K V Subramaniam Clean Transport Energy Efficient Biofuels

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K V Subramaniam Clean Transport Energy Efficient Biofuels

  1. 1. Energy Efficient Biofuels K.V. Subramaniam President & CEO 2nd EmTech India 2010 Conference Technology Innovation MIT Technology Review Bengaluru March 9, 2010 1
  2. 2. Contents 1. Biofuels Perspectives 2. Energy Efficiency 3. Beyond Energy Efficiency 4. Reliance Life Sciences Biofuels Initiative 5. Summary 2
  3. 3. Product-Market Products Bioethanol Biobutanol Biodiesel Markets Gasoline Diesel Biofuels primarily comprise bioethanol, biobutanol and biodiesel for blending with gasoline and diesel. 3
  4. 4. Raw Materials Bioethanol/Biobutanol Sugars Sugarcane, Sugar beet Sweet Sorghum Grains Corn, Wheat Biodiesel Seed Oils Jatropha Pongamia Palm, Rape, Soybean Madhuka Fats and greases Algae Yeast Sugar and grain crops are used to make bioethanol, while seed oils, fats and greases are used to make biodiesel. 4
  5. 5. Global Biofuels Opportunity Aspect Gasoline Diesel Global consumption (million MT) 1600 900 % Blending with biofuels* 10% 5% Biofuels opportunity (million MT) 160 45 Current biofuel consumption (million 51 11 MT) % Penetration of biofuel opportunity 32% 24% % Penetration of total fuels 3.2% 1.2% Source : BP, US Energy Information Ad ministration, PFC Energy, US Chamber of Commerce, Reliance Research * Biofuels (especially biodiesel) blending limit can potentially go up to 100% which would provide upside to the above projections. Global biofuels opportunity is significant, but current market penetration of biofuels is very low. 5
  6. 6. India Biofuels Opportunity Aspect Gasoline Diesel Consumption (million MT) 12 60 % Blending with biofuels* 10% 5% Biofuels opportunity (million MT) 1.20 6 Current biofuel consumption (million 0.16 negligible MT) % Penetration of biofuel opportunity 13% NA % Penetration of total fuel opportunity 1.3% NA Source : Frost & Sullivan, Govt. of India Planning Commission, Ethanol India * Biofuels blending limit can go up to 100% which would provide upside to the above projections. India biofuels opportunity is also large, but current market penetration is negligible. 6
  7. 7. Socio-economic Opportunity Benefits Better energy security Higher farm incomes Better quality of rural life Productive use of waste land Biofuels have significant socio-economic benefits, through higher farm incomes and better quality of rural life. 7
  8. 8. Technology First generation Sugars/Starch to bioethanol Hydrolysis and Fermentation Downstream separation and purification Seed oils to biodiesel Trans-esterification Second generation Transformed plants Hybrids Transgenics Biomass to bioethanol/butanol Fermentation, separation Gasification, fermentation, membrane separation (Coskata) Plasma gasification and Fischer- Tropsch to jet fuel + power (Solena) While first generation technologies are commercially used, several second generation technologies are being developed. 8
  9. 9. Technology (2) Biotechnology Plant tissue culture Leaf disc regeneration Immature embryo transformation Plant metabolic engineering Higher oil content Low curcin Drought resistance Saline soil tolerance Fermentation Biomass to bioethanol Biomass to biobutanol Glycerol value addition Chemical Renewable diesel (co-feed seed oil in refinery hydrotreater) Biotechnology has an important role to play in second generation technologies. 9
  10. 10. Contents 1. Biofuels Perspectives 2. Energy Efficiency 3. Beyond Energy Efficiency 4. Reliance Life Sciences Biofuels Initiative 5. Summary 10
  11. 11. Energy Inputs Plantation Land preparation Seed Manures and fertilizers Weedicides Fungicides Insecticides Agricultural operations Power for irrigation Harvesting Threshing (for grain) Transportation from processing unit Processing Electrical Thermal Chemicals There are several elements of energy inputs in plantation and processing. 11
  12. 12. Energy Output Products Biofuel By-products De-oiled cake Glycerol Distillers dry grain with solubles (DDGS) Bagasse Biomass Pruned branches Dry stalk Fruit waste Shelled cobs Energy in output is primarily in biofuel, by-products and biomass. 12
  13. 13. Energy Ratios - Reliance Study Energy Output of Produce Energy Input (MJ/MT) Ratio Type (MJ/MT) Plantation Processing Total Biofuel Byproducts Total Bioethanol Sugarcane under drip irrigation 16,636 4,882 21,519 16,600 166,317 182,917 8.50 Maize under flood irrigation 16,331 7,248 23,579 16,600 51,585 68,185 2.89 Biodiesel Jatropha rainfed on support irrigation 14,515 9,781 24,296 38,000 90,528 128,528 5.29 Jatropha under drip irrigation 8,269 9,781 18,050 38,000 94,444 132,444 7.34 Pongamia under drip irrigation 13,597 9,582 23,719 38,000 74,912 112,912 4.87 Calophylum under drip irrigation 7,369 10,158 17,526 38,000 80,682 118,682 6.77 Madhuka under drip irrigation 12,480 9,050 21,530 38,000 59,272 97,272 4.52 Mustard under flood irrigation 19,728 9,194 28,922 38,000 130,621 168,621 5.83 Soybean under flood irrigation 31,825 13,208 45,034 38,000 265,372 303,672 6.74 Brackish water algae Tetraselmis 14,843 9,781 24,624 38,000 43,752 81,752 3.32 Source: Reliance Life Sciences Research Best energy ratios are sugarcane under drip for bioethanol and Jatropha under drip for biodiesel. 13
  14. 14. Energy Ratios - Reliance Study Biofuels Energy Efficiency Ratios Maize under flood 2.89 Algae brackish 3.32 Madhuka under drip 4.52 Pongamia under drip 4.87 Jatropha rainfed with support irrigation 5.29 Mustard under flood 5.83 b Soybean under flood 6.74 Calophylum under drip 6.77 Jatropha under drip 7.34 Sugarcane under drip 8.5 0 2 4 6 8 10 Source: Reliance Life Sciences Research Biodiesel crops generally perform better from an energy ratio standpoint. 14
  15. 15. Productivity Assumptions Farm Yield Oil Type Content (MT/Ha) (%) Bioethanol Sugarcane under drip irrigation 1.00 Maize under flood irrigation 1.00 Biodiesel Jatropha rainfed on support irrigation 3.00 30 Jatropha under drip irrigation 10.00 30 Pongamia under drip irrigation 8.92 20 Calophylum under drip irrigation 18.67 18 Madhuka under drip irrigation 13.33 19 Mustard under flood irrigation 3.84 Soybean under flood irrigation 3.07 Brackish water algae Tetraselmis 5.71 Source: Reliance Life Sciences Research Energy ratio expressed in MJ/MT is dependent on crop productivity and oil content (biodiesel). 15
  16. 16. Energy Ratios - Other Studies Energy Ratio Type Reliance Other Context Reference Remarks Working Studies LCA assessment of biofuels Biodiesel from West Africa 5.3 4.7 from Jatropha in West Africa, Jatropha 2009 GCB Bioenergy (2009) Energy Life Cycle Assessment Biodiesel from Reliance study based on drip 6.74 4.56 USA, 2009 of Soybean Biodiesel, USDA, soybean irigation Sep 2009 Reliance study on Indian Biodiesel from Folkecenter for renewable 5.83 8.27 EU mustard, which yields lower than Rape Seed Energy, DK rapeseed Laurent Larden and Arnud Biodiesel from Narbonne, Reliance study with Tetraselmis 3.32 3.55 Helias of ELSA. brackish algae France 2009 spp. Species Chlorella vulgaris Bioethanol from Agricultural Economic Report Reliance study on corn with flood 2.89 1.85 USA 2002 corn (dry mill) 813, USDA irrigation Bioethanol from 8.5 sugarcane Petroleum Energy Information 0.84 diesel Administration, USDA Variations can be caused by agro-climatic conditions, planting material, cropping system, yields, transport distances, energy sources Energy ratios of biodiesel about 3.3 to 8.3 as compared to 1.85 to 8.5 for bioethanol and 0.84 for petroleum diesel. 16
  17. 17. Contents 1. Biofuels Perspectives 2. Energy Efficiency 3. Beyond Energy Efficiency 4. Reliance Life Sciences Biofuels Initiative 5. Summary 17
  18. 18. Water Usage Biofuels Water Usage (CuM/MT of biofuel) Maize under flood 2499 Algae brackish 444 Madhuka under drip 1162 Pongamia under drip 1110 Jatropha rainfed with support irrigation 703 Mustard under flood 9853 b Soybean under flood 15596 Calophylum under drip 1226 Jatropha under drip 736 Sugarcane under drip 3077 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 Source: Reliance Life Sciences Research Water usage varies based on nature of crop and irrigation, but Jatropha and algae (brackish) perform best. 18
  19. 19. Land Productivity Biofuels Crop Productivity (Litres/Ha) Sugarcane 6000 Sugar Beet 5700 Palm 4800 Corn 3700 Sorghum 3500 Jatropha 2000 b Wheat 1800 Rapeseed 1500 Soyabeans 500 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 Source: CERA Bioethanol crops perform better from a land productivity point of view. 19
  20. 20. GHG Emissions Greenhouse Gas Emissions (gCO2eq/MJ) Fossil fuel 83.8 Biodiesel from palm oil 14 5 49 Biodiesel from soybean 19 13 26 Biodiesel from rapeseed 29 1 22 Ethanol from w heat w ith cogen 23 2 19 Biodiesel from sunflow er 18 1 b 22 Ethanol from sugar beet 12 2 26 Ethanol from sugar cane 14 9 1 Biodiesel from w aste 1 13 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Source: Union for Promoting Oilseeds and Protein Plants Both bioethanol and biodiesel crops perform better from a GHG emissions standpoint. 20
  21. 21. Cost Competitiveness Cost Competitiveness Biodiesel Bioethanol RM Cost, $/lit Biodiesel, $/lit Bioethanol, $/lit Raw Material Raw Material RM cost, $/kg High/low 2009 High/low 2009 High/low 2009 Rape seed 0.848/0.665 0.917/0.756 Corn 0.1588 0.545/0.475 Sugar Cane Soybean 0.764/0.628 0.837/0.725 0.415/0.331 (Brazil) Palm 0.710/0.498 0.782/0.585 Sugar Beet 0.099 0.420 Jatropha ** 0.930 Molasses 0.540 Animal fat 0.583 BTL Biodiesel 1.10 Crude, $/ bbl Diesel*, $/lit Crude, $/ bbl Gasoline*, $/lit 40 0.34 40 0.32 50 0.43 50 0.39 Conventional Conventional 60 0.50 60 0.48 70 0.57 70 0.53 80 0.64 80 0.60 * Ex Factory gate price; ** Jatropha seeds - Rs.12/kg At current seed prices, biodiesel is not competitive. Bioethanol (sugarcane based) is competitive at US$ 40/bbl. 21
  22. 22. Contents 1. Biofuels Perspectives 2. Energy Efficiency 3. Beyond Energy Efficiency 4. Reliance Life Sciences Biofuels Initiative 5. Summary 22
  23. 23. Reliance Life Sciences Initiative Clinical Bio- Regenerative Molecular Plant Industrial Pharmaceuticals Research Biofuels pharmaceuticals Medicine Medicine Biotechnology Biotechnology Services Plasma Pre-clinical Embryonic Molecular Plant Tissue API Agronomy Biopolymers Proteins Studies Stem Cells Diagnostics Culture BA/BE Farm Hematopoietic Plant Metabolic Biosimilars Formulations Genetics Biochemicals Studies Advocacy Stem Cells Engineering Monoclonal Drug Phase 1 Plant Metabolic Ocular Predictive Plant Antibodies Discovery Studies Engineering Stem Cells Diagnostics Products Phase 2/3/4 Plant Tissue Skin and Studies Culture Tissue Engg. Novel Data Mgmt. Cord Blood Enzymology Repository Therapeutics & Biostatistics Trans- QTc Studies Esterification Fusion Proteins siRNA Molecules Reliance Life Sciences is building a research-led, diverse and integrated biotechnology business. 23
  24. 24. Reliance Business Model Algae Glycerol Elite Plants By Product Characterisation And Sourcing Fermentation Tissue Cultured Yeast Biodiesel Hybrid Plants Plants Development Fermentation Transgenic Plants Jatropha Jatropha Seeds Oil Farming Transesterification Development Extraction By Product Banana stem Corn stover, Seed Cake Bagasse Enzyme directed conversion Sugar/ Starch Corn/ Sugar Beet Biobutanol Solution Fermentation Sugar Sugar Cane Molasses Bioethanol The biofuels initiative of Reliance is unique in its architecture and content. 24
  25. 25. Reliance Business Design Principles Philosophy Energy security Rural transformation opportunity Focus area Biodiesel Crops Non-edible seeds Non-compete with alcohol Agronomy Work with marginal farmers Focus on rain-fed areas No RIL land ownership Technology For higher farm yields For higher oil content Pursue competing technologies Business design is based on biodiesel non-edible crops on cultivable wasteland owned by marginal farmers. 25
  26. 26. Components (1) Agronomy R&D (Kakinada, Nagothane, Gandhar) Plantation (Jatropha, Simarouba, Pongamia) Jatropha cultivation with intercrops Jatropha composites and hybrid development Farm Advocacy Nizamabad, Khammam and Adilabad in Andhra Pradesh Nanded, Parbhani and Hingoli in Maharashtra Mandla, Seoni, Chhindwara, Dewas and Shajapur project in MP Bilaspur and Bastar in Chhatisgarh Junagadh and Vyara in Gujarat Agronomy and farm advocacy components focus on farm produce and productivity of biofuels. 26
  27. 27. Components (2) Plant Metabolic Engineering High expression of oils in Jatropha Algal cultures Plant Tissue Culture Transesterification Pilot plant at Kakinada Industrial Biotechnology Glycerol to 1,3 propane diol 1,3 PD to polymer Yeast oil to biodiesel Bioethanol/Biobutanol Enzymology Low-cost enzymes Production of bioethanol and biobutanol Plant and industrial biotechnology components focus on technology to address yields, costs and value addition. 27
  28. 28. Contents 1. Biofuels Perspectives 2. Energy Efficiency 3. Beyond Energy Efficiency 4. Reliance Life Sciences Biofuels Initiative 5. Summary 28
  29. 29. Summary Biofuels represent a significant opportunity globally In India biofuels can contribute significantly to rural transformation Jatropha-based biodiesel and sugarcane-based bioethanol rate very high on energy ratios Jatropha-based biodiesel and brackish algae-based biodiesel rate very high on water use Sugarcane-based bioethanol rates very high on land productivity Waste oil-based biodiesel and sugarcane-based bioethanol rate very high on GHG emissions Jatropha-based biodiesel and sugarcane-based bioethanol are the most promising energy-efficient biofuels. 29
  30. 30. Thank You 30

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