Trabajo Tecnologia


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Trabajo Tecnologia

  1. 1. Materials for construction
  2. 2. Materials to use in construction: <ul><li>They are those used in building houses, monuments and public works: </li></ul><ul><li>Stony materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Binders materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Concrete. </li></ul><ul><li>Ceramic materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Other materials. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Stony Materials <ul><li>We use two types of rocks: </li></ul><ul><li>Compact rocks: they are blocks of stone like ashlar or slabs. </li></ul><ul><li>Disaggregated rocks: They are pieces of stone of diferents sizes like clays and aggregates. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Binders materials <ul><li>They are materials that when mixed with water becomes pasty and to solidify acquire rigidity. </li></ul><ul><li>Lime: comes from limestone rocks and used to paint walls or bricks. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gypsum: is used to cover walls and ceilings. There are three types of gypsum: black with impurities, without impurities and white plaster. </li></ul><ul><li>Cement:Its the most utilised binder materia </li></ul>
  5. 5. Ceramic materials <ul><ul><li>They are pieces made of clay molded and baked in ovens. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The process consists of two phases: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixing and molding: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous cooking ovens: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bricks: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Thin brick,Normal bricks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tiles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gres </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Porcelain </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Concrete <ul><li>It is a mixture of aggregates, water and binder. </li></ul><ul><li>There are various types of concrete: </li></ul><ul><li>Concrete mass </li></ul><ul><li>Concrete Cyclopean </li></ul><ul><li>Cellular Concrete </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforced concrete </li></ul>
  7. 7. Other materials <ul><li>Metals: </li></ul><ul><li>Steel </li></ul><ul><li>Aluminum </li></ul><ul><li>Copper: </li></ul><ul><li>-Wood </li></ul><ul><li>-Plastics </li></ul><ul><li>-Glass </li></ul>
  8. 8. Buildings construction <ul><li>The building is a long and complex process that involves several stages and the work of a group of professionals and employs a variety of materials. Phases: </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation of the land: demolition, debris, leveling (heavy machinery) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Buildings construction <ul><li>Foundation: placement of the elements that form the base of the building (below ground, shapes and sizes depend on the characteristics of the surrounding earth) </li></ul><ul><li>Elevation of the structure: was built pillars and plates that are to form the floors of the building (metal structures of steel girders and concrete armed) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Buildings construction <ul><li>Topping: placement of the deck of the building (roof tiles, slate tiles or sheets of zinc) </li></ul><ul><li>Laying pavement: the plaque of each floor of the building materials are placed as marble, stone, wood. etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Uprising of walls: the walls are built and the walls that divide the plants are closed and the building in order to isolate it from outside, and distributing the interior spaces (ordinary bricks) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Buildings construction <ul><li>Placement of facilities: each installation is done by a team of different professionals (water, gas, electricity ...) </li></ul><ul><li>Finishing work: the building is suitable for permanent use (different professional teams make use of what most diverse) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Construction Machinery <ul><li>On the construction machines used various: </li></ul><ul><li>Excavation and earthwork: bulldozers and loaders. </li></ul><ul><li>Leveling of land: bulldozers and graders. </li></ul><ul><li>Compacting the ground: rammers. </li></ul><ul><li>The materials are transported in trucks and vans. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Construction Machinery <ul><li>The materials are raised with cranes. </li></ul><ul><li>Basic structure: </li></ul><ul><li>Tower: steel vertical. </li></ul><ul><li>Feather: horizontal metal structure that can rotate 360 degrees. </li></ul><ul><li>Counterweight: structure attached to the pen at the opposite end that bears the burden. </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation of mortar and concrete in mixers, allowing homogenization of materials </li></ul>
  14. 14. Examples