Music therapy my taik


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  • Music therapy my taik

    2. 2. THE CONTENT Types of wave length in the brain Therapy with wave length music
    3. 3. =OI-Dx7wGEFI
    4. 4. If u turn on radio wave lengh headphone and computer recorder u listen by 2 ears if u had a 400 HZ tone in one ear if u had 404 HZ in the other u wouid receive a third tone of 4 HZ
    5. 5. Neural oscillations Neural oscillations are observed throughout the central nervous system and at all levels, e.g., spike trains, local field potentials and large-scale oscillations which can be measured by electroencephalography
    6. 6. Neural oscillations and synchronization have been linked to many cognitive functions such as information transfer, perception, motor control and memory
    7. 7. Neurons can generate rhythmic patterns of action potentials or spikes. Some types of neurons have the tendency to fire at particular frequencies, so-called resonators
    8. 8. Oscillatory activity can also be observed in the form of subthreshold membrane potential oscillations (i.e. in the absence of action potentials).[9] If numerous neurons spike in synchrony, they can give rise to oscillations in local field potentials (LFPs)
    9. 9. The functions of neural oscillations are wide ranging and vary for different types of oscillatory activity. Examples are the generation of rhythmic activity such as a heartbeat and the neural binding of sensory features in perception, such as the shape and color of an object. Neural oscillations also play an important role in many neurological disorders, such as excessive synchronization during seizure activity in epilepsy or tremor in patients with Parkinson's disease. Oscillatory activity can also be used to control external devices in brain-computer interfaces, in which subjects can control an external device by changing the amplitude of particular brain rhythmics
    10. 10. Neurons generate action potentials resulting from changes in the electric membrane potential. Neurons can generate multiple action potentials in sequence forming so-called spike trains. These spike trains are the basis for neural coding and information transfer in the brain. Spike trains can form all kinds of patterns, such as rhythmic spiking and bursting, and often display oscillatory activity Microscopic
    11. 11. Alpha wave Alpha waves are neural oscillations in the frequency range of 8–13 Hz arising from synchronous and coherent predominantly originate from the occipital lobe during wakeful relaxation with closed eyes.
    12. 12. The second occurrence of alpha wave activity is during REM sleep. As opposed to the awake form of alpha activity, this form is located in a frontal-central location in the brain
    13. 13. Delta wave A delta wave is a high amplitude brain wave with a frequency of oscillation between 0–4 hertz. usually associated with the deepest stages of sleep (3 NREM), also known as slow-wave sleep (SWS), and aid in characterizing the depth of sleep Delta waves can arise either in the thalamus or in the cortex. When associated with the thalamus Delta activity stimulates the release of several hormones, including growth hormone releasing hormone GHRH and prolactin (PRL). GHRH is released from the hypothalamus, which in turn stimulates release of growth hormone from the pituitary.
    14. 14. Theta rhythm Cortical theta rhythms" are low-frequency components of scalp EEG, usually recorded from humans in the 4–7 Hz range, regardless of their source. Cortical theta is observed frequently in young children. In older children and adults, it tends to appear during meditative, drowsy, or sleeping states, but not during the deepest stages of sleep
    15. 15. mu wave repeat at a frequency of 8–13 Hz and are most prominent when the body is physically at rest Mu waves are thought to be indicative of an infant’s developing ability to imitate. This is important because the ability to imitate plays a vital role in the development of motor skills, tool use, and understanding causal information through social interaction
    16. 16. The right fusiform gyrus, left inferior parietal lobule, right anterior parietal cortex, and left inferior frontal gyrus are of particular interest
    17. 17. Beta wave Beta wave, or beta rhythm, is the term used to designate the frequency range of human brain activity between 12 and 30 Hz (12 to 30 transitions or cycles per second). Beta waves are split into three sections: Low Beta Waves (12.5-16 Hz, "Beta 1 power"); Beta Waves (16.5–20 Hz, "Beta 2 power"); and High Beta Waves (20.5-28 Hz, "Beta 3 power").[1] Beta states are the states associated with normal waking consciousness
    18. 18. Low amplitude beta waves with multiple and varying frequencies are often associated with active, busy, or anxious thinking and active concentration.[2] Over the motor cortex beta waves are associated with the muscle contractions that happen in isotonic movements and are suppressed prior to and during movement changes.[3] Bursts of beta activity are associated with a strengthening of sensory feedback in static motor control and reduced when there is movement change.[4] Beta activity is increased when movement has to be resisted or voluntarily suppressed.[5] The artificial induction of increased beta waves over the motor cortex by a form of electrical stimulation called Transcranial alternatingcurrent stimulation consistent with its link to isotonic contraction produces a slowing of motor movements
    19. 19. Gamma wave A gamma wave is a pattern of neural oscillation in humans with a frequency between 25 and 100 Hz,[1] though 40 Hz is typical.[2] According to a popular theory, gamma waves may be implicated in creating the unity of conscious perception (the binding problem
    20. 20. Frequency of gamma oscillations routes flow of information in the hippocampus
    21. 21. think of your brain like a radio: You’re turning the knob to find your favourite station, but the knob jams, and you’re stuck listening to something that’s in between stations. It’s a frustrating combination that makes it quite hard to get an update on swine flu while a Michael Jackson song wavers in and out. Staying on the right frequency is the only way to really hear what you’re after. In much the same way, the brain’s nerve cells are able to “tune in” to the right station to get exactly the information they need, says researcher Laura Colgin, who was the paper’s first author. “Just like radio stations play songs and news on different frequencies, the brain uses different frequencies of waves to send different kinds of information,” she says.
    22. 22. Colgin and her colleagues measured brain waves in rats, in three different parts of the hippocampus, which is a key memory center in the brain. While listening in on the rat brain wave transmissions, the researchers started to realize that there might be something more to a specific sub-set of brain waves, called gamma waves. Researchers have thought these waves are linked to the formation of consciousness, but no one really knew why their frequency differed so much from one region to another and from one moment to the next.
    23. 23. information is carried on top of gamma waves, just like songs are carried by radio waves. These “carrier waves” transmit information from one brain region to another. “We found that there are slow gamma waves and fast gamma waves coming from different brain areas, just like radio stations transmit on different frequencies,” she says. You really can “be on the same wavelength”
    24. 24. We investigated how gamma waves in particular were involved in communication across cell groups in the hippocampus. What we found could be described as a radio-like system inside the brain. The lower frequencies are used to transmit memories of past experiences, and the higher frequencies are used to convey what is happening where you are right now.”
    25. 25. If you think of the example of the jammed radio, the way to hear what you want out of the messy signals would be to listen really hard for the latest news while trying to filter out the unwanted music. The hippocampus does this more efficiently. It simply tunes in to the right frequency to get the station it wants. As the cells tune into the station they’re after, they are actually able to filter out the other station at the same time, because its signal is being transmitted on a different frequency.
    26. 26. References: stant_meditation/brain_waves_frequ encies.php