Web pd intro_2005


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Web pd intro_2005

  1. 1. Positive Deviance Approach For Behavior & Social Change Funded through the Ford Foundation Tufts University
  2. 2. The P o w e r of Positive Deviance <ul><li>Solutions before our very eyes </li></ul>The Premise: In every community there are certain individuals whose uncommon practices/behaviors enable them to find better solutions to problems than their neighbors who have access to the same resources
  3. 3. Positive Deviance (PD) Approach <ul><li>What enables some members of the community </li></ul><ul><li>(the “Positive Deviants”) to find better solutions </li></ul><ul><li>to pervasive problems than their neighbors who have access to the same resources? </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying Solutions to Community Problems Within the Community Today </li></ul>The Key Question?
  4. 4. Positive Deviance Inquiry <ul><li>Establishes community behavioral norms related to the problem to be addressed </li></ul>Enables community to d iscover successful uncommon behaviors/ strategies practiced by the Positive Deviants
  5. 5. Analyzing PD Findings <ul><li>PDI findings are passed through a conceptual “accessibility sieve” </li></ul>Only those behaviors/strategies accessible to all are kept The rest are “TBU,” True but Useless (i.e. not accessible to all) and are discarded PD Behaviors Behaviors Behaviors Accessible to All
  6. 6. Focus on PD Behavior <ul><li>We can’t (yet) clone people </li></ul><ul><li>But we can adopt their successful behaviors/strategies </li></ul>
  7. 7. PD Focus on Practice Rather than Knowledge <ul><li>“ It’s easier to ACT your way into a new way of THINKING, than to </li></ul><ul><li>THINK your way into a new way of ACTING” </li></ul>
  8. 8. PD Enables us to Act TODAY <ul><li>The presence of Positive Deviants demonstrates that it is possible to find successful solutions TODAY before all the underlying causes are addressed! </li></ul>Although most problems have complex, interlinked underlying causes . . .
  9. 9. The Four D s of Positive Deviance Approach D D D
  10. 10. D efine <ul><li>Define the problem , its perceived causes and related current practices (situation analysis) </li></ul><ul><li>Define what a successful outcome would look like (described as a behavioral or status outcome) </li></ul>D efine D efine
  11. 11. D etermine <ul><li>Determine if there are any individuals or entities in community who ALREADY exhibit desired behavior or status (PD identification) </li></ul>
  12. 12. D iscover <ul><li>Discover uncommon practices/behaviors enabling the PDs to outperform/find better solutions to the problem than others in their “community” </li></ul>
  13. 13. esign <ul><li>Design and implement intervention enabling others in “community” to access and PRACTICE new behaviors (focus on “doing” rather than transfer of knowledge) </li></ul>D
  14. 14. Positive Deviance Process D etermine D iscover D esign D efine
  15. 15. Fixed Solution Space Traditional Flows from problem analysis towards solution Expanded Solution Space PD Flows from identification and analysis of successful solution to problem solving Expanded Solution Space Actual Problem Parameters Actual Problem Parameters Actual Problem Parameters Perceived Problem Parameters Perceived Problem Parameters Perceived Problem Parameters Traditional vs PD Problem Solving Approach
  16. 16. PD: Crossing The “Knowledge/Behavior Change Gap” Knowledge Behavior change <ul><li>Perceived advantage </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity for practice </li></ul><ul><li>Social proof </li></ul>
  17. 17. TRADITIONAL VS POSITIVE DEVIANCE PROBLEM SOLVING APPROACH <ul><li>TRADITIONAL </li></ul><ul><li>Externally Fueled (by “experts” or internal authority) </li></ul><ul><li>Top-down, Outside-in </li></ul><ul><li>Deficit Based “What’s wrong here?” </li></ul><ul><li>Begins with analysis of underlying causes of PROBLEM </li></ul><ul><li>Solution Space limited by perceived problem parameters </li></ul><ul><li>Triggers Immune System “defense response” </li></ul><ul><li>POSITIVE DEVIANCE </li></ul><ul><li>Internally Fueled (by “people like us”, same culture and resources) </li></ul><ul><li>Down-up, Inside-out </li></ul><ul><li>Asset Based “What’s right here?” </li></ul><ul><li>Begins with analysis of demonstrably successful SOLUTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>Solution Space enlarged through discovery of actual parameters </li></ul><ul><li>Bypasses Immune System (solution shares same “DNA” as host) </li></ul>
  18. 18. PD and Attributes Dictating “Speed of Adoption of Innovation” <ul><li>Diffusion Attributes </li></ul><ul><li>relative advantage </li></ul><ul><li>compatibility </li></ul><ul><li>complexity </li></ul><ul><li>triability </li></ul><ul><li>observability </li></ul><ul><li>Everett Rogers “Diffusion of Innovation” </li></ul><ul><li>PD Behavior Innovation </li></ul><ul><li>identified as “advantageous” </li></ul><ul><li>created within cultural context </li></ul><ul><li>Requires no special resources </li></ul><ul><li>opportunity to practice </li></ul><ul><li>through PDI and personal experience </li></ul>
  19. 19. Geoffrey A Moore. Crossing the Chasm . PD & The Diffusion of Innovation Life-Cycle Community participates in discovery of innovation Thereby jumping the “early adopters/early majority” chasm
  20. 20. Current Applications of Positive Deviance Argentina, US (NSDC) Education Issues US (Waterbury Hospital, Connecticut) Quality of Health Care Indonesia, Nepal Girl Trafficking Egypt Female Genital Cutting Egypt, Pakistan Viet Nam Antenatal care, Maternal & Newborn Care, Breastfeeding Myanmar, Indonesia, Viet Nam HIV/AIDS risk reduction More than 40 countries throughout the world Childhood development & Malnutrition (PD/Hearth) Countries Programmatic context