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Submitted by:
Alagao, Alia Nevin
Andres, Jocielle Marie
Atrillano, Noreen
Austria, Marion
Calsita, Bianca Joy
Cipriano, Ma...
OUTLINE:
I. Introduction
II. General Structures and Functions
III. Comparative Anatomy of Vertebrates:
1. Aquatic Vertebra...
MUSCULAR
SYSTEM
Introduction
MUSCULAR SYSTEM
Concern with the body
movement
Stabilize the body in position
Act as movers and levers for every
action wi...
MUSCLE
S
color
• red
• white
location
• somatic
• visceral
Nervous
system
control
• voluntary
• Involuntary
Appearance
• skeletal
•...
EMBRYONIC ORIGIN
Mesenchyme – from which smooth
muscle and some viscera develop
Paired Hypomere – differentiated into
smoo...
MUSCLE ORGANIZATION
SKELETAL
MUSCLES
VISCERAL MUSCLES CARDIAC MUSCLES
- Attaches to bones,
skin, fascia
- Striated
- Volun...
DEVELOPMENT OF SKELETAL
MUSCLES
1. Axial muscles
- Cover the trunk and tail region
2. Jaw muscles
- Support the gill arche...
Jaw Musculature
Arises from two embryonic
sources:
Hypobranchial
-Contributes to the formation of
the tongue.
Branchiomeri...
Extrinsic Eyeball Muscles
Six muscles arises form three different
somitomeres:
- Superior, inferior and medial rectus (ant...
3 TYPES OF MUSCLE TISSUE
Striated voluntary
muscle tissue
‘skeletal muscle’
Long cylindrical
multinucleated cells
Sarcopla...
Smooth involuntary
muscle tissue
‘visceral muscle’
Elongated cells,
tapered ends, nucleus
(center)
Sarcoplasm = clear
Foun...
Striated involuntary
muscle tissue
‘cardiac muscle’
Linear, branching
bundles of fibers
joined end to end by
intercalated ...
1. Agonist or prime mover
– principal mover for specific action
ex. Deltoid muscle in abduction of arm
2. Antagonist
– opp...
TYPES OF SKELETAL MUSCLES AS
TO
SPECIFIC FUNCTION
1. Flexor – bend a limb
Extensor – straighten a limb or
component parts
...
4.Elevator or levator –raise or lift a part
Depressors – lower or depress a part
ex. Lower jaw
5.Constrictors – draw parts...
BASIS IN NAMING SKELETAL MUSCLES
 direction of fibers (e.g., oblique)
 location or position (e.g., superficial)
 number...
Muscles of Aquatic
Vertebrates
Muscular system of LAMPREYS is
more primitive than other vertebrates.
AXIAL MUSCULATURE
2 divisions:
Epaxial (Upper)
Hypaxial (Lower)
(-) Lateral septum
(+) Myomeres
(+) Myosepta
Each myotome ...
Muscles of Aquatic
Vertebrates
APPENDICULAR MUSCULATURE
(-) Paired appendages
(+)Branchial muscles
(not prominent)
Muscles of Aquatic
Vertebrates
The muscles of JAWED FISHES are
more advanced but
less complex than TETRAPODS.
Muscles of Aquatic
Vertebrates
AXIAL MUSCULATURE
2 divisions:
Epaxial (Upper)
Hypaxial (Lower)
(+) Lateral septum
(+) Myomeres
(+) Myosepta
MYOMERES beco...
Muscles of Aquatic
Vertebrates
Strap-like
hypobranchial muscles
extend from the
pectoral girdle to the
visceral arches.
Serve to open the jaws
and pull t...
APPENDICULAR MUSCULATURE
(+) Paired appendages (evolved with fins)
Muscles of Aquatic
Vertebrates
Dorsal mass of
EXTENSOR:...
Ventral mass of FLEXOR:
Adductors/Depressors
Moving the fins DOWNWARD or BACKWARD
Adductors reduced the internal angles of...
FISHES have 6 extrinsic eye muscles:
Muscles of Aquatic
Vertebrates
Specialized Muscles
Electric organs
In fish
Modified hypaxial muscles
Figure 10.17: Electric eel.
Muscles of Aquatic
Verte...
Modified from lower aquatic forms
Metameric condition = obscure
Trunk reduced in volume
Do not have epaxial muscles
Their lateral septum is more dorsal in position
Myotomes are primitive
Muscle fibers still cou...
Dorsalis trunci
become
differentiated into
intertransversarial
muscles between
the transverse
processes and
interneural mu...
ADULT URODELES
Ventral trunk muscles
Beginning from the outside, there are
superficial and deep external oblique (course
i...
Reduced the number of layers in hypaxial trunk
muscles
Rectus abdominis is large muscle extending
from sternum to pubis
My...
AXIAL MUSCULATURE
Epaxial muscles
– functions to extend or straighten the
spine and provide some lateral flexion.
– lack m...
AXIAL MUSCULATURE
Hypaxial muscles – functions to bend
the spine and provides lateral bending.
subvertebral group
rectus a...
APPENDICULAR MUSCULATURE
more numerous and diverse
than in AMPHIBIANS.
Intrinsic muscles
- quadrupedal locomotion
Dorsal e...
Forelimbs
-trapezius muscles derived from the branchial
musculature
-several muscles derived from the axial
musculature
-m...
Hindlimbs
-dorsal and ventral muscle groups are again
recognized.
*caudofemoralis- a prominent flexor of the thigh
of Rept...
REPTILES is the
first group of vertebrates
to have INTEGUMENTARY
MUSCLES
capable of moving the skin.
Integumentary muscles...
BIRDS MUSCULAR STRUCTURE
Most birds have approximately 175 different
muscles.
The skin muscles help a bird in its flight b...
THE SUPRACORACOIDEUS WORKS USING A PULLEY
LIKE SYSTEM TO LIFT THE WING WHILE THE
PECTORALS PROVIDE THE POWERFUL DOWNSTROKE.
Epaxial Muscle
– lack myosepta
– complex
Hypaxial Muscle
– same with all tetrapods
* subvertebral group
– located below tr...
Anterior ribs
– enlarged
– penetrates external and internal
obliques
– forms the intercostals muscle
– ventilation of the ...
Lateral group of hypaxial muscle:
- Serrratus
- Levator scapulae
- Rhomboideus
Branchial muscle
*Ancestor adductor mandibulae of lower
vertebrates several muscles in
mammals
(-) depressor mandibulae
Di...
AXIAL
MUSCLES
FISHES AMPHIBIANS REPTILES BIRDS MAMMALS
Epaxial
(Upper)
Solid mass;
above the
lateral septum
Muscle masses
...
Epaxials (Tetrapods)
Hypaxials (Tetrapods)
Hypaxials (Tetrapods)
Hypaxials (Tetrapods)
JAW
MUSCLES
FISHES AMPHIBIANS REPTILES BIRDS MAMMALS
Branchiomeric
Constrictors
and levator
muscles
Associated
with
mandib...
Hypobranchial
muscles
BRANCHIOMERIC MUSCLES
HYPOBRANCHIAL MUSCLES
APPENDICULAR
MUSCLES
FISHES AMPHIBIANS REPTILES BIRDS MAMMALS
Adductor
muscles
Dorsal; flex
fins
Ventral;
recovery
Ventral...
Muscles
responsible for
Amphibians Reptiles Mammals
Forelimb
abduction
Latissimus dorsi Latissimus dorsi
Latissimus
dorsi;...
INTEGUMANTARY
MUSCLES
REPTILES BIRDS MAMMALS
Specialized Muscles
Costo-cutaneous
muscles
Arrector pilli
muscles; patagial
...
REFERENCES:
http://bio.sunyorange.edu/updated2/comparative_anatomy/anat.html2/M
_BACK.htm
http://klemow.wilkes.edu/BIO122-...
Comparative Anatomy - Muscular System
Comparative Anatomy - Muscular System
Comparative Anatomy - Muscular System
Comparative Anatomy - Muscular System
Comparative Anatomy - Muscular System
Comparative Anatomy - Muscular System
Comparative Anatomy - Muscular System
Comparative Anatomy - Muscular System
Comparative Anatomy - Muscular System
Comparative Anatomy - Muscular System
Comparative Anatomy - Muscular System
Comparative Anatomy - Muscular System
Comparative Anatomy - Muscular System
Comparative Anatomy - Muscular System
Comparative Anatomy - Muscular System
Comparative Anatomy - Muscular System
Comparative Anatomy - Muscular System
Comparative Anatomy - Muscular System
Comparative Anatomy - Muscular System
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Comparative Anatomy - Muscular System

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Comparative Anatomy - Muscular System

  1. 1. Submitted by: Alagao, Alia Nevin Andres, Jocielle Marie Atrillano, Noreen Austria, Marion Calsita, Bianca Joy Cipriano, Mary Chris MEB24 ELGA Final Project March 5, 2014 Mrs. Ma. Luisa V. Cuaresma
  2. 2. OUTLINE: I. Introduction II. General Structures and Functions III. Comparative Anatomy of Vertebrates: 1. Aquatic Vertebrates 2. Amphibians 3. Reptiles 4. Birds 5. Mammals
  3. 3. MUSCULAR SYSTEM Introduction
  4. 4. MUSCULAR SYSTEM Concern with the body movement Stabilize the body in position Act as movers and levers for every action with the aid of skeleton Contraction of viscera Heat production
  5. 5. MUSCLE S
  6. 6. color • red • white location • somatic • visceral Nervous system control • voluntary • Involuntary Appearance • skeletal • visceral
  7. 7. EMBRYONIC ORIGIN Mesenchyme – from which smooth muscle and some viscera develop Paired Hypomere – differentiated into smooth muscle layers of the alimentary tract and its derivative Paraxial mesoderm – skeletal muscles develop
  8. 8. MUSCLE ORGANIZATION SKELETAL MUSCLES VISCERAL MUSCLES CARDIAC MUSCLES - Attaches to bones, skin, fascia - Striated - Voluntary muscles - Axial muscles - Jaw muscles - Extrinsic eyeball muscles - Appendicular musculature - Integumentary muscles - Attached to hair follicles and skin - Non-striated - Involuntary muscles - Includes muscle of tubes, vessels and hollow organs, intrinsic eyeball muscles, erectors of feathers and hair - Forms the wall of the heart - Striated - Involuntary muscles - Myocardium - Electropaxes
  9. 9. DEVELOPMENT OF SKELETAL MUSCLES 1. Axial muscles - Cover the trunk and tail region 2. Jaw muscles - Support the gill arches and contributes the tongue. 3. Extrinsic eye muscles - Muscles of the eye 4. Appendicular musculature - Attached to girdles, fins or limbs. 5. Integumentary muscles - Attached to some parts of the skeleton and inserted on skin.
  10. 10. Jaw Musculature Arises from two embryonic sources: Hypobranchial -Contributes to the formation of the tongue. Branchiomeric - Derived from somitomeres of the head and supplied by cranial.
  11. 11. Extrinsic Eyeball Muscles Six muscles arises form three different somitomeres: - Superior, inferior and medial rectus (anterior) and inferior oblique muscles arise form the premandibular somitomere (most anterior) supplied by the III cranial nerve - The superior oblique arises from the mandibular somitomere (middle) supplied by the IV cranial nerve - The lateral rectus muscle (posterior) arises from
  12. 12. 3 TYPES OF MUSCLE TISSUE Striated voluntary muscle tissue ‘skeletal muscle’ Long cylindrical multinucleated cells Sarcoplasm = Parallel rows with alternating light (I-band) and dark (A- band) forming striations Attached to skeleton responsible for voluntary movement.
  13. 13. Smooth involuntary muscle tissue ‘visceral muscle’ Elongated cells, tapered ends, nucleus (center) Sarcoplasm = clear Found in internal organs which bring about involuntary movement 3 TYPES OF MUSCLE TISSUE
  14. 14. Striated involuntary muscle tissue ‘cardiac muscle’ Linear, branching bundles of fibers joined end to end by intercalated disc Found in walls of heart to bring the involuntary contraction of the organ 3 TYPES OF MUSCLE TISSUE
  15. 15. 1. Agonist or prime mover – principal mover for specific action ex. Deltoid muscle in abduction of arm 2. Antagonist – opposite movement ex. Latissimus dorsi and pectoralis for deltiod muscle 3. Synergist – stabilize movement of one joint – inhibit undesirable movements ex. brachioradialis and brachialis assist the biceps to create the movement and stabilise the elbow joint. 4. Fixator – fixes position of the limb when movement occurs ex. Biceps and triceps hold shoulder and elbow in position SKELETAL MUSCLE AS TO ACTION
  16. 16. TYPES OF SKELETAL MUSCLES AS TO SPECIFIC FUNCTION 1. Flexor – bend a limb Extensor – straighten a limb or component parts 2. Adductors – draw part toward a median line Abductors – draw part away median line or from neighboring part or limb 3. Pronators – turn or rotate part downwards (axis) Supinators – turn or rotate part forward and upward (axis) ex. (both) – palm of the hand
  17. 17. 4.Elevator or levator –raise or lift a part Depressors – lower or depress a part ex. Lower jaw 5.Constrictors – draw parts together or compress a space ex. Pharynx and abdomen Dilators – widens an opening or space *Sphincters – constrictors surrounding an opening. ex. Mouth, pylorus, anus
  18. 18. BASIS IN NAMING SKELETAL MUSCLES  direction of fibers (e.g., oblique)  location or position (e.g., superficial)  number of divisions (e.g., triceps)  shape (e.g., deltoid)  origin and/or insertion (e.g., iliocostalis)  action (e.g., levator scapulae)  size (e.g., major)  some combination of these
  19. 19. Muscles of Aquatic Vertebrates Muscular system of LAMPREYS is more primitive than other vertebrates.
  20. 20. AXIAL MUSCULATURE 2 divisions: Epaxial (Upper) Hypaxial (Lower) (-) Lateral septum (+) Myomeres (+) Myosepta Each myotome contributes one muscle segment called MYOMERE. The short fibers of the myomeres are inserted on partitions of connective tissues called MYOSEPTA, which lie between successive myomeres. Muscles of Aquatic Vertebrates
  21. 21. Muscles of Aquatic Vertebrates
  22. 22. APPENDICULAR MUSCULATURE (-) Paired appendages (+)Branchial muscles (not prominent) Muscles of Aquatic Vertebrates
  23. 23. The muscles of JAWED FISHES are more advanced but less complex than TETRAPODS. Muscles of Aquatic Vertebrates
  24. 24. AXIAL MUSCULATURE 2 divisions: Epaxial (Upper) Hypaxial (Lower) (+) Lateral septum (+) Myomeres (+) Myosepta MYOMERES become more angled (zig-zag shaped) and are molded into interlocking cones. Muscles of Aquatic Vertebrates
  25. 25. Muscles of Aquatic Vertebrates
  26. 26. Strap-like hypobranchial muscles extend from the pectoral girdle to the visceral arches. Serve to open the jaws and pull the gills downward and backward. Evolved from the hypaxial muscles retaining the longitudinal orientation of fibers. Muscles of Aquatic Vertebrates
  27. 27. APPENDICULAR MUSCULATURE (+) Paired appendages (evolved with fins) Muscles of Aquatic Vertebrates Dorsal mass of EXTENSOR: Abductors/Levators Moving the fins UPWARD or FORWARD A series of levators above the pharynx lift the gill bars.
  28. 28. Ventral mass of FLEXOR: Adductors/Depressors Moving the fins DOWNWARD or BACKWARD Adductors reduced the internal angles of each visceral arch. Muscles of Aquatic Vertebrates
  29. 29. FISHES have 6 extrinsic eye muscles: Muscles of Aquatic Vertebrates
  30. 30. Specialized Muscles Electric organs In fish Modified hypaxial muscles Figure 10.17: Electric eel. Muscles of Aquatic Vertebrates
  31. 31. Modified from lower aquatic forms Metameric condition = obscure Trunk reduced in volume
  32. 32. Do not have epaxial muscles Their lateral septum is more dorsal in position Myotomes are primitive Muscle fibers still course form one myocommata to the next, The entire epaxial mass formed dorsalis trunci Myotomes – vertically arranged Intersegmental bundles
  33. 33. Dorsalis trunci become differentiated into intertransversarial muscles between the transverse processes and interneural muscles between neural arches
  34. 34. ADULT URODELES Ventral trunk muscles Beginning from the outside, there are superficial and deep external oblique (course in posteroventral direction) Internal oblique layer extend in posterodorsal direction Transversus which fibers almost in a vertical position. It lies next to peritoneum
  35. 35. Reduced the number of layers in hypaxial trunk muscles Rectus abdominis is large muscle extending from sternum to pubis Myocommata have disappeared from the external oblique and transversus but are retained to some extent in the rectus abdominis as tendinous inscriptions Lastly, the amphibians have muscle that move the to tongue this derived from the hypobranchial muscle
  36. 36. AXIAL MUSCULATURE Epaxial muscles – functions to extend or straighten the spine and provide some lateral flexion. – lack myosepta and become complex
  37. 37. AXIAL MUSCULATURE Hypaxial muscles – functions to bend the spine and provides lateral bending. subvertebral group rectus abdominis group lateral group
  38. 38. APPENDICULAR MUSCULATURE more numerous and diverse than in AMPHIBIANS. Intrinsic muscles - quadrupedal locomotion Dorsal extensor Ventral flexor muscles Extrinsic integumentary muscles - inserted on the underside of the dermis.
  39. 39. Forelimbs -trapezius muscles derived from the branchial musculature -several muscles derived from the axial musculature -most appendicular muscles are derived directly from appendicular muscles of fish ancestors.
  40. 40. Hindlimbs -dorsal and ventral muscle groups are again recognized. *caudofemoralis- a prominent flexor of the thigh of Reptiles. Extrinsic eyeball muscles Eyeball can no longer be rotated around its optical axis. *pyramidalis-muscles inserted on the upper lids and nictitating membrane of Reptiles.
  41. 41. REPTILES is the first group of vertebrates to have INTEGUMENTARY MUSCLES capable of moving the skin. Integumentary muscles Snakes- locomotor apparatus may include separate muscles, the costocutaneous, to move the ventral scutes.
  42. 42. BIRDS MUSCULAR STRUCTURE Most birds have approximately 175 different muscles. The skin muscles help a bird in its flight by adjusting the feathers. Pygostyle (tail muscle) The pectorals, or the breast muscles True Flight thin, stringy muscles of the vertebral column
  43. 43. THE SUPRACORACOIDEUS WORKS USING A PULLEY LIKE SYSTEM TO LIFT THE WING WHILE THE PECTORALS PROVIDE THE POWERFUL DOWNSTROKE.
  44. 44. Epaxial Muscle – lack myosepta – complex Hypaxial Muscle – same with all tetrapods * subvertebral group – located below transverse process – ventroflexes the spine
  45. 45. Anterior ribs – enlarged – penetrates external and internal obliques – forms the intercostals muscle – ventilation of the lungs
  46. 46. Lateral group of hypaxial muscle: - Serrratus - Levator scapulae - Rhomboideus
  47. 47. Branchial muscle *Ancestor adductor mandibulae of lower vertebrates several muscles in mammals (-) depressor mandibulae Digastric muscle (new muscle) -ventral constrictor of 1st and 2nd arches innervated by 5th and 7th cranial nerves Stapedial muscle Muscle of the larynx
  48. 48. AXIAL MUSCLES FISHES AMPHIBIANS REPTILES BIRDS MAMMALS Epaxial (Upper) Solid mass; above the lateral septum Muscle masses subdivided and rearranged into longitudinal muscles Muscle masses subdivided and rearranged into longitudinal muscles Muscle masses subdivided and rearranged into longitudinal muscles Hypaxial (Lower) Solid mass; below the lateral septum 2 outer oblique layers; 1 inner transverse layer; rectus abdominis 2 outer oblique layers and 1 inner transverse layer; rectus abdominis 2 outer oblique layers and 1 inner transverse layer; rectus abdominis Oblique layers are further subdivided, separated by intercostal muscles Septum Transverse/ Lateral septum Dorsally position Linea alba Myotomes Present Present Absent Myosepta Present Present Absent Absent FUNCTION To produce an undulating motion that propels the fish through the water Maintenance of posture, head movement, and respiration Maintenance of posture, head movement, and respiration Maintenance of posture, head movement, and respiration Maintenance of posture, head movement, and respiration Comparative Anatomy of Vertebrates
  49. 49. Epaxials (Tetrapods)
  50. 50. Hypaxials (Tetrapods)
  51. 51. Hypaxials (Tetrapods)
  52. 52. Hypaxials (Tetrapods)
  53. 53. JAW MUSCLES FISHES AMPHIBIANS REPTILES BIRDS MAMMALS Branchiomeric Constrictors and levator muscles Associated with mandibular, hyoid and pharyngeal arches Associated with mandibular, hyoid and pharyngeal arches Associated with mandibular, hyoid and pharyngeal arches Highly modified; mandibular, hyoid and pharyngeal arches FUNCTION Breathing and feeding Contribute to larynx (vocalization) and throat Contribute to larynx (vocalization) and throat Contribute to larynx (vocalization) and throat Control vocal functions within larynx Hypobranchial Attached posteriorly to pectoral skeleton Associated with pharyngeal arches Associated with pharyngeal arches Associated with pharyngeal arches Associated with pharyngeal arches FUNCTION Serve to open the jaws and pull the gills downward and backward Movement of the larynx, hyoid apparatus and tongue Movement of the larynx, hyoid apparatus and tongue Movement of the larynx, hyoid apparatus and tongue Movement of the larynx, hyoid apparatus and tongue Comparative Anatomy of Vertebrates
  54. 54. Hypobranchial muscles
  55. 55. BRANCHIOMERIC MUSCLES
  56. 56. HYPOBRANCHIAL MUSCLES
  57. 57. APPENDICULAR MUSCLES FISHES AMPHIBIANS REPTILES BIRDS MAMMALS Adductor muscles Dorsal; flex fins Ventral; recovery Ventral; recovery Ventral; recovery Ventral; recovery Abductor muscles Ventral; extend fins Dorsal; propulsive Dorsal; propulsive Dorsal; propulsive Dorsal; propulsive Other characteristics Intrinsic muscles are limited in number & undifferentiated Much more complex than in fish More numerous & diverse than in amphibians Intrinsic musculature is reduced Similar to reptiles but more diverse FUNCTION Balance and orientation Support and locomotion Support and locomotion Support and locomotion Support and locomotion Comparative Anatomy of Vertebrates Recovery Phase - Forward movement and raising of the limb (adduction) – Flexing of arm/leg – Extension of hand/ foot Propulsive Phase - Backward movement of the limb (abduction) – Extension of arm/leg – Flexion of hand/foot
  58. 58. Muscles responsible for Amphibians Reptiles Mammals Forelimb abduction Latissimus dorsi Latissimus dorsi Latissimus dorsi; Trapezius Hindlimb abduction Caudofemoralis Caudofemoralis Caudofemoralis; Biceps femoralis Propulsive Phase:
  59. 59. INTEGUMANTARY MUSCLES REPTILES BIRDS MAMMALS Specialized Muscles Costo-cutaneous muscles Arrector pilli muscles; patagial muscles Arrector pilli muscles; patagial muscles (bats); mimetic muscles FUNCTION Provide friction for locomotion Aid in flight control Involved in facial expression Comparative Anatomy of Vertebrates Patagial muscles
  60. 60. REFERENCES: http://bio.sunyorange.edu/updated2/comparative_anatomy/anat.html2/M _BACK.htm http://klemow.wilkes.edu/BIO122-LabQuiz3.html http://www.gutenberg.org/files/18274/18274-h/18274-h.htm http://campus.murraystate.edu/academic/faculty/tderting/cva_atlases/W EBSITE/dmuscles.html http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/279858/hypobranchial- muscle http://www.blackspvbiology.50megs.com/sharkdiss.html http://www.shsu.edu/~bio_mlt/Chapter10.html http://people.eku.edu/ritchisong/342notes6.htm http://campus.murraystate.edu/academic/faculty/tderting/cva_atlases/W EBSITE/dmuscles.html http://www.faculty.biol.ttu.edu/strauss/vertstructure/Handouts/10_Skeleta lMusclesHandout.pdf http://www.faculty.biol.ttu.edu/strauss/vertstructure/lecturenotes/07b_mu scularsystem.pdf

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