
B3 / Niacin Pellagra , featured by 3 ‘D’
 Dermatitis
 Diarrhoea
 Dementia
B5 /
Pantothenic
acid
 Peripheral nerve damage
 Burning feet syndrome
 Staggering gait
B6 / Pyridoxine  Peripheral neuropathy
 Anemia
Disorders of AA metabolism
04/24/18Footer Text 36
Vitamin Deficiency
B7 / Biotin  Dermatitis
 Glossitis
 Nausea, anorexia
 Impairment of carbohydrate &
fat metabolism
B9 / Folic acid  Megaloblastic anemia
 Growth failure
 GIT disturbances
 NTDs in fetus during pregnancy like
spina bifida, anencephaly etc
 Hyperhomocysteinemia
04/24/18Footer Text 37
Vitamin Deficiency
B12/
Cobalamin
 Megaloblastic anemia:
Happens due to 2ndary deficit of FH4 as a
result of folate trap
 Neurological disorders:
Due to progressive demyelination.
e.g.
Sub acute combined degeneration of
spinal cord
Peripheral neuropathy
Dementia
Optic atrophy
 Hyperhomocysteinemia &
atherosclerosis:
Homocysteine level in blood is related
Folate trapFolate trap
04/24/18Footer Text 38
Megaloblastic AnemiaMegaloblastic Anemia
04/24/18Footer Text 39
04/24/18Footer Text 40
Megaloblastic
anemia
Pernicious
anemia
Macrocytic anemia Type of megaloblastic
anemia
Cause:
Folate deficiency,
Vitamin B12 deficiency
Cause:
Deficiency of IF
(As a result, vitamin B12
deficiency secondary to
malabsorption of vitamin B12
occurs)
04/24/18Footer Text 41
04/24/18Footer Text 42
Chemistry Source Function
Derivatives
of hexose
A reducing
agent
(Benedict’s
test will be
positive )
Citrus fruits
Green chili &
green leafy
vegetables
 Post-translational
maturation of collagen:
Done by hydroxylation of
proline & lysine residues
of collagen
 Enhances absorption
of iron
 Reduces serum
cholesterol
concentration
Acts as anti-oxidant
Helps in synthesis of
Catecholamine &
04/24/18Footer Text 43
Clinical
manifestation of
vitamin C
deficiency:
Scurvy
04/24/18Footer Text 44

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Vitamins

  • 1. VitaminsVitamins Dr Ifat Ara Begum Associate Professor Dept of Biochemistry Dhaka Medical College Dhaka 04/24/18 1Footer Text
  • 2. What is vitamins?What is vitamins?  Organic nutrients, required in small amount for different biochemical reactions to support normal growth, maintenance & reproduction  Essential nutrient  Are not structural component of tissue  Have no energy value 04/24/18Footer Text 2
  • 3. Sources of vitaminsSources of vitamins 04/24/18Footer Text 3 Exogenous source: Diet Endogenous source: i. Intestinal flora : Vitamin K, B12, Biotin ii. Steroid precursor in skin: Vitamin D iii. Tryptophan (AA): Niacin
  • 4. Classification of vitaminsClassification of vitamins 04/24/18Footer Text 4
  • 5. 5 Fat soluble vitamins  Hydrophobic  Intestinal absorption depends on fat absorption  LP / specific protein for transport in blood & not readily excreted in urine  Storage : Liver & adipose tissues  Toxicity: Common  Only vitamin K has Water soluble vitamins Hydrophilic  Intestinal absorption doesn’t depend on fat absorption  Readily excreted in urine  Storage : Limited except for vitamin B12 & folic acid (in liver)  Toxicity: Rare  Coenzyme activity: Common
  • 7. 04/24/18Footer Text 7 Vitamin Active / Functional form Vitamin A Retinol, Retinal, Retinoic acid Vitamin D 1, 25- Dihydroxy Cholecalciferol (D3 - calcitriol) Vitamin E Tocopherol Vitamin K  Phylloquinone (K1): Plant origin  Menaquinone (K2): produced by gut flora  Menadione (K3): Synthetic analogue of vitamin K
  • 8. 04/24/18Footer Text 8 Vitami n Endog- enous source Exogenous source (Diet) Animal Plant Vitami n A Nil Oily fishes , Fish liver oil, milk & milk products, Liver, Egg yolk Carrot, mango, papaya, tomato, green leafy veg. Vitami n D Steroid precurs or in skin Same - Vitami n E Nil Same Veg. oil, Unmilled cereals Vitami Gut Milk & milk Green leafy
  • 10. Functions & deficiency of vitamin AFunctions & deficiency of vitamin A 04/24/18Footer Text 10 A) Ocular manifestation:  Night blindness  Xeropthalmia  Keratomelacia B) Extra-ocular manifestation:  Vulnerability of infection  Growth retardation  Impotency  Toad skin 1. Helps in vision 2. Promotion of growth & differentiation of tissues 3. Maintenance of reproduction 4. Maintenance & differentiation of immune system cells, epi cells & mucus secreting cells
  • 19. 04/24/18Footer Text 19 Vitamin E deficiency:  Hemolytic disease of newborn  Neuropathy  Increased risk of cardiovascular disease, etc
  • 21. 04/24/18Footer Text 21 Function: 1. Posttranslational maturation of clotting factors (II, VII, IX, X) 2. Helps in coagulation
  • 22. 04/24/18Footer Text 22 Deficiency: 1. Impaired blood clotting 2. Hemorrhagic disease Therapeutic use 1. i/m inj. in newborn 2. i/m inj. in pt with obstructive jaundice prior to surgery
  • 24. 04/24/18Footer Text 24 Vitamin B complex Chemical name Active / Functional / Coenzyme form Vitamin B1 Thiamine Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) Vitamin B2 Riboflavin FAD, FMN Vitamin B3 Niacin/ Nicotinic acid NAD, NADP Vitamin B5 Pantothenic acid Coenzyme A Vitamin B6 Pyridoxine Pyridoxal phosphate Vitamin B7 Biotin Biotin Vitamin B9 Folic acid Tetrahydrofolate Vitamin B12 Cobalamin Methyl cobalamin,
  • 25. 04/24/18Footer Text 25 These vitamins are chemically not related to one another. They are grouped together, because, all of them function in the cells as coenzymes.
  • 26. ClassificationClassification  Energy releasing vitamins: Vitamin B1, B2, B3, B5 , B7 (Biotin)  Hematopoietic vitamins: Vitamin B9 (Folic acid), B12  Others: Vitamin B6 04/24/18Footer Text 26
  • 27. SourcesSources 04/24/18Footer Text 27 Endogenous source: Niacin, Biotin, vitamin B12, Exogenous source:  Animal sources: Egg, meat, fish, liver, milk & milk products  Plant sources: Whole grain cereals, green leafy vegetables, legumes, peas, nuts, beans Vit. B12 has no plant source
  • 28. FunctionsFunctions 04/24/18Footer Text 28 Vitamin Acts as coenzyme for/in Other function B1 / Thiamin e 1. Oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate & α-KG 2. Transketolase enzyme of HMP shunt Helps to maintain nerve conduction & functioning of nervous system B2 / Riboflavin 1. Concerned with energy metabolism 2. Coenzyme in Oxidation – reduction process: e.g. Oxidation of succinate to fumarate
  • 29. 04/24/18Footer Text 29 Vitamin Acts as coenzyme for/in Other function B3 / Niacin 1. Concerned with energy metabolism 2. Coenzyme in Oxidation – reduction process: e.g. Oxidation of malate to oxaloacetate B5 / Pantotheni c acid 1. Formation of :  Active acetate (acetyl CoA): Synthesis of FA, Ketone bodies, cholesterol etc & Oxidation in TCA cycle Active succinate (succinyl CoA): Synthesis of heme, ketolysis
  • 30. 04/24/18Footer Text 30 Vitamin Acts as coenzyme for/in B6 / Pyridoxine 1. Transamination & deamination of AA 2. Glycogenolysis 3. Decarboxylation of :  Histidine : to produce histamine  Glutamate: to produce GABA 4. Synthesis of :  Porphyrin & heme  Catecholamine  Serotonin
  • 31. 04/24/18Footer Text 31 Vitamin Acts as coenzyme for/in B7 / Biotin  Acts as coenzyme of carboxylase to catalyze carboxylation reaction: e.g. Carboxylation of pyruvate to oxaloacetate B9 / Folic acid 1. Acts as a carrier of 1-C units (CH3, CH2 etc) from different amino acids to use them for synthesis of : Purines, pyrimidines DNA, RNA Methionine Choline etc 2. Helps in neural tube development in early fetal life
  • 32. 32
  • 33. 04/24/18Footer Text 33 Vitamin Acts as coenzyme for/in B12 / Cobalami n 1. Interconversion of homocysteine & methionine reaction. This reaction helps to  maintain methionine store &  ensure availability of FH4 & FH4 subsequently participates in purine, dTMP & NA synthesis 2. Conversion of propionyl CoA to succinyl CoA : Succinyl Co A enters TCA cycle 3. Maintains Myelin sheath & Epithelial cells 4. Hemopoiesis by ensuring availability of FH4
  • 34. DeficiencyDeficiency 04/24/18Footer Text 34 Vitamin Deficiency B1 / Thiamine  Wet beriberi  Dry Beriberi: i.Peripheral neuropathy ii.Wernicke's encephalopathy iii.Korsakoff’s psychosis B2 / Riboflavin  Chapped & fissured lips (Cheilosis)  Inflammation of corner of mouth (angular stomatitis)  Glossitis  Seborrheic dermatitis
  • 35. 04/24/18Footer Text 35 Vitamin Deficiency B3 / Niacin Pellagra , featured by 3 ‘D’  Dermatitis  Diarrhoea  Dementia B5 / Pantothenic acid  Peripheral nerve damage  Burning feet syndrome  Staggering gait B6 / Pyridoxine  Peripheral neuropathy  Anemia Disorders of AA metabolism
  • 36. 04/24/18Footer Text 36 Vitamin Deficiency B7 / Biotin  Dermatitis  Glossitis  Nausea, anorexia  Impairment of carbohydrate & fat metabolism B9 / Folic acid  Megaloblastic anemia  Growth failure  GIT disturbances  NTDs in fetus during pregnancy like spina bifida, anencephaly etc  Hyperhomocysteinemia
  • 37. 04/24/18Footer Text 37 Vitamin Deficiency B12/ Cobalamin  Megaloblastic anemia: Happens due to 2ndary deficit of FH4 as a result of folate trap  Neurological disorders: Due to progressive demyelination. e.g. Sub acute combined degeneration of spinal cord Peripheral neuropathy Dementia Optic atrophy  Hyperhomocysteinemia & atherosclerosis: Homocysteine level in blood is related
  • 40. 04/24/18Footer Text 40 Megaloblastic anemia Pernicious anemia Macrocytic anemia Type of megaloblastic anemia Cause: Folate deficiency, Vitamin B12 deficiency Cause: Deficiency of IF (As a result, vitamin B12 deficiency secondary to malabsorption of vitamin B12 occurs)
  • 42. 04/24/18Footer Text 42 Chemistry Source Function Derivatives of hexose A reducing agent (Benedict’s test will be positive ) Citrus fruits Green chili & green leafy vegetables  Post-translational maturation of collagen: Done by hydroxylation of proline & lysine residues of collagen  Enhances absorption of iron  Reduces serum cholesterol concentration Acts as anti-oxidant Helps in synthesis of Catecholamine &
  • 43. 04/24/18Footer Text 43 Clinical manifestation of vitamin C deficiency: Scurvy