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Introduction to Wine


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Introduction to Wine

  1. 1. Introduction to wine<br />
  2. 2. Wine 101<br />Week 1- Introduction to wine, where it all begins, grape varietals, tasting wine like a professional. <br /> Week 2- Understanding a restaurant wine list, how to buy wine comfortably.<br />Week 3- The process of making wine and champagne. <br />Week 4- Understanding France (Burgundy and Bordeaux) <br />Week 5- Wine and food pairing<br />
  3. 3. What Makes Great Wine<br />Integration<br />Expressiveness<br />Complexity<br />Connectedness<br />Alcohol<br />Acid<br />Tannin<br />Fruitiness<br />Sweetness and Dry<br />
  4. 4. Integration<br />Is a state whereby the components of wine (acid, tannin, alcohol and so forth) are so interwoven that no one character stands out. Integration is more then just balance, it implies that all the components have come together in a harmonious fusion. <br />One can not talk about its points of acidity, tannin or oak.<br />Wine that possesses integration is a perfect sphere in the mouth. So round, so harmonious that one cannot easily grasp onto any single component.<br />
  5. 5. Expressiveness<br />Is the quality a wine possesses when its aromas and flavors are well-defined and clearly projected. <br />While some wine seems muddled and diffused others beam out their character with almost unreal clarity and focus. <br /> Example: Its like watching TV in black and white verse the same thing in High-density color.<br /> <br />
  6. 6. Complexity<br />Complexity is more like a force that pulls you into the wine and impels you to repeatedly return for another smell and sip because each time you do, you find something new. <br />Its layered, it evolves, its deep and hard to grasp! <br />Some critics describe this kind of wine like a film. You keep thinking about it, it bacons you to continue coming back. This is like the difference between watching Inception vs Rambo <br />
  7. 7. Connectedness<br />Is perhaps the most elusive of these concepts and the most difficult to understand. <br />It is the sense you get from the wines aromas and flavor that it could not have come from just anywhere but rather is the embodiment of a single piece of earth. <br />Connectedness is the bond between wine and the plot of land it was born in. This term is also known as Terroir. <br />
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  9. 9. Alcohol<br />Is what results when yeast comes in contact with the natural sugar in grape pulp. Alcohol plays a key role in the process of wine. The more ripe the grapes are, the more natural sugar they contain and the higher the alcohol content will be. <br />Example: California Cabs can reach 15% alcohol.<br /> Alcohol will also affect the body and texture of the wine. High-alcohol wines will seem hot, full bodied and sometimes chewy. By comparison very low alcohol wines are light in body and transparent almost sheer.<br />
  10. 10. Acid<br />Is the most important element in the pulp other then sugar and water. <br />As a grape ripens the sugar content increases and the acid decreases. It is crucial to harvest when both sugar and acid are at a optimal balance. <br />Without acid a dry wine will seem dull and flat and a sweet wine will taste flabby. <br />Acid also acts as a preservative, without enough acid a wine will brake down over time and loose its structure. <br />In warm climates winemakers have to often add 2-3 grams of acid per-liter.<br />
  11. 11. Tannin<br />Tannin comes from the skin, seeds, and stems; when red wine is fermented. <br />In comparison white is crushed and the skin, stems and seeds are removed, left with juice. <br />Tannin gives wine backbone and structure, a young wine will taste harsh. Time to age will allow the wine to mellow out making the tannin softer.<br />Tannin is also a natural preservative.<br />
  12. 12. Fruitiness<br />Is what the word implies, it’s the amount of fruit like flavors and aromas a wine displays. Commonly found in young wines not as visible in more mature ones.<br />Example: Gewurztraminer and gamay.<br />
  13. 13. Sweetness and Dryness<br />Sweetness an fruitiness are not interchangeable<br />We know what. fruitiness is the amount of fruit like flavors and aromas a wine displays. <br />If all or virtually all the sugar in the ripe grape was converted into alcohol, the wine is considered dry.<br />If only some of the sugar was converted to alcohol, the wine is said to have residual sugar, it’s the sugar left over while the rapes are still on the vine. <br />Off-dry iswhen 2-3% residual sugar left, at 5-30% its considered dessert wine. <br />
  14. 14. Grape Varietals <br />Classis whites<br />Chardonnay<br />Chenin Blanc<br />Riesling<br />Sauvignon Blanc<br />Semillon<br />Classic Reds<br />Cabernet Sauvignon<br />Merlot<br />Pinot Noir<br />Syrah<br />
  15. 15. Classic Whites<br />Chardonnay- vanilla, butter, butterscotch, toasted butter, custard, green apples, tropical fruit, lemon, pineapple…<br />Chenin Blanc- pear, melon, apricot, red apple, peaches, fruit cocktail…<br />Riesling- fresh ripe peaches, apricot, melon, honey, mineral qualities…<br />Sauvignon Blanc/Fume Blanc- straw, grass, green tea, lemon, goose berry, grapefruit…<br />Semillon- fig, honey, citrus, lemon, lime, green apples…<br />
  16. 16. Classic Reds<br />Cabernet Sauvignon- blackberry, black current, cassis, mint, eucalyptus, cedar wood, leather, plum…<br />Merlot- blackberry, cassis, baked cherries, plum, chocolate, mocha, leather…<br />Pinot Noir- cherries, plums, raspberries, damp earth, mushrooms, cedar, cigars, chocolate, worn leather, dry leaves…<br />Syrah- spice, smoke, blackberries, pepper, earth, leather…<br />
  17. 17. Important Grapes<br />Whites<br />Gewurztraminer<br />Pinot Blanc<br />Pinot Gris<br />Pinot Grigio<br />Viognier<br />GrunerVeltliner<br />Roussanne<br />Albarino<br />Reds<br />Barbera<br />Nebbilo<br />Sengiovese<br />Tempranillo<br />Zinfandel/Primitivo<br />Grenacha<br />Cabernet Franc<br />Malbec<br />Petit Verdot<br />
  18. 18. Tasting<br />
  19. 19. tasting list<br />2010 Whiteheaven Sauvignon Blanc<br />2009 William Fevre Chablis ChhampsRoyaux<br />2007 Domaine De NizasCoteuex du Languedoc<br />2009 L’Etoile De Bergey Pessac-Leognan<br />
  20. 20. Marlborough<br />
  21. 21. Chablis<br />
  22. 22. Languedoc<br />
  23. 23. Bordeaux<br />
  24. 24. Flavors<br />Sweet<br />Sour<br />Bitter<br />Salty<br />Umami- savory<br />
  25. 25. Tasting <br />Tasting Like a Pro….<br />
  26. 26. Tasting <br />See- Looking for shades of color. White wines get darker as they age, red wines get lighter. The darker the wine, does not mean the more intense the flavor.<br />Swirl- Swirling creates tiny air currents in the nose/bouquet that carry aroma molecules up to the nerve receptors and ultimately to the brain.<br />Sniff- The nose fatigues quickly in about 6 seconds. The nose can distinguish thousands of smell, its one of your most powerful tools. Take short inhauls, while breathing look a the aroma chart to discern aromas.<br />Sip- The first sip is not reliably take another. When tasting we look for aroma, body/texture (light, medium, full) flavor and finish. <br />
  27. 27. Flavors & Aromas of whites wine<br />Fruit-apples, apricot, banana, fig, grapefruit, lemon, lime, litchi, melon, pear, pineapple, peach, orange, mango<br />Butter and cream- butter, butterscotch, caramel, custard, vanilla<br />Vegetables- asparagus, bell pepper, green bean, olives<br />Grains and nuts- almond, biscuit, bread dough, hazelnut, roasted nuts, yeast, <br />Spice- cinnamon, cloves, ginger, white pepper<br />Flowers- gardenia, geranium, honey suckle, rose<br />Earth- chalk, flint, grass, hay, minerals, stone, straw<br />Barrel Aromas- oak, toast, vanilla<br />
  28. 28. Flavor & Aromas of Red Wines<br />Fruit- blackberry, black current, blueberry, boysenberry, cherry, cranberry, dried orange, plum, pomegranate, raspberry, strawberry, cooked black cherries, jam and prunes<br />Vegetables- asparagus, bell pepper, mushroom, olive, truffle<br />Chocolate and coffee- bitter chocolate, cocoa, milk chocolate, mocha, coffee espresso<br />Spices- black pepper, cinnamon, cloves, licorice, mint, spiced tea<br />Tobacco- cigar box, pipe tobacco, smoke, <br />Flowers- rose, violet<br />Earth- cedar, damp earth, dried leaves, eucalyptus, forest, gravel, pine, stone<br />Animal- barnyard, horse blanket, manure, sweat<br />Barrel aromas- oak, toast, vanilla<br />Other aromas- cola, tar, tea, worn boot<br />
  29. 29. Homework<br />Pour yourself a glass of skim milk, whole milk and half and half, taste side by side. This will teach your palate the difference in mouth-feel. Determine which is light, medium and full bodied.<br />Brew a cup of tea, let it steep for 30 min. Come back and describe what you taste. This is a great way to learn what tannin is. Describe what you taste.<br />