Air Pollution over Navajo and Hopi Lands - Beth Holland

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Air Pollution over Navajo and Hopi Lands - Beth Holland

  1. 1. Air Pollution over Navajo and Hopi LandsPresented by Elisabeth A. Holland,Senior Scientist, Atmospheric Chemistry Division, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, COCo-recipient2007 Nobel Peace Prize as Lead Author of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change<br />
  2. 2. NOx Emissions from Western US Power Plants<br />Colstrip<br />North Valmy<br />Dave Johnston/<br />Laramie River<br />Intermountain<br />Jim Bridger/<br />Naughton<br /> Hunter /<br />Huntington<br />Reid Gardener <br />Craig/Hayden<br />Bonanza<br />Mohave<br />Four Corners/<br />San Juan<br />Navajo<br />Cholla/Coronado/ Springerville<br />S.-W. Kim et al., J. Geophys. Res., 2009<br />SCIAMACHY, Summer 2005<br />
  3. 3. NOx Emissions from Western US Cities<br />Denver<br />Boise<br />Salt Lake City<br />Reno<br />Sacramento<br />San Francisco<br />Albuquerque / Santa Fe<br />Fresno<br />Bakersfield<br />Los Angeles<br />Las Vegas<br />Phoenix<br />El Paso<br />Tucson<br />S.-W. Kim et al., J. Geophys. Res., 2009<br />SCIAMACHY, Summer 2005<br />
  4. 4. What do these maps mean?<br />The air downwind of the Navajo Nation power generating stations as polluted as large western cities, including Phoenix, Salt Lake, Denver and Las Vegas.<br />
  5. 5. Health Impacts<br />NO2 andhealth:<br />asthma; respiratory irritation; airway inflammation; headaches; pulmonary emphysema (chronically reduced lung function); impairment of lung defenses; oedema of lungs; eye irritations; loss of appetite;corrosion of teeth, and increased emergency room visits. <br />The most vulnerable groups are young children, asthmatics, as well as individuals with chronic bronchitis, emphysema or other chronic respiratory diseases.<br />
  6. 6. Health Impacts, continued<br />Ozone and  health: <br />NO2 is a catalyst for ozone formation.<br />Reduction in lungfunction, asthmatriggerandincreasedrespiratorysymptomsaswell as respiratoryrelatedemergencydepartment visits,  hospital admissions,  and  premature  deaths.<br />
  7. 7. Health Impacts, continued<br />Small particlesandhealth: smallparticles, likethosegeneratedby NO2emissions,<br />penetratedeeplyinto sensitive partsofthelungsandcancauseorworsenrespiratorydisease, such asemphysemaandbronchitisandcanaggravateexistingheartdisease, andobesityleadingtoincreasedhospitaladmissionsandincreaseddeath<br />
  8. 8. Human and Natural Drivers of Climate Change<br />coal<br />coal<br />
  9. 9. Many Changes Signal A Warming World<br />Rising atmospheric temperature<br />And……<br /><ul><li>Atmospheric water vapor increasing
  10. 10. Glaciers retreating
  11. 11. Arctic sea ice extent decreasing
  12. 12. Extreme temperatures increasing
  13. 13. ………….</li></ul>Rising sea level<br />Reduction in NH snow cover<br />IPCC WG1 (2007)<br />
  14. 14. What’s in the pipeline and what could come<br />Warming will increase if GHG increase. If GHG were kept fixed at current levels, a committed 0.6°C of further warming would be expected by 2100. More warming would accompany more emission.<br />CO2 Eq<br />3.4oC = 6.1oF<br />850<br />2.8oC = 5.0oF<br />600<br />1.8oC = 3.2oF<br />0.6oC = 1.0oF<br />400<br />
  15. 15. What does this mean for Black Mesa?<br />Warmer Temperatures<br />More Intense Rainfall<br />More Droughts<br />More Dust storms<br />More extreme weather<br />…<br />And <br />15.67 billion tons of coal in Black Mesa  3.5 ppm increase in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, <br />Increase in the carbon dioxide since the Long Walk is <br />~100 ppm <br />

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