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MEB24
Members:
Soneja, Luis
Ito, Joshua Lorenzo
Timbang, Celine
Santos, Jasmin
Delos Reyes, Norvin
Submitted to:
Ms. Ma. L...
What is Digestive System?
Digestive System is a group of organs working
together to convert food into energy and
basic nut...
FACTS
> Food doesn't need gravity to get to your
stomach
> Stomach doesn't do most of the digestion
> Flatulence gets its ...
Mouth
This is also known as Oral Cavity, This is
where you enter food and masticate it.
-Teeth: Cutting and grinding food
...
Pharynx
Responsible for the passing of masses of
chewed food from the mouth to esophagus.
Esophagus
Carries swallowed mass...
Stomach
Acts as the storage tank for food.
Liver
Produces bile and its secretion to the small
intestine.
Gallbladder
Used to store and recycle excess bile from
the small intestine.
Pancreas
It secretes digestive enzymes into th...
Cloaca
The cavity which collects and stores wastes
from both the colon and kidneys.
Small and Large Intestine
Small- maxim...
Organ Movement
Digestive
Juices Used
Food
Particles
Broken
Down
Mouth Chewing Saliva Starches
Esophagus Swallowing None No...
FISHES
Food is ingested through the mouth of the fish
using the jaws.
The food then passes through the pharynx (throat)
into the ...
AMPHIBIANS
Mouth and Oral Cavity
The roof of it is formed by a series of skeletal
elements
Tongue
A tongue that can be used for catch...
Oral glands
The glands of Amphibians are few in number and
are located on the roof of the mouth or on the
tongue
 In Sala...
Intestine and Caeca
Salamanders lack a valve separating the small
intestine from the large intestine.
Tadpoles haves long ...
MAMMALS
The mammalian digestive system consists of the
alimentary canal (complete digestive tract) and
various accessory glands th...
Mouth: Foodstuffs are broken down mechanically
by chewing and saliva is added as a lubricant.
Pharynx - Out throat is the ...
Liver: The center of metabolic activity in the body
- its major role in the digestive process is to
provide bile salts to ...
BIRDS
Birds has faster and more efficient digestive
system than those of other vertebrate
groups.
Their beaks or bills replace t...
REPTILES
Mouth & oral cavity- tetrapods such as
reptiles, typically have longer oral cavities
Teeth- reptiles still have teeth on t...
Pharynx- is the part of the foregut
preceeding the esophagus & includes:
- glottis (slit leading into the larynx)
-opening...
http://www.innerbody.com/image/digeov.html
http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/yrdd/#points
http://www.pjteaches...
Comparative Anatomy - Digestive System
Comparative Anatomy - Digestive System
Comparative Anatomy - Digestive System
Comparative Anatomy - Digestive System
Comparative Anatomy - Digestive System
Comparative Anatomy - Digestive System
Comparative Anatomy - Digestive System
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Comparative Anatomy - Digestive System

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Comparative Anatomy - Digestive System

  1. 1. MEB24 Members: Soneja, Luis Ito, Joshua Lorenzo Timbang, Celine Santos, Jasmin Delos Reyes, Norvin Submitted to: Ms. Ma. Luisa V. Cuaresma
  2. 2. What is Digestive System? Digestive System is a group of organs working together to convert food into energy and basic nutrients to feed the entire body William Beaumont (November 21, 1785 – April 25, 1853) was a surgeon in the U.S. Army who became known as the "Father of Gastric Physiology” following his research on human digestion.
  3. 3. FACTS > Food doesn't need gravity to get to your stomach > Stomach doesn't do most of the digestion > Flatulence gets its smell from bacteria > Stomach rumbling can happen at any time, not just when you're hungry
  4. 4. Mouth This is also known as Oral Cavity, This is where you enter food and masticate it. -Teeth: Cutting and grinding food -Tongue: Helps for swallowing -Salivary Glands: Moisten the food
  5. 5. Pharynx Responsible for the passing of masses of chewed food from the mouth to esophagus. Esophagus Carries swallowed masses of masticated food along its length.
  6. 6. Stomach Acts as the storage tank for food. Liver Produces bile and its secretion to the small intestine.
  7. 7. Gallbladder Used to store and recycle excess bile from the small intestine. Pancreas It secretes digestive enzymes into the small intestine to complete the chemical digestion of foods.
  8. 8. Cloaca The cavity which collects and stores wastes from both the colon and kidneys. Small and Large Intestine Small- maximize the digestion of food and absorption of nutrients Large- absorbs water and contains many symbiotic bacteria that aid in the breaking down of wastes to extract some small amounts of nutrients.
  9. 9. Organ Movement Digestive Juices Used Food Particles Broken Down Mouth Chewing Saliva Starches Esophagus Swallowing None None Stomach Upper muscle in stomach relaxes to let food enter and lower muscle mixes food with digestive juice Stomach acid Protein Small intestine Peristalsis Small intestine digestive juice Starches, protein, and carbohydrat es Pancreas None Pancreatic juice Starches, fats, and protein Liver None Bile acids Fats This table shows the parts of the digestive process performed by each digestive organ, including movement of food, type of digestive juice used, and food particles broken down by that organ.
  10. 10. FISHES
  11. 11. Food is ingested through the mouth of the fish using the jaws. The food then passes through the pharynx (throat) into the esophagus and into the stomach Partial digestion takes place here using gastric juices (including acid and enzymes) food proceeds to the intestine for more digestion and absorption into the blood Between the stomach and the intestine there is usually a valve called the pyloric valve. Beyond this valve, a duct from the liver and pancreas enter the intestine to secrete digestive enzymes including "pepsin and trypsin" into the food
  12. 12. AMPHIBIANS
  13. 13. Mouth and Oral Cavity The roof of it is formed by a series of skeletal elements Tongue A tongue that can be used for catching prey as well as sensory input. It varies greatly in size and importance  In Anurans, the tongue is attached at the anterior end of the jaw.  The muscular system of the tongue becomes better organized with a genioglossus as a protractor and a hyoglossus as a retractor  Its sense organs are innervated by glossopharyngeal nerve and its muscles by hypoglossal nerve
  14. 14. Oral glands The glands of Amphibians are few in number and are located on the roof of the mouth or on the tongue  In Salamanders, mucous glands are located on the tongue and a large intermaxillary gland within the palate Esophagus and Stomach The esophagus is short, ciliated, and well- supplied with mucous glands The stomach remains simple and straight or gently curved They swallow their prey whole, with some chewing done in the oral cavities of some species, so they possess voluminous stomachs.
  15. 15. Intestine and Caeca Salamanders lack a valve separating the small intestine from the large intestine. Tadpoles haves long coiled intestines but Adult Amphibians have relatively short and simple digestive tube ranging in length from ½ to 3 ¼ times the body length  Composed of coiled small intestine and a shorter large intestine, with a simple small colic caecum in between  A cloaca is present Evolution of teeth Modern Amphibians (LISSAMPHIBIANS) have fewer simple teeth Liver and Gall Bladder The liver in most amphibians is large with two lobes. The size of the liver is determined by its vital function as a glycogen and fat storage unit. from the liver collect in the gall bladder, and flow into the small intestine. Pancreas is present
  16. 16. MAMMALS
  17. 17. The mammalian digestive system consists of the alimentary canal (complete digestive tract) and various accessory glands that secret digestive juices into the canal through the ducts. The food is moved along the tract by the contraction of smooth muscles in the walls of the canal. These rhythmic contraction waves are called peristalsis. The regulation of passage of material from one chamber to another within the canal is controlled by ring-like valves called sphincters. The accessory glands of the mammalian digestive tract are three pairs of salivary glands, the pancreas, the liver, and its storage organ the gall bladder.
  18. 18. Mouth: Foodstuffs are broken down mechanically by chewing and saliva is added as a lubricant. Pharynx - Out throat is the pharynx which leads to both the esophagus and the windpipe ( trachea). When a human swallows the top of the windpipe moves up so that its opening, the glottis, is blocked by a flap of cartilage called the epiglottis. This helps to ensure that the bolus enters the esophagus. Esophagus: A simple conduit between the mouth and stomach - important but only marginally interesting. Stomach: Where the real action begins - chemical digestion of proteins initiated and foodstuffs reduced to liquid form.
  19. 19. Liver: The center of metabolic activity in the body - its major role in the digestive process is to provide bile salts to the small intestine, which are critical for digestion and absorption of fats. Pancreas: Important roles as both an endocrine and exocrine organ - provides a potent mixture of digestive enzymes to the small intestine which are critical for digestion of fats, carbohydrates and protein. Small Intestine: The most exciting place to be in the entire digestive system - this is where the final stages of chemical digestion occur and where almost all nutrients are absorbed. Large Intestine: Major differences among species in extent and importance - in all animals water is absorbed, bacterial fermentation takes place and feces are formed. In carnivores, that's about the extent of it, but in herbivores like the horse, the large intestine is huge and of critical importance for utilization of cellulose.
  20. 20. BIRDS
  21. 21. Birds has faster and more efficient digestive system than those of other vertebrate groups. Their beaks or bills replace the lips and mouth of mammals and vary in shape. Their tongue do helps manipulate food for swallowing. Food passes through esophagus on its way to stomach. Crop Birds have a two part stomach, granular portion known as Proventriculus and the muscular portions known as Gizzard.
  22. 22. REPTILES
  23. 23. Mouth & oral cavity- tetrapods such as reptiles, typically have longer oral cavities Teeth- reptiles still have teeth on the vomer, palatine, & pterygoid bones Tongue- primary tongue + glandular field (or tuberculum impar) + lateral lingual swellings (more hypobranchial muscle) Tongue mobility- sometimes long and may move in and out of the oral cavity Oral glands- some reptiles secrete poison Ex:(snake)
  24. 24. Pharynx- is the part of the foregut preceeding the esophagus & includes: - glottis (slit leading into the larynx) -openings of auditory (eustachian) tubes - opening into esophagus Stomach- increasing specialization (more differentiated from the esophagus) Intestine- coiled small intestines & a relatively short large intestine (that empties into the cloaca) Cloaca- chamber at end of digestive tract that receives the intestine, & urinary & genital ducts, & opens to the exterior via the vent
  25. 25. http://www.innerbody.com/image/digeov.html http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/yrdd/#points http://www.pjteaches.com/PDF/Biology/bio16C.pdf https://sites.google.com/site/martinacristinaanimals/animalss/amphibians http://www.simplydiscus.com/library/biology/anatomy/digestive_system.shtml https://sites.google.com/site/fishhistoryandmore/digestive-system-of-fish http://www.bio.davidson.edu/dorcas/animalphysiology/websites/2011/McRae/Mammalian%20Digestion.h tm http://biology.about.com/library/organs/bldigestoverview2.htm http://www.srvhs.org/staff/teachers/CSoldati/mammalian%20digestive%20system.htm http://fsc.fernbank.edu/Birding/digestion.htm https://www.google.com.ph/search?q=tounge&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=N5cMU977MaLYigfa0IC 4Bw&ved=0CAcQ_AUoAQ&biw=1280&bih=699#q=digestive+system+of+birds&tbm=isch&imgdii=_

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