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Us history cst review pp


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Us history cst review pp

  1. 1. US History CST Review La Entrada High School
  2. 2. 19th Amendment • The Nineteenth Amendment (Amendment XIX) to the United States Constitution prohibits each of the states and the federal government from denying any citizen the right to vote because of that citizen's sex. It was ratified on August 18, 1920. • Women’s right to vote • Same as Women’s Suffrage
  3. 3. ACLU-American Civil Liberties Union • Founded in 1920 • Formed to insure that individual rights are protected from government abuse
  4. 4. Americanization Movement • Assimilation of ethnic immigrant groups into the dominant culture
  5. 5. Assembly Line-Henry Ford-Model T • is a manufacturing process in which parts (usually interchangeable parts) are added to a product in a sequential manner using optimally planned logistics to create a finished product much faster than with handcrafting- type methods. • Increased production • Made products cheaper • Provided jobs for unskilled labor
  6. 6. Bill of Rights • The first 10 amendments to the constitution • The purpose of is to protect those rights against infringement by the government. • Included basic freedoms such as speech, religion, right to own guns etc. • Was a compromise in getting the Constitution ratified.
  7. 7. Brown v Board of Education • was a landmark decision of the United States Supreme Court, which overturned earlier rulings going back to Plessy v. Ferguson in 1896, by declaring that state laws that established separate public schools for black and white students denied black children equal educational opportunities. The Warren Court's unanimous (9–0) decision stated that "separate educational facilities are inherently unequal." As a result, de jure racial segregation was ruled a violation of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution. This victory paved the way for integration and the civil rights movement.
  8. 8. Cesar Chavez • March 31, 1927 – April 23, 1993) was a Mexican American farm worker, labor leader, and civil rights activist who, with Dolores Huerta, co-founded the National Farm Workers Association, which later became the United Farm Workers (UFW). Supporters say his work led to numerous improvements for union laborers. His birthday has become César Chávez Day, a state holiday in eight US states.
  9. 9. Open Door Policy-China • As a specific policy with regard to China, it was first advanced by the United States in the Open Door Notes of September- November 1899. In 1898, the United States had become an East Asian power through the acquisition of the Philippine Islands, and when the partition of China by the European powers and Japan seemed imminent, the United States felt its commercial interests in China threatened.
  10. 10. Cold War • (1945–1991) was the continuing state of political conflict, military tension, and economic competition existing after World War II(1939–1945), between the USSR and its satellite states, and the powers of the Western world, primarily the United States.
  11. 11. Cuban Missile Crisis • a confrontation between the United States, the Soviet Union, and Cuba in October 1962, during the Cold War. In Russia, former Eastern Bloc, and communist countries (i.e. China and North Korea). In September 1962, the Cuban and Soviet governments placed nuclear missiles in Cuba. When United States intelligence discovered the weapons, the U.S. government sought to do all it could (blockade) to ensure the removal of the missiles. Many thought this was the closest time the world was brought to the brink of a nuclear war.
  12. 12. Declaration of Independence • The United States Declaration of Independence is a statement adopted by the Continental Congress on July 4, 1776, which announced that the thirteen American colonies then at war with Great Britain were now independent states, and thus no longer a part of the British Empire. Written primarily by Thomas Jefferson, the Declaration is a formal explanation of why Congress had voted on July 2 to
  13. 13. Domino Theory • as a foreign policy theory during the 1950s to 1980s, promoted at times by the government of the United States, that speculated that if one land in a region came under the influence of communism, then the surrounding countries would follow in a domino effect.
  14. 14. Dust Bowl • was a period of severe dust storms causing major ecological and agricultural damage to American and Canadian prairie lands from 1930 to 1936 (in some areas until 1940). The phenomenon was caused by severe drought coupled with decades of extensive farming without crop rotation, fallow fields, cover crops and other techniques to prevent erosion. Deep plowing of the virgin topsoil of the Great Plains had killed the natural grasses that normally kept the soil in place and trapped moisture even during periods of drought and high winds. Many left farms to look for work elsewhere such as California.
  15. 15. The Enlightenment-Natural Rights • is a term used to describe a time in Western philosophy and cultural life, centered upon the eighteenth century, in which reason was advocated as the primary source and legitimacy for authority. • Stressed the “natural rights” of man • Foundation of the Dec. of Independence
  16. 16. Great Awakenings 1 & 2 • were several periods of rapid and dramatic religious revival in Anglo- American religious history, generally recognized as beginning in the 1730s. They have also been described as periodic revolutions in colonial religious thought.
  17. 17. Great Depression • The Great Depression began on "Black Tuesday" with the Wall Street Crash of October, 1929 and rapidly spread worldwide. The market crash marked the beginning of a decade of high unemployment, poverty, low profits, deflation, plunging farm incomes, and lost opportunities for economic growth and personal advancement. Although its causes are still uncertain and controversial, the net effect was a sudden and general loss of confidence in the economic future. The usual explanations include numerous factors, especially high consumer debt, ill-regulated markets that permitted malfeasance by banks and investors, cutbacks in foreign trade, lack of high-growth new industries, and growing wealth inequality, all interacting to create a downward economic spiral of reduced spending, falling confidence, and lowered production.
  18. 18. Greeks-Direct Democracy • a unique and intriguing experiment in direct democracy where the people do not elect representatives to vote on their behalf but vote on legislation and executive bills in their own right.
  19. 19. Holocaust • the Nazis' systematic murder of millions Jews and of people in other groups, including, ethnic Poles, the Romani, Soviet civilians, Soviet prisoners of war, people with disabilities, homosexuals, Jehovah's Witnesses, and other political and religious opponents. By this definition, the total number of Holocaust victims would be between 11 million and 17 million people.
  20. 20. Harlem Renaissance • refers to the flowering of African American cultural and intellectual life during the 1920s and 1930s. At the time, it was known as the "New Negro Movement", named after the 1925 anthology. cross the cultural spectrum (literature, drama, music, visual art, dance) and also in the realm of social thought (sociology, historiography, philosophy), artists and intellectuals found new ways to explore the historical experiences of black America and the contemporary experiences of black life in the urban North.
  21. 21. Korean Conflict • was an armed conflict between North Korea (Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, DPRK) and South Korea (Republic of Korea, ROK), which began on 25 June 1950 and paused with an armistice signed 27 July 1953. • The United States and the United Nations intervened on the side of the South. After a rapid UN counteroffensive reversing the initial North Korean invasion, the People's Republic of China (PRC) intervened on the side of the North. The fighting ended with an armistice that approximately restored the original border between the Koreas; it became the Korean Demilitarized Zone. • US supported the south, Russia and China the north
  22. 22. Immigration-19th century-Cities • Millions came • Mainly from Northern Europe • Moved to cities • Provided unskilled labor
  23. 23. Infrastructure • The term typically refers to the technical structures that support a society, such as roads, water supply, sewers, power grids, telecommunications, and so forth.
  24. 24. Labor Unions • Started in late 1800’s • Unions fought for better working conditions for laborers-examples • 40 hour work week • Lunch and restroom breaks • Sick leave and Vacations • Decent wages • Created discord and violence • Unions became powerful political forces
  25. 25. Japanese Internment • Japanese American internment refers to the forcible relocation and internment in 1942 of approximately 110,000 Japanese nationals and Japanese Americans to housing facilities called "War Relocation Camps", in the wake of Imperial Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor.
  26. 26. John Locke-Dec. of Independence • was an English philosopher • His arguments concerning liberty and the social contract later influenced the written works of Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, Thomas Jefferson, and other Founding Fathers of the United States. In fact, several passages from the Second Treatise are reproduced verbatim in the Declaration of Independence, most notably the reference to a "long train of abuses."
  27. 27. League of Nations • was an inter-governmental organization founded as a result of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919–1920 • the League's goals included upholding the new found Rights of Man such as right of non whites, rights of women, rights of soldiers, disarmament, preventing war through collective security, settling disputes between countries through negotiation, diplomacy and improving global quality of life. • The US did not join
  28. 28. Manhattan Project • The Manhattan Project was the codename for a project conducted during World War II to develop the first atomic bomb. • Allied countries were worried it may be developed first by Germany. • First suggested by A. Einstein to FDR • The atomic bomb was later used against Japan.
  29. 29. Marbury v Madison • 1803) is a landmark case in United States law. It formed the basis for the exercise of judicial review in the United States under Article III of the Constitution. • the first time the Supreme Court declared something "unconstitutional," and established the concept of judicial review in the U.S • John Marshall Court-constitutionality
  30. 30. Marshall Plan • was the primary plan of the United States for rebuilding and creating a stronger foundation for the countries of Western Europe, and repelling communism after World War II.
  31. 31. Martin L. King Jr. • was an American clergyman, activist and prominent leader in the African- American civil rights movement. His main legacy was to secure progress on civil rights in the United States and he is frequently referenced as a human rights icon today • won Nobel Peace Prize • was assassinated in 1968 in Memphis
  32. 32. Mayflower Compact • Signed by male heads of household upon landing at Plymouth • Outlined rules for Plymouth Colony (Pilgrims) • First democratic agreement in the New World
  33. 33. Medicare • is a social insurance program administered by the United States government, providing health insurance coverage to people who are aged 65 and over, or who meet other special criteria. • Began in 1965-Lyndon Johnson President.
  34. 34. Muckrakers • an individual who seeks to expose or reveal corruption of businesses or government to the public • The term originates from writers of the Progressive movement in America who wanted to expose corruption and scandals in government and business
  35. 35. NATO- North Atlantic Treaty Organization • signed on 17 March 1948 • The organization constitutes a system of collective defense whereby its member states agree to mutual defense in response to an attack by any external party. • The Parties of NATO agreed that an armed attack against one or more of them in Europe or North America shall be considered an attack against them all.
  36. 36. Nationalism • an ideology, a sentiment, a form of culture, or a social movement that focuses on the nation. • Some characteristics of nationalism A fixed homeland High autonomy Hostile surroundings Memories of battles Sacred centers Common language Special customs Historical records and thinking
  37. 37. Navajo Code Talkers • Code talkers is a term used to describe people who talk using a coded language. It is frequently used to describe Native Americans who served in the United States Marine Corps whose primary job was the transmission of secret tactical messages. Code talkers transmitted these messages over military telephone or radio communications nets using formal or informally developed codes built upon their native languages. Their service was very valuable because ordinary codes and ciphers in shared languages can be broken, but codes based on a unique language must be studied for a long time before being understood.
  38. 38. New Deal • The New Deal was the name that United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt gave to a complex package of economic programs he effected between 1933 and 1935 with the goals of what historians call the 3 Rs, of giving Relief to the unemployed and badly hurt farmers, Reform of business and financial practices, and promoting Recovery of the economy during the Great Depression.
  39. 39. Pearl Harbor Attack • December 7, 1941 • was a surprise military strike conducted by the Japanese navy against the United States' naval base at Pearl Harbor • Immediately led to the US entrance into WW II against the Axis Powers (Germany, Japan, Italy).
  40. 40. Prohibition • refers to a law which prohibits alcohol. Typically, the manufacture transportation, import, export, and sale of alcoholic beverages is restricted or illegal. • 1919 to 1933 in the US • 18th amendment created prohibition • 21st amendment repealed prohibition
  41. 41. Red Scare • The periods in the US after WW I and WW II when there was a perceived threat of possible Communist revolution in the US.
  42. 42. Roe v. Wade-1973 • In Roe v. Wade, the Supreme Court held that a mother may abort her pregnancy for any reason, up until the "point at which the fetus becomes 'viable. • Reinforced issue of personal privacy • Still controversial today
  43. 43. Rome-Republican Democracy • Instead of direct democracy as the Greeks held the Romans had a system whereby the people elected officials to make laws on their behalf • Our congress (legislative branch) reflects its roots in this type of democracy.
  44. 44. Rosa Parks- Montgomery Bus Boycott • On December 1, 1955 in Montgomery, Alabama, Parks, age 42, refused to obey bus driver James Blake's order that she give up her seat to make room for a white passenger. • called the "Mother of the Modern-Day Civil Rights Movement. • Parks's action sparked the Montgomery Bus Boycott. • Parks's act of defiance became an important symbol of the modern Civil Rights Movement
  45. 45. SEATO-Southeast Asian Treaty Organization • an international organization for collective defense created by the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty or the Manila Pact, which was signed on September 8, 1954. • It was primarily created to block further communist gains in Southeast Asia • France, the United Kingdom, and the United States represented the strongest Western powers. Australia, Thailand, the Philippines, and New Zealand represented Europeanized or pro-Western nations in the Southeast Asian area.
  46. 46. Social Security • Created during the depression to offset poverty of US citizens in old age • Uses payroll deduction (FICA) to fund minimum retirement benefits • Also covers disability • Has become a national financial liability
  47. 47. Separation of Church & State • a political and legal doctrine that government and religious institutions are to be kept separate and independent from each other. The term most often refers to the combination of two principles: secularity of government and freedom of religious exercise. • generally traced to the letter written by Thomas Jefferson in 1802 to the Danbury Baptists regarding 1st amendment rights
  48. 48. Sputnik • Sputnik 1, launched the first human- made object to orbit the Earth • Built by Russians • Started the US-Russian space race • October 1957 • Forced the US to stress more math and science in schools
  49. 49. “The Jungle”-Upton Sinclair • Sinclair wrote this novel to highlight the blight of the working class and to remove from obscurity the corruption of the American meatpacking industry during the early 20th century • The novel depicts in harsh tones the poverty, absence of social programs, unpleasant living and working conditions, and hopelessness prevalent among the working class • Public outrage led to the Meat Inspection Act, Pure Food and Drug Act and the FDA
  50. 50. Thomas Jefferson-Dec. of Independence • a statement adopted by the Continental Congress on July 4, 1776, which announced that the thirteen American colonies then at war with Great Britain were now independent states, and thus no longer a part of the British Empire • Written primarily by Thomas Jefferson
  51. 51. Three Branches of Government • Executive-enforces laws (President) • Legislative-makes laws (Congress) • Judicial-reviews constitutionality of laws (Supreme Court)
  52. 52. Treaty of Versailles • Ended WW I
  53. 53. United Nations (UN) • is an international organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and the achieving of world peace. • Currently 192 member countries • Started in 1945-after WW II
  54. 54. Vietnam War • The Vietnam War was a military conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1959 to 30 April 1975. The war was fought between the communist North Vietnam, supported by its communist allies, and the government of South Vietnam, supported by the United States and other nations. • The United States entered the war to prevent a communist takeover of South Vietnam as part of their wider strategy of containment. (see Domino Theory)
  55. 55. War Powers Act • 1973-was a United States Congress joint resolution providing that the President can send U.S. armed forces into action abroad only by authorization of Congress or if the United States is already under attack or serious threat. • Congress only has the power to declare war • President must only notify Congress
  56. 56. Warsaw Pact • The Warsaw Pact was the Soviet Bloc’s military response to West Germany’s October 1954 integration to NATO. • Created a Communist Bloc in response to NATO-Iron Curtain countries.
  57. 57. Women’s Suffrage-19th Amendment • Women’s right to vote • culminating in 1920 with the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment
  58. 58. Causes of World War I • Mutual Defense Alliances • Imperialism • Militarism • Nationalism • Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand
  59. 59. Causes of WW I • Mutual Defense Alliances • Russia and Serbia • Germany and Austria-Hungary • France and Russia • Britain and France and Belgium • Japan and Britain
  60. 60. Causes of WW I • Imperialism • Imperialism is when a country increases their power and wealth by bringing additional territories under their control • Africa and Asia were points of contention • Desire to control these areas led to confrontation
  61. 61. Causes of WW I • Militarism • Arms race among Britain, Germany and Russia
  62. 62. Causes of WW I • Nationalism • Countries wanted to prove their dominance and power
  63. 63. Causes of WW I • Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand • Led to Austria-Hungary declaring war on Serbia • Russia aligned with Serbia so Germany declared war on Russia
  64. 64. Why US Entered WW I • US was neutral to begin with • Sinking of Lusitania stirred American concerns • German submarine warfare against US merchant ships • German sent secret message to Mexico and promised them parts of the US back if they aligned with Germany
  65. 65. Causes of World War II • Failure of the Treaty of Versailles • Failure of League of Nations • Adolf Hitler’s rise to power • Expansionism and Appeasement • Fascism • Economic depression and instability • Entangling Alliances
  66. 66. Causes of World War II • 1939-Germany invades Poland • Brings Britain and France into the war • Japan invades Manchuria, China • Japan attacks Pearl Harbor bringing US into the war • Germany invades USSR