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706 alqurashi tpck


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706 alqurashi tpck

  1. 1. TPACK and ESL Instruction Emtinan Alqurashi January 2015 GDIT 706 Developing a Learning Environment Using IT School of Education Duquesne University
  2. 2. TPACK and ESL Instruction 2 Introduction Teaching is a complex process. Shulman, in the mid 80s, has helped us understand this complexity by explaining the PCK (Pedagogical Content Knowledge) framework. Shulman has discussed that the key to an effective teaching practice is “teacher’s understanding of how to bring together his or her content and pedagogical knowledge” (Hofer, & Grandgenett, 2012, p. 84). Koehler & Mishra, in 2006, has developed a third component of knowledge in PCK framework, which is TK (Technological Knowledge). They defined TK as “Knowledge about standard technologies, such as books, chalks, blackboard, and more advanced technologies, such as the Internet and digital video” (Hofer, & Grandgenett, 2012, p. 85), Interactive whiteboards and software programs (Baran, Chuang & Thompson, 2011). By adding TK to the PCK framework, Koehler & Mishra have developed new intersection in teacher’s knowledge. This module is called TPACK. TPACK model, as shown in figure 1, consists of three main components of teacher’s knowledge: Content, Pedagogy and Technology. First, Content knowledge (CK) refers to the subject matters that students have learned. Mishra & Koehler, (2006, p. 1026) have defined CK as the “knowledge about actual subject matter that is to be learned or taught” (Cited in Schmidt, et al., 2009, p. 125). Second, Pedagogical Knowledge (PK) refers to the instructional methods and its application. Third, Technological Knowledge (TK) refers to the application of technology tools and resources (Schmidt, et al., 2009).
  3. 3. TPACK and ESL Instruction 3 Figure 1. TPACK Framework Reproduced by permission of the publisher, © 2012 by Interactions between and among these components of knowledge are important for this model, consisting of: First, Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK), which deals mainly with not just teaching process but also knowledge about the content to develop better teaching practice. Second, Technological Content Knowledge (TCK), which is knowledge of how to create a new illustration of content areas with using technology. Third, Technological Pedagogical Knowledge (TPK), which is knowledge of how different technologies can be used to support teaching process. Finally, Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK), which is the knowledge that teachers are required to have in order to integrate technology in their teaching in any discipline. (Baran, Chuang & Thompson, 2011; Koehler, & Mishra, 2009). TPACK and Teaching English as a Second Language
  4. 4. TPACK and ESL Instruction 4 The application of technology in ESL teaching is important nowadays and teachers need to have the three main components of knowledge (i.e. content, pedagogy and technology). ESL courses mainly consists of conversational English classes where students practice the used of language in heard and written dialogues. As an ESL teacher of Saudi students, I must have knowledge about the cultural differences between Saudi Arabia and England in my case. This will help me to better teach and deliver my curriculum. In addition, technology knowledge is an important factor for effective language teaching, and integrating the suitable technology into ESL classrooms such as visual and auditory aids in language learning is the key of TPACK model of pedagogical knowledge, content knowledge, and technology knowledge. Literature Review A number of researches were carried out to investigate the application of TPACK among pre-service teachers and in-service teachers in different disciplines. Kurt, Mishra and Kocoglu (2013) conducted a study with 22 pre-service teachers who were in the final year of English Language Teaching program. They found a statistically significant increase in TK, TCK, TPK and TPACK scores of pre-service from the begging of the research comparing to the end. Similar result by Hervey and Watson (2013), they conducted a study with 20 in-service teachers who were enrolled in a graduate course in literacy, technology and media. 19 of them were female and 1 was male and they are between the ages of 23 to 54 with variety of teaching experiences. The study found that post-class test results were significantly higher than pre-class test results in two areas: (a) teacher’s beliefs in using technology for instructional purposes, and (b) their in-class technology skills. On the other hand, teacher’s pedagogical approaches or beliefs in using
  5. 5. TPACK and ESL Instruction 5 technology did not change in the post-test. Tai and Chuanh (2012) have researched in- service English teachers to help develop teacher’s proficiency in TPACK model and integrate technology into their classrooms. They emphasized that teachers need to know why they are using a certain technology and how to use it. They stated that “teachers need to be equipped with more than technology knowledge and teachers must use technology while learning to integrate technology to be able to integrate technology effectively in the authentic teaching context” (p. 2). ResearchQuestions These are some potential research questions for future researches:  Do the components of TPACK model correlate for ESL teachers?  How do the demographic characteristics of ESL teachers correlate with their TPACK? Methodology Identifying a suitable instrument is important to investigate teacher’s knowledge of TPACK and answer the research question. Quantitative methodology will be used for this research. The proposed instrument is TPACK Competency Survey, which was developed by Archambault and Crippen (2009). The survey aims to measures teacher’s knowledge in the three key components as described by the TPACK model: technology, pedagogy, content, and also the intersection of each of these areas. The survey includes of 24 items designed to measure online teachers’ knowledge. The survey asks participants to rate their knowledge in certain tasks in a five-point Likert scale ranging from poor (1) to
  6. 6. TPACK and ESL Instruction 6 excellent (5). The reliability coefficient for each sub scale was reported “ranging from alpha = .699 for the technology content domain to alpha = .888 for the domain of technology” (Archambault and Crippen, 2009, p. 78). This would help researchers to have a deeper understanding of the concept investigated and provide deep insight into teacher’s knowledge in integrating technology in their teaching in any subject matter.
  7. 7. TPACK and ESL Instruction 7 References Archambault, L., & Crippen, K. (2009). Examining TPACK among K-12 online distance educators in the United States. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 9(1), 71-88. Baran, E., Chuang, H., & Thompson, A. (2011). TPACK: An Emerging Research and Development Tool for Teacher Educators. Turkish Online Journal Of Educational Technology - TOJET, 10(4), 370-377. Hofer, M., & Grandgenett, N. (2012). TPACK Development in Teacher Education: A Longitudinal Study of Preservice Teachers in a Secondary M.A.Ed. Program. Journal Of Research On Technology In Education, 45(1), 83-106. Koehler, M. J., & Mishra, P. (2009). What is technological pedagogical content knowledge? Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 9(1) 60-70. Kurt, G., Mishra, P., & Kocoglu, Z. (2013). Technological pedagogical content knowledge development of Turkish pre-service teachers of English. Paper presented at the meeting of the Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education, New Orleans, LA. Schmidt, D. A., Baran, E., Thompson, A. D., Mishra, P., Koehler, M. J., & Shin, T. S. (2009). Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK): The Development and Validation of an Assessment Instrument for Preservice Teachers. Journal Of Research On Technology In Education, 42(2), 123-149. Spires, H., Hervey, L., & Watson, T. (2013). Scaffolding the TPACK framework in reading and language arts: New literacies, new minds. In C.A. Young &Kajder (Eds.), Research on technology in English education, 33-61. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing. Tai, S.-J. D., & Chuang, H.-H. (2012). TPACK-in-Action: An Innovative Model to Help English Teachers Integrate CALL. Paper presented at the ICCE 2012, Singapore. Retrieved from 68.pdf
  8. 8. TPACK and ESL Instruction 8 Appendix A Demographic Information Gender  Male  Female Age  18-22  23-26  27-32  +32 Years of teaching experience  I have no teaching experience  1-3  4-6  7-9  10-12  +12
  9. 9. TPACK and ESL Instruction 9 Appendix B Survey Items by Domain (Archambault and Crippen, 2009, p. 87) Pedagogical Knowledge (j) My ability to determine a particular strategy best suited to teach a specific concept. (c) My ability to use a variety of teaching strategies to relate various concepts to students. (r) My ability to adjust teaching methodology based on student performance/feedback. Technological Knowledge (a) My ability to troubleshoot technical problems associated with hardware (e.g., network connections). (g) My ability to address various computer issues related to software (e.g., downloading appropriate plug-ins, installing programs). (q) My ability to assist students with troubleshooting technical problems with their personal computers. Content Knowledge (b) My ability to create materials that map to specific district/state standards. (d) My ability to decide on the scope of concepts taught within in my class. (m) My ability to plan the sequence of concepts taught within my class. Technological Content Knowledge (o) My ability to use technological representations (i.e. multimedia, visual demonstrations, etc.) to demonstrate specific concepts in my content area). (t) My ability to implement district curriculum in an online environment. (v) My ability to use various courseware programs to deliver instruction (e.g., Blackboard, Centra). Pedagogical Content Knowledge (f) My ability to distinguish between correct and incorrect problem solving attempts by students.
  10. 10. TPACK and ESL Instruction 10 (i) My ability to anticipate likely student misconceptions within a particular topic. (s) My ability to comfortably produce lesson plans with an appreciation for the topic. (u) My ability to assist students in noticing connections between various concepts in a curriculum. Technological Pedagogical Knowledge (h) My ability to create an online environment which allows students to build new knowledge and skills. (l) My ability to implement different methods of teaching online (n) My ability to moderate online interactivity among students (p) My ability to encourage online interactivity among students Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (e) My ability to use online student assessment to modify instruction (k) My ability to use technology to predict students' skill/understanding of a particular topic (w) My ability to use technology to create effective representations of content that depart from textbook knowledge (x) My ability to meet the overall demands of online teaching