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Music and brain


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Music and brain

  1. 1. Music and brain Eman youssif
  2. 2. The content: Attention and music Improve memory with music Prevent Alzheimer’s disease by music Mechanism of (music and enhance brain cells) Success stories of treat Alzheimer’s by music
  3. 3. Music therapy (MT) is one of the most common treatments for Alzheimer's disease (AD).[1] The effectiveness of music therapy can depend on the quality and length of treatment as well as other factors.[2] Some of the most common effects of MT are improved social behaviors, like interpersonal interactions and conversations.[3] Overall, MT improves social behaviors by reducing wandering, restlessness, and agitated behaviors
  4. 4. Music therapy is assumed to be effective because it reduces agitation by altering how patients perceive noise.[1] MT can help patients with AD interpret his or her environment, which may lessen any fear or agitation.[1] For example, MT can make noises seem familiar and buffer extraneous noises that frighten patients with AD . Furthermore, MT can provide a way for patients with AD to communicate and interact with others
  5. 5. Music Therapy is a type of treatment and interventions used to create soothing, stimulating environments to improve to enhance pro-social behavior and reduce agitated behaviors.[4][15] MT demonstrates that AD patients can continue participating in structured music activities even when their functioning level continues to deteriorate.[16] Individuals in the final stages of Alzheimer’s also benefit from the use music therapy, because it has sedative and comfort purposes.[17] There are several different types of music therapy for patients with Alzheimer’s. For example, some daily interventions of music include playing an instrument, singing, listening to recorded music, movement to music. Most types of music therapy are effective at alleviating and reducing agitated behaviors and refocusing attention
  6. 6. Playing instruments[edit] Instruments are often implemented in MT for Alzheimer’s patients that have musical backgrounds, because in many cases procedural musical memory is still preserved. As a result, some patients with AD retain the ability to play instruments, such as the piano. Some studies suggest for people with minimal guitar experience to implement MT that involves playing easy instruments.[1] A study utilized the Autoharp and Omni, which are simple instruments that Alzheimer’s patients without musical background can use as a music therapy to stimulate and soothe
  7. 7. Listening to recorded music[edit] Familiarized and individualized music is a type of music previously known to the individual before onset of AD, which is used to reduce agitated behaviors.[4][9][18][19][20][21] For example, a study used individualized recorded music for MT with Alzheimer's patients residing in long-term care and observed the immediate reduction on their agitation.[14] Also, another study found that individualized music can help Alzheimer's patients elicit autobiographical memories by promoting positive emotional memories.[22] Familiar music may serve to regulate the arousal of people with AD to a moderate level or redirect a person’s attention from misleading or confusing stimuli
  8. 8. Group music therapy[edit] Group music therapy entails Alzheimer's patients participating in music therapy sessions, while interacting with others. Furthermore, an experiment used group music therapy and found that it helped patients get over negative and sad feelings to really enjoy the musical experience.[23] Music therapy groups may especially promote feelings of belonging among participants with dementia
  9. 9. Famous musician, Glen Campbell, whom suffered from Alzheimer's
  10. 10. Neuroimaging techniques have revealed structural changes in the human brain that coincide with, and probably underlie, specialized cognitive abilities. Several recent studies have shown that musical training is associated with features of brain anatomy in both auditory and motor regions of the brain. In the auditory domain, structural magnetic resonance imaging has shown a greater volume of auditory cortex in professional musicians as compared with non-musicians149, which is correlated with pitch perception ability150. In the motor domain, it has been shown149 that musicians have greater greymatter concentration in motor cortices, consistent with earlier functional data151 showing that expert string players had a larger cortical representation of the digits of the left hand.
  11. 11. The latter effect was correlated with the age when musical training started, such that those who began earlier showed larger representations. A larger anterior corpus callosum has also been reported in musicians compared with non-musicians, again, in relation to early training152. These findings imply a sensitive period for motor performance, compatible with behavioural evidence153. Volume differences between musicians and non-musicians have also been reported in the cerebellar hemispheres154, but only for men. The figure shows the results of a recent study using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)155, which showed evidence for greater whitematter coherence (as indicated by increased functional anisotropy in this region, see graph) in the internal capsule (coloured areas in the left hand panel) of professional musicians, and this feature was specifically related to the number of hours practiced in childhood. Taken together, these findings indicate that the brains of musicians differ structurally from those of non-musicians, and that these differences may be related to when musical training begins, and/or to the amount of training. An outstanding question is whether these structural differences are solely the result of musical training, or whether they may also be related to pre-existing differences in auditory or motor abilities that allow these individuals to excel once they receive musical training. Figure modified with permission from Nature Neuroscience Ref. 155 © (2005) Macmillan Publishers Ltd.
  12. 12. The Effect of Music on the Production of Neurotransmitters, Hormones, Cytokines, and Peptides
  13. 13. Music characterized by genres and musical elements evoke distinct patterns of messenger production. Music of Johann Strauss caused rises in atrial filling fraction and atrial natriuretic peptide and falls in cortisol and tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA). Prolactin, cortisol, noradrenaline, and t-PA concentrations decreased after listening to the music of H. W. Henze. Ravi Shankar’s music resulted in lowered concentrations of cortisol, noradrenaline, and t-PA.6–8 Listening to techno music was found to alter levels of β-endorphin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), norepinephrine, growth hormone, prolactin, and cortisol in healthy people.9,10 Critically ill patients who listened to Mozart’s slow piano sonatas had increased growth hormone and decreased interleukin (IL) 6 levels.11 Appreciation of a mixed selection of rock music increased salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA).12 The effects of major and minor modes13 and intensity of music14 on cortisol production have also been studied. Different methods of measuring the concentrations were implemented. Almost all the studies mentioned involve blood drawn from the participants and tested for cytokines, Igs, hormones, and neurotransmitters by immunoassays, such as radioimmunossays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) to determine the concentrations. Dopamine levels were measured by observing fluorescence intensities with a brainmapping analyzer.5 High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to measure norepinephrine and epinephrine
  14. 14. In some studies, participants were administered music to assess the possible relationship of perception and levels of particular messengers. Platelet serotonin is lower in participants exposed to unpleasant music than those who listened to pleasant music.16 Cortisol, IL-1β, and IL-10 levels did not change in those listening to preferred music but changed in those exposed to relaxing music.17,18 Both morphine and IL-6 decreased in patients exposed to preferred music, leading to lower blood pressure.18 The clinical area has displayed promising effects of music in battling specific conditions. Music decreases plasma concentrations of cortisol, epinephrine, and t-PA in patients exposed to regional anesthesia.19,20 Music also is known to aid in fighting cerebrovascular disease by activation of parasympathetic nervous system, lowering concentrations of IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), adrenaline, and noradrenaline.21 Adrenocorticotropic hormone, cortisol, adrenaline, and noradrenaline also have been measured before and after gastroscopy.22 Biochemical messenger production has been found influential in providing a calming effect in elderly patients with Alzheimer dementia
  15. 15. Music has proven effective in improving the immune function. Decreased corticosteroid production correlates with the effect of music on immunity.25 Rises in concentrations of salivary IgA12,25–29 and IL-130 are associated with falls in salivary and plasma cortisol levels, respectively. In regard to countering the harmful effects of stress on immunity, music has even proven to be as helpful as pharmacological treatments, such as benzodiazepines and 5 hydroxytryptamine (HT) agonists. There is also evidence that music may lead to production of hormones and neurotransmitters that participate in T cell proliferation and antitumor signaling.31,32 Explanations for certain phenomena, such as learning, have become possible with knowledge of the effect of music on the production of messengers. For example, music influences production of steroids including cortisol, testosterone, and estrogen as well as their receptor proteins, leading to neurogenesis and improvements in learning in the brain.33 Music may regulate the production of neurotrophins in the hypothalamus, causing reduction in stress and improved learning as well
  16. 16. Not all studies concerned have produced results indicating correlations between psychological and physiological outcomes. Although patients felt less anxious after listening to music, they revealed no differences in concentrations of norepinephrine, epinephrine, cortisol, or ACTH.15,35 Some results have been found to conflict with each other. Music therapy increased adrenaline in one study36 but decreased adrenaline in another,21 a result of the fact that music therapy protocols vary from one administrator to another
  17. 17. Further research is needed to explain with more specificity the relationship between the psychological and physiological manifestations of music. It has long been considered that physiology affects psychology in a unidirectional manner. However, some evidence indicates otherwise as oxytocin production is increased by listening to music. Thus, psychological mechanisms influence physiological processes. More studies are needed to clarify such cause and effect relationships
  18. 18. ory_improvement
  19. 19.
  20. 20. Music therapy
  21. 21. Once an alternative method, music therapy is becoming increasingly integrated into medical care, so much so that it is now used for ailments ranging from cancer and psychiatric illness to babies born prematurely. The therapy builds on traditional counseling practices by incorporating, depending on the patient’s needs and interests, things like instrument playing, singing, and listening to music, helping to unleash creativity, reduce discomfort, and enhance the overall experience of being in the hospital. And it’s not just an untested, new age therapy—the experts say it works.
  22. 22. “Physiologically and neurologically, music therapy is processed throughout your entire brain. It has this really great power on healing, both emotional healing, physical healing, social healing,” explains Lorrie Kubicek, a certified music therapist at Massachusetts General Hospital’s HOPES program. “Then there is the idea that music is kind of a universal phenomenon: Everyone has some idea of music, from newborn infants to preborn infants, all the way through to the very elderly.”
  23. 23. Listening to music can prompt the brain to send positive signals throughout the body
  24. 24. The research team showed that music engages the areas of the brain involved with paying attention, making predictions and updating the event in memory. Peak brain activity occurred during a short period of silence between musical movements—when seemingly nothing was happening. Beyond understanding the process of listening to music, their work has farreaching implications for how human brains sort out events in general. Their findings are published in the Aug. 2 issue of Neuron. The researchers caught glimpses of the brain in action using functional magnetic resonance imaging, or fMRI, which gives a dynamic image showing which parts of the brain are working during a given activity. The goal of the study was to look at how the brain sorts out events, but the research also revealed that musical techniques used by composers 200 years ago help the brain organize incoming information.
  25. 25. Musical therapy has been an increasingly popular method of treatment for Alzheimer’s owing to its efficacy, low-cost, non-invasiveness, and it’s virtually nonexistent side-effects. MT’s effectiveness may be due to the general observed preservation of musical memory in AD, though for the main part, it’s mechanism of action are still unknown.
  26. 26. Proposed Mechanisms of MT Action
  27. 27. Steroid hormones exert many vital effects on the brain and regulate a wide variety of functions such as brain development, neurogenesis, neuronal protection, memory and cognition. Estrogen plays a role in gene expression regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) protecting the nerves and controlling cell proliferation. Testosterone has been attributed to decreasing the peptide β amyloid, a component of amyloid plaques, which has been associated with Alzheimer’s disease, by means of NGF and p75-NGF receptor elevation.
  28. 28. Studies have found differing levels of steroid hormones in Alzheimer’s patients compared to healthy individuals. Age-related decreases in estrogen levels have been associated with cognitive dysfunction, learning and mood disorders. However, estrogen has been found to be markedly lower in Alzheimer’s outside of age-related effects. Low levels of estrogen may accelerate AD development by expediting β amyloid production and deposition. Estrogen replacement therapy has been administered to female Alzheimer’s patients where it has been shown to improve memory and attention. Likewise, optimal testosterone levels seem to be a vital aspect of normal cognitive function. Levels of testosterone have also been found to be lower in AD as compared to healthy counterparts, even within the elderly population. Testosterone administration is reported to improve spatial cognitive function in AD patients. Due to the importance of sex hormones and their roles in normal brain function, reductions in estrogen and testosterone pose as risk factors for AD.
  29. 29. that musical therapy increases estradiol and testosterone levels in Alzheimer’s patients, proposing a preventative value in music and a possible mechanism by which musical therapy has been found to be effective in this disease. Passive and indirect music application, such as listening to music, reportedly increases 17-β-estradiol levels, while direct music application termed “music therapy” showed the greatest increase. Music therapy also significantly increases testosterone in the same way.
  30. 30. Music has been widely associated with assuaging and lowering stress, observed both behaviourally and physiologically. Music’s effects on the body’s stress system had been attributed to reductions in cortisol in a sex independent manner. In AD, where the physical and mental stress associated with the disease is correlated with increased cortisol levels, music can help effectively suppresses stress responses in both genders. Other hormones apart of the stress/HPA axis, such as CRH (which promotes ACTH secretion) and ACTH (a hormone that in turn controls cortisol secretion), are also likely involved in music-mediated stress reduction
  31. 31. Several studies, as well as anecdotal observations, have linked music to positive adjustments in mood and sleep quality, through the modulation of hormones such as melatonin .Melatonin plays an important role in the regulation of monoamine activities, the HPA stress axis, sleep and behaviour. Its levels are negatively correlated with age, where these effects become exaggerated in disorders such as AD. After musical therapy conditions, patients with Alzheimer’s showed a significant increase in serum melatonin levels, as compared to various other hormones such as serotonin and prolactin, where this increase carried over and further increased 6 weeks following the musical therapy.
  32. 32. References: Ml -therapy/