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  1. 1. What is the Cyprus conflict and its Parties?  The Cyprus Problem was a problem of two conflicting nations (Turkish and Greek), thus was a matter of two opposing imaginations which emerged during the 1950s and lasted until today.
  2. 2. Brief History of Cyprus
  3. 3.  In the mid-1950s, EOKA took up an armed struggle against colonial rule in order to achieve union with Greece and in a very short time this anticolonial struggle became popular among the Greek Cypriot community under the leadership of the Cypriot Orthodox Church  Turkish Cypriots it was a mere disaster since it aimed to assimilate Turkish Cypriots inside the Greek nation and to unite “the old Ottoman land” with Greece.  The international complications of the dispute stretch far beyond the boundaries of the island of Cyprus itself and involve the quarantor powers (Turkey, Greece, and the United Kingdom alike), along with the United States, the United Nations and the European Union.
  4. 4. Turkey’s Westernization Policies And European Membership Negotiations
  5. 5. Turkey: Timeline 1959: Turkey applies for associate membership of EEC. 1963: Ankara Agreement signed, aiming to enter a customs union. 1987: Turkey applies for full EEC membership. 1995: Customs union founded between Turkey and the EU. 1997: Council declares Turkey eligible to become a member state. 2004: Council defines conditions for opening accession negotiations. 2005: Negotiations formally opened.
  6. 6. Enlargement: The accession process Copenhagen Criteria (1993):    Political: rule of law, stable institutions, democracy, respect for human rights. Economic: functional market economy. Legal: EU laws and practice. Adherence to the terms of a political, economic and monetary union. Joining the EU is a 3 stage process: 1. 2. 3. A country is offered a prospect of membership. The country is given official candidate status. Formal membership negotiations.
  7. 7. 2004 Enlargement: Expanding East •Estonia •Latvia •Lithuania •Poland •Czech Republic •Slovakia •Hungary •Slovenia •Cyprus
  8. 8. 2007 Enlargement: Romania and Bulgaria •Romania •Bulgaria
  9. 9. Who’s joining next? •Iceland •Croatia •Serbia •Bosnia and Herzegovina •Montenegro •Kosovo •Albania •TURKEY ?
  10. 10. Turkey and European Union - Long-term process with shifting attitudes from the EU towards a full membership for Turkey. - Applied for membership of the EEC in 1987 (association agreement with EEC in 1963) and the accession negotiations froze in 2006. - Turkey has made great progress pursuing EU standards yet they lack several important areas(commission progress report 2005). - Why not Turkey?
  11. 11. Pros and preferences for a Turkish membership in the EU - The emergence of democracy and vibrant economy in Turkey. (Enlargement Policy; the spread of liberal democratic ideas and market economy principles). - A reinforcement of Security. (Maintaining security in the eastern Mediterranean, role model for neighbouring Islamic states. May help to create security and stability in the European continent. Geographical location).
  12. 12. Concerns and problems regarding a full membership for Turkey  The conflict with Cyprus and Greece  Conditionality and criteria issues  Geographical and Cultural issues  Association partnership instead of full membership?
  13. 13. Attitudes towards Turkish membership - Attitude among European citizens. (Four factors which can explain attitudes: Economic costs and benefits, cultural differences, political ideology and the general attitudes towards the EU). - Perspectives of the Turkish elite. (Opinions on membership. Political and cultural issues. Reflection on rejection and future prospect. Cost and benefits. Any concerns?).
  14. 14. Statistic view of the 27 member states support for Turkish accession: - The countries who are most supportive are the two newest members: Romania and Bulgaria - Among the countries who are least supportive we find France and Austria. Both countries are likely to have referendums about the Turkish accession.
  15. 15.  One of the biggest obstacles of Turkey’s European Membership Negotiations is the Cyprus Conflict  After the invasion of 1974, the relationship between Turkey, Greece and European Union started to become warmer.
  16. 16.  With the Greece’s membership to the European Union in 1981, European Union proclaimed that the Cyprus problem did not affect Greece’s membership of European Union.  After Greece was a member of the EU, Turkey knew the Union cannot be an impartial.
  17. 17. When Greece became a member of the European Union in 1981, Cyprus gained an important internal status for the EU members and obtained lots of advantages as being against Turkey’s accessions.
  18. 18.  The tensions became hotter between the Cyprus and Turkey to the EU has become with announced Cyprus and Turkey wanted to become candidates of EU.
  19. 19.  All previous membership negotiations of EU have ended in full membership of EU, Turkey has the openended negotiation in many years. Cyprus issue is likely to be more important block for not progress the negotiations to next level.
  20. 20.  The Greek influence always can be described as a negative effect on Turkey’s membership to the EU, because of its veto right.  Greeks believed that the EU always play a transformative role in bilateral relations than to keep Turkey out of the Union.
  21. 21.  The Annan Plan was a UN’s proposal in order to find resolution of the Cyprus conflict. The proposal suggested to restructure the RoC as a "United Republic of Cyprus” in 2004.  ‘Annan Plan’ to the two sides of the dispute, was as the biggest opportunity for resolution.
  22. 22. UNITED KINGDOM’s Policies on TURKEY’s EU Membership
  23. 23. UK’s Policies on Turkey’s EU Membership  On 27 July 2010, David Cameron, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, during a visit to Turkey has promised to "fight" for Turkey's membership of the European Union, saying he is "angry" at the slow pace of negotiations. He added that "a European Union without Turkey at its heart is not stronger but weaker... not more secure but less... not richer but poorer.  On 4 November 2009, David Miliband, the Foreign Secretary of the United Kingdom, during a visit to Turkey underlined the UK government's support for Turkey's bid to join the European Union, saying: "I am very clear that Turkish accession to the EU is important and will be of huge benefit to both Turkey and the EU."
  24. 24. UK’s Policies on Turkey’s EU Membership Cyprus Dispute  The Ottoman Empire leased the island of Cyprus to the United Kingdom in 1878. The UK formally annexed Cyprus as a British colony in 1914 at the outset of the Great War. Britain maintained two sovereign military base areas on the island of Cyprus after the country's independence in 1960, after over 400 British men, women were killed by the EOKA.  As a result of the Nikos Sampson coup in Cyprus supported by the military regime of Athens and the aggravation of EOKA-B atrocities over the Turkish Cypriots from 19631974 Turkey intervened in the Northern part of the Island in 1974, as a Guarantor Power. In 1983, Turkish Cypriots declared the independent Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.
  25. 25.  Turkish Cypriots declared the independent Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. The United Kingdom does not recognise the TRNC which is only recognised by Turkey. The UK is a signatory to the Treaty of Guarantee, together with Greece and Turkey concerning the independence and status of Cyprus.
  26. 26. Greece’s Policies on Turkey’s EU Membership
  27. 27. Briefly Historical Timeline  Greek Independence From Otoman Empire (1821)  The Greco-Turkish War (1897)  First Balkan War of (1912 to 1913)  First World War (1914 to 1918)  1913 Greco-Turkish War (1919–1922).
  28. 28.  Balkan Pact (1934)  İstanbul Program (1955)  Cyprus Peace Operation (1974)  Greece’s Membership to The EC (1981)  Earthquake Diplomacy (1999)
  29. 29. Greece joined the EU as a full member in 1981. Since then Greece which has used the EU institutions as organizational platform, has aimed to use advantages about Aegean and Cyprus problems against Turkey. Indeed, Greece has adopted the problems between Turkey to EU platform as a European problem and it is their foreign policy priority. Unity brought about by integration process in line with policies of Maastricht, ‘ Common Foreign and Security Policy’ was established and it made the transport of the bilateral problems of Turkey and Greece, which has the support of using the advantages of representing the EU institutitons and the European Parliement, has managed to move Cyprus problem to the frame of EU – Turkey relations.
  30. 30. Although it was declared that the candidate countries would participate on equal terms in the enlargement process and the accesion criteria would apply equally to every country, the Greek side was shown concessions. More precisely it could be put forward there is a contradiction between the EU’s poltical strategy applied to the Cyprus problem and the principle put forward by Union’s 1994 Essen Summit called ‘Good Neighborly Relations’.
  31. 31. The priorit condition for the membership to the union which was stated in the Essen Summit was that candidate countries should solve the political dissagreements with their neighbours and other members of the EU before the membership process. However, before solving the problems on the island, South Cyprus was included as a full member of the union under the name of the Republic of Cyprus. This situation made Greece exteremly powerful and the Cyprus problem stood in front of Turkey’s road to membership as a bigger problem.
  32. 32. Although Greece and Cyprus voted ‘Yes’ for Turkey to start negotiations with the EU in 2005, many key issues remain unsolvable. Turkey has denied admission to Cypriot ships to its territory, an obligation towards the EU with a 2006 deadline. The Turkish government refused that this limit about Cypriot vessels was taken after the trade embargo decision against the portion of Cyprus illegally occupied by Turkey. In spite of UN and EU’xattempts to mediate, the issue acceptance of the Ortodox Church of İstanbul and the role of Ecumenical Patriarch are the other unfullfilled obligations. Cyprus issue is stil the most important topic and it affects the Turkey’s fullmembership in EU.