8.2 (a) meaning of qualitative analysis

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8.2 (a) meaning of qualitative analysis

  1. 1. Brown Ring Reaction Fig. 3. When excess NaOH is added, the precipitate redissolves as the Al(OH) 4 - complex ion is formed. Fig. 2. Al(OH) 3 precipitates with the addition of NaOH. Fig. 1. Al(NO 3 ) 3 in solution.
  2. 2. Synthesing Qualitative Analysis Of Salt <ul><ul><li>State the meaning of qualitative analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make inferences on salts based on their </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>colour and solubility in water </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. What is Qualitative Analysis <ul><ul><li>Techniques for identify species in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>chemistry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involving several chemical tests </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Techniques <ul><li>Physical properties on salt </li></ul><ul><li>Salt colour </li></ul><ul><li>Solubility in water </li></ul>
  5. 5. solubility in water <ul><li>Soluble No soluble </li></ul><ul><li>Sulphate, SO 2- 4 BaSO 4 ,CaSO 4 , PbSO 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Choloride, Cl - AgCl, PbCl 2 , HgCl 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Carbonate. CO 2- 3 Na 2 CO 2- 3 , K 2 CO 2- 3 , </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrate, NO - 3 (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Ammoniun, NH + 4 </li></ul>
  6. 6. Colour Of Salt <ul><ul><li>Solid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>anions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aqueous solution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cations </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Cations <ul><li>Al 3+ , Zn 2+ , Cu 2+ , Pb 2+ , Ca 2+ , Fe 2+ , </li></ul><ul><li>Fe 3+ , NH 4+ , Mg 2 + </li></ul><ul><li>Anions </li></ul><ul><li>CO 3 2- ,  NO 3 - ,   Cl - ,  SO 4 2- </li></ul>
  8. 8. Reagent for determines cations <ul><li>sodium hydroxide solution </li></ul><ul><li>Solution of sodium hydroxide </li></ul><ul><li>add </li></ul><ul><li>Precipitation If NOT NH + 4 </li></ul><ul><li> YES </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>excess </li></ul><ul><li>Soluble Non soluble </li></ul>Al3+, Zn2+, Pb2+, Ca2+, Mg2 +, Cu2+, Fe2+, Fe3+,
  9. 9. Reagents for identify anions <ul><li>CO 3 2 - - add dilute nitrite acid </li></ul><ul><li>- gives bubbles of gases </li></ul><ul><li>- flow the gas into limestone </li></ul><ul><li>- cloudy </li></ul><ul><li>Cl - - add dilute nitrite acid </li></ul><ul><li>- add silver nitrate solution </li></ul><ul><li>- white precipitation formed </li></ul>
  10. 10. Con… <ul><li>SO 4 2- - add dilute acid nitrite solution </li></ul><ul><li>- add barium chloride solution </li></ul><ul><li>- white precipitation formed </li></ul><ul><li>NO 3 - - add sulfuric acid into ferric acid solution </li></ul><ul><li>- drop strong sulfuric acid </li></ul><ul><li>- brown ring formed. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Colours of salt
  12. 12. Identify The Salt <ul><li> Colour Of salt </li></ul>
  13. 13. Identification Of Salt Fe + 3 , I 2 CuCl 2 Cr 2 O 2- 7 , Br 2 Cu 2 CO 2- 3 Fe 2 +
  14. 14. Techniques In Qualitative Analysis <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Substances are heated </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure no any changes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used small amount of salt </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used borosilicate test tube </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid test tube faced on you </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Prepared aqueous solution </li></ul><ul><li>Used distilled water </li></ul><ul><li>Used 0.5-1.0g salt for 20cm 3 solution </li></ul><ul><li>Used warm water if needed </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Used Correct Amount Of Acid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>used forceps to transfer the acid into the test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tube </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used Correct amount Of reagent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2cm 3 reagent for 2cm 3 solution that tested </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Guidelines In Analysis Qualitative <ul><li>Make sure all the apparatus are clean </li></ul><ul><li>Solid / aqueous solution prepared </li></ul><ul><li>Test for identify anion and cation </li></ul><ul><li> Observation </li></ul><ul><li>Record the first and last colour of solution </li></ul><ul><li>record observation </li></ul><ul><li>Make inferences </li></ul>
  17. 17. IQ TEST (QUIZ) <ul><li>What is qualitative analysis? </li></ul><ul><li>2. State three kinds of soluble salt </li></ul><ul><li>3. What is the colour for cations Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ </li></ul>

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