Digestivesystem

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biology class XI sains 3 SMAN 1 Kencong

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Digestivesystem

  1. 1. The Digestive System by mr. steven puerto, jr Kang Maheso 1
  2. 2. Digestion• Processing of food• Types – Mechanical (physical) • Chew • Tear • Grind • Mash • Mix – Chemical • Catabolic reactions • Enzymatic hydrolysis – Carbohydrate – Protein – Lipid Kang Maheso 2
  3. 3. Digestion• Phases – Ingestion – Movement – Digestion – Absorption – Further digestion Kang Maheso 3
  4. 4. Digestive System Organization• Gastrointestinal (Gl) tract (Alimentary canal) – Tube within a tube – Direct link/path between organs – Structures • Mouth • Oral Cavity • Pharynx • Esophagus • Stomach • Duedenum • Jejenum • kIleum • Cecum • Ascending colon Kang Maheso • Transverse colon 4
  5. 5. Digestive System Organization • Descending colon • Sigmoid colon • Rectum • Anus• Accessory structures – Not in tube path – Organs • Teeth • Tongue • Salivary glands • Liver • Gall bladder • Pancreas Kang Maheso 5
  6. 6. Anatomy of the Mouth and Throat Kang Maheso 6
  7. 7. Human Deciduous and Permanent Teeth Kang Maheso 7
  8. 8. Dorsal Surface of the Tongue Kang Maheso 8
  9. 9. The Major Salivary Glands Kang Maheso 9
  10. 10. Deglutition (swallowing)• Sequence – Voluntary stage • Push food to back of mouth – Pharyngeal stage • Raise – Soft palate – Larynx + hyoid – Tongue to soft palate – Esophageal stage • Contract pharyngeal muscles • Open esophagus • Start peristalsis Kang Maheso 10
  11. 11. Deglutition (swallowing)• Control – Nerves • Glossopharyngeal • Vagus • Accessory – Brain stem • Deglutition center – Medulla oblongata – Pons – Disorders • Dysphagia • Aphagia Kang Maheso 11
  12. 12. Esophagus• Usually collapsed (closed)• 3 constrictions – Aortic arch – Left primary bronchus – Diaphragm• Surrounded by – SNS plexus – Blood vessels• Functions – Secrete mucous – Transport food Kang Maheso 12
  13. 13. Peristalsis and Segmentation Kang Maheso 13
  14. 14. Esophagus• Sphincters – Upper – Lower• Abnormalities – Achalasia – Atresia – Hernia – Barret’s esophagus – Esophageal varices Kang Maheso 14
  15. 15. Stomach• Usually “J” shaped• Left side, anterior to the spleen• Mucous membrane – G cells – make gastrin – Goblet cells – make mucous – Gastric pit – Oxyntic gland – Parietal cells – Make HCl – Chief cells – Zymogenic cells • Pepsin • Gastric lipase Kang Maheso 15
  16. 16. Anatomy of the Stomach Kang Maheso 16
  17. 17. Stomach• 3 muscle layers – Oblique – Circular – Longitudinal• Regions – Cardiac sphincter – Fundus – Antrum (pylorus) – Pyloric sphincter• Vascular• Inner surface thrown into folds – Rugae• Contains enzymes that workKang Maheso best at pH 1-2 17
  18. 18. Stomach• Functions – Absorbs – Mix food • Alcohol – Reservoir • Water – Start digestion of • Lipophilic acid • Protein • Nucleic acids • B 12 • Fats – Activates some enzymes – Destroy some bacteria – Makes intrinsic factor – B 12 absorption – Destroys some bacteria Kang Maheso 18
  19. 19. Small Intestine• Extends from pyloric sphincter  ileocecal valve• Regions – Duodenum – Jejenum – Ileum• Movements – Segmentation – Peristalsis Kang Maheso 19
  20. 20. Small Intestine• Histology – Intestinal glands – Intestinal enzymes – Duodenal glands – Alkaline mucous – Paneth cells – Lysozyme – Microvilli – Lacteals – Plica circularis – Smooth muscle – Lymphatic tissue – GALT – Vascular Kang Maheso 20
  21. 21. Small Intestine• Absorbs – Lipids – 80% ingested water • Monoglycerides – Electrolytes • Fatty acids – Vitamins • Micelles – Minerals • Chylomicrons – Carbonates • Active/facilitated transport • Monosaccharides – Proteins • Di-/tripeptides • Amino acids Kang Maheso 21
  22. 22. Structure of the Villi in the Small Intestine Kang Maheso 22
  23. 23. Small Intestine• Secretes digestive enzymes – Peptidases • Amino- • Di- • Tri- – Sucrases – Maltase – Lactase – Saccharidases • Di- • Tri- – Lipase – Nucleases Kang Maheso 23
  24. 24. Small Intestine• Control• Requires pancreatic enzymes & bile to complete digestion Kang Maheso 24
  25. 25. Large Intestine• Extends from ileocecal valve to anus• Regions – Cecum – Appendix – Colon • Ascending • Transverse • Descending – Rectum – Anal canal Kang Maheso 25
  26. 26. Anatomy of the Large Intestine Kang Maheso 26
  27. 27. Large Intestine• Histology – No villi – No permanent circular folds – Smooth muscle • Taeniae coli • Haustra – Epiploic appendages – Otherwise like rest of Gl tract Kang Maheso 27
  28. 28. Large Intestine• Functions – Mechanical digestion – Absorbs • Haustral churning •More water • Peristalsis •Vitamins –B • Reflexes –K – Gastroileal – Gastrocolic – Concentrate/eliminate wastes – Chemical digestion – Bacterial digestion • Ferment carbohydrates • Protein/amino acid breakdown Kang Maheso 28
  29. 29. Feces Formation and Defecation• Chyme dehydrated to • Control form feces – Parasympathetic• Feces composition – Water – Voluntary – Inorganic salts – Epithelial cells – Bacteria – Byproducts of digestion• Defecation – Peristalsis pushes feces into rectum – Rectal walls stretch Kang Maheso 29
  30. 30. Liver• Location – R. Hypochondrium – Epigastric region• 4 Lobes – Left – Quadrate – Caudate – Right• Each lobe has lobules – Contains hepatocytes – Surround sinusoids – Feed into central vein Kang Maheso 30
  31. 31. Liver• Functions – Makes bile • Detergent – emulsifies fats • Release promoted by: – Vagus n. – CCK – Secretin • Contains – Water – Bile salts – Bile pigments – Electrolytes – Cholesterol – Lecithin Kang Maheso 31
  32. 32. Liver– Detoxifies/removes • Drugs • Alcohol– Stores • Gycolgen • Vitamins (A, D, E, K) • Fe and other minerals • Cholesterol– Activates vitamin D– Fetal RBC production– Phagocytosis– Metabolizes absorbed food molecules • Carbohydrates • Proteins Kang Maheso • Lipids 32
  33. 33. Liver• Dual blood supply – Hepatic portal vein • Direct input from small intestine – Hepatic artery/vein • Direct links to heart Kang Maheso 33
  34. 34. The Duodenum and Related Organs Kang Maheso 34
  35. 35. The Organs and Positions in the Abdominal Cavity Kang Maheso 35
  36. 36. Structures of the Alimentary Canal Kang Maheso 36
  37. 37. Matur Nuwun• Sing gelem sinau mesti pinter lan ngerti. Sing ngerti bakal begja lan luhur wekasane.• Banda donya sing ora bisa dicolong lan ilang yaiku ngelmu lan pangerten. Kang Maheso 37

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