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Inskandar river pollution


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Inskandar river pollution

  1. 1. Malaysian 1st Mathematics in Industry Study Group MISG2011River pollution problem in Iskandar Malaysia Region Johor State Govt. BackgroundWater pollution is the contamination of water bodies. Water pollution occurs whenpollutants are discharged directly or indirectly into water bodies without adequatetreatment to remove harmful compounds. Water pollution is caused by point and non-point sources. Point sources include sewage treatment plants, manufacturing and agro-based industries and animal farms. Non-point sources are defined as diffused sourcessuch as agricultural activities and surface runoffs. In 2006, the Department ofEnvironment (DOE) registered 18,956 water pollution point sources comprising mainlysewage treatment plants (9,060: 47.79% inclusive of 601 Network Pump Stations),manufacturing industries (8,543: 45.07%), animal farms (869: 4.58%) and agro-basedindustries (484: 2.55%) represents the distribution of industrial water pollution sourcesfrom agro-based and manufacturing industries compiled by the DOE in 2006 throughfield surveys and questionnaires. A total of 9,027 sources were identified with Selangorhaving the highest number of water pollution sources (1,850: 20.49%), followed by Johor(1,774: 19.65%) [1].Water quality of the main river basins in Iskandar Malaysia, which are Sg. Pulai,Sg.Skudai, Sg. Tebrau and Sg. Johor was assessed based on the Water Quality Index(WQI) score and classification of major rivers within the seven river basins in IskandarMalaysia. In 2008, the majority of rivers (14 out of 21) in the Iskandar Malaysia Regionwere within Class III, indicating moderate levels of pollution levels of pollution, whilefive rivers (Pandan, Plentong, Sebulung, Sengkuang and Tampoi ) in the Tebraucatchment were in class IV. One river in the Pasir Gudang catchment remained in classV, indicating severe river water pollution most likely caused by industrial anddevelopment activities. The Environmental Quality Report 2008 states that four out of theseven most polluted river basins in Peninsular Malaysia are located in the Johor Bahruarea. The four polluted river basins refered are Sg. Danga, Sg. Tebrau and Sg. PasirGudang.However, refer to the main river basin in Johor, in 2009, most of the river (12 out of 21)have slightly polluted level where the class range is around II and III only. For the most 1
  2. 2. Malaysian 1st Mathematics in Industry Study Group MISG2011contaminated area are Segget, Pasir Gudang,Tebrau and Air Baloi. Class range forEndau, Sedili Besar, Johor and Mersing area are II where they categorized as clean. Riverwater quality in Mersing is the most clean to be compared to another area in Malaysia.Water quality index at Mersing are reach the highest index value. For Kota Tinggi areahas the same value like Mersing. Muar get third rank for index value that is 0.91,followed by Segamat and Batu Pahat, 0.86 and 0.77 respectively. Johor Baharu is thelowest value index that is 0. This is because some of the main river in Johor Bahru,especially Sg. Segget and Sg. Skudai are too contaminated.A principal goal of nature farming is to produce abundant and healthy crops without theuse of chemical fertilizers and pesticides and without causing adverse effects on thenatural environment. One means of achieving this goal is through the use of effectivemicroorganisms (EM). The benefits of EM in increasing crop yields, improving cropquality, and protecting plants from pests and disease have been demonstrated for a widerange of crops and soil conditions. The concept of EM is based on the inoculation ofmixed cultures of beneficial microorganisms into soils where they shift themicrobiological equilibrium and create an environment that is favourable to the growthand health of plants [2].Water quality can be treated by using the Effective Microorganism (EM), the applicationhas been implemented since September 2008, as part of the enhancement programme ofthe river. Effective Microorganisms, aka EM Technology, is a trademarked term nowcommonly used to describe a proprietary blend of 3 or more types of predominantlyanaerobic organisms that was originally marketed as EM-1 Microbial Inoculant but isnow marketed by a plethora of companies under various names, each with their ownproprietary blend. "EM Technology" uses a laboratory cultured mixture ofmicroorganisms consisting mainly of lactic acid bacteria, purple bacteria, and yeastwhich co-exist for the benefit of whichever environment they are introduced, as has beenclaimed by the various EM-like culture purveyors [3].EM•1 works together with beneficial microbes in the area to which it is added, creating asynergy among microorganisms and larger forms of life including insects and worms,pets and livestock, and people. The use of effective microorganisms (EM) for reducingvolumes of sewage sludge has often been suggested as feasible in either wastewatertreatment plants or on-site wastewater treatment systems such as septic tanks. Theorganisms are supposed to eliminate the volumes of sludge produced, with the benefits of 2
  3. 3. Malaysian 1st Mathematics in Industry Study Group MISG2011reduced sludge handling, and consequently lower costs and decreased impacts upon theenvironment. Statement of problemWe wish to identify the extent of the correlation between the pollution problem and riverwater quality in Iskandar Malaysia region with the existing squatter and illegal industrialwaste sources along the specified rivers. We also would like to know the level/ degree/coverage/ amount of Effective Microorganism (EM) product to become effectual intreating river pollution problem and increasing river water quality. References:[1] Water Quality Index for River Basins in Iskandar Malaysia, Department ofEnvironment, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (2005-2008).[2] Szymanski, N. and Patterson, R.A. (2003). "Effective Microorganisms (EM) andWastewater Systems in Future Directions for On-site Systems: Best ManagementPractice.". In R.A. and Jones, M.J. (Eds), Proceedings of On-site ’03 Conference,Armidale, NSW, Australia: Lanfax Laboratories. pp. 347–354. ISBN 0-9579438-1-4[3] Higa, T. and G.N. Wididana, (1991). The concept and theories of EffectiveMicroorganisms, In: Parr, J.F., S.B. Hornick and C.E. Whitman (eds.), Proc. FirstInternational Conference on Kyusei Nature Farming, pp: 118–124. US Department ofAgriculture, Washington DC 3